In tackling social and environmental challenges, there are several levels at which action can be taken:
- Individual action - personal steps in green living
- Civil society action - NGOs and campaigns
- Agency action in society - government or intergovernmental agencies working through awareness and education, rather than regulation.
- Business action - whether motivated by principle or image.
- Government action - regulations, subsidies, penalties and the creation of markets.
A critical question is: which is most effective? Individual action is concrete and within reach; but government action is wide-reaching and potentially very powerful and effective, by adjusting the incentives that govern the daily behavior of all citizens.