Hwd try3.jpg
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Health topic Waterborne diseases
Health classification Preventative
FA info icon.svgAngle down icon.svgProject data
Location Pretoria, South Africa
Status Commercialized
Made No
Replicated No
OKH Manifest Download

Problem being addressed[edit | edit source]

Water-related diseases kill millions of people each year. For example, diarrheal disease was ranked fifth in the list of causes of premature mortality in South Africa in 2000. Hand washing can serve as an effective barrier to several of the transmission routes of diarrheal pathogens. Many people in rural areas do not wash their hands after using the "toilet" simply because they do not have easy access to water or hand-washing supplies.

Detailed description of the solution[edit | edit source]

The Hand-washing Device (HWD) is a self-closing tap fixed to the outside of a toilet. It consists of an empty two liter bottle holding enough water for about 30 washes. It is inexpensive, mechanically-operated, and easy to use, install, and maintain. The HWD has approximately 100,000 units installed in South Africa.

Relevance to developing country settings[edit | edit source]

The device was designed for low-income households, schools, disaster areas, and large gatherings such as refugee camps. It is widely distributed throughout South Africa.

Designed by[edit | edit source]

  • Designed and manufactured by: The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)
  • Manufacturer location: Brummeria, Pretoria, South Africa

Funding Source[edit | edit source]

This device has philanthropic funding from the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research.

References[edit | edit source]

Peer-reviewed publication[edit | edit source]

Wilkinson M, Moilwa N, and Taylor B. (2004). The design and development of a sanitation hand washing dispenser: a South African case study. Presented at 30th WEDC International Conference, Vientiane, Laos

Internally generated reports[edit | edit source]

CSIR Technology Transfer. (n.d.) Link available here.

Externally generated reports[edit | edit source]

Gabara, N. (2010, October 19) South Africa: hand-washing device to fight water borne disease. Link available here.

IP and copyright[edit | edit source]

The manufacturer website states that the patent was granted in 2006, but the Appropedia Medical Device team was unable to find patent.

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Part of Global Health Medical Device Compendium
SDG SDG03 Good health and well-being, SDG09 Industry innovation and infrastructure
Authors Eva Shiu
License CC-BY-SA-3.0
Language English (en)
Related 0 subpages, 3 pages link here
Impact 357 page views
Created April 3, 2012 by Eva Shiu
Modified September 27, 2022 by Irene Delgado
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