Background[edit | edit source]
This will contain an overview of efforts made in manufacturing greener goods. Please leave comments or suggested works that should be added to this list in the "Discussion" tab at the top of the page. Alternatively you can send an email at: email@example.com
This Literature Review also at : http://www.tiptheplanet.com/wiki/Green_Manufacturing
- Companies and consulting firms have their own cost models for optimization that is not open access to improve green manufacturing.
Why save energy or reduce CO2?
Fossil fuels are being depleted.We continue to find alternative sources of energy to continue to meet our energy demands. Conservation and more efficient use of energy will help us have a sustainable energy consumption. Thus, even if we replace fossil fuels with alternatives, sustainable energy consumption is a goal since all sources have externalities, even if not CO2. Further, there are always cost savings to be had if energy consumption is reduced and abatement technologies are required less.
For CO2, accumulation is the problem. Although reducing CO2 emissions in the short term, burning all fossil fuels will result in putting the same amount eventually into the atmosphere. Here, the rate matters and the assimilation capacity of the environment matters. All arguments aside, reducing carbon footprint, along with the other harmful externalities that come from fossil fuel use will benefit society. Reducing the return to oil extractors (either tax them or remove subsidies), and thus profits would reduce rate of extraction of oil from the supply side.This option is much more controversial due to the various stake holders and the choice of tax. Most instruments tackle this from the demand side - so consumers, such as manufacturing facilities, reduce their demand and so carbon footprint.
NOTE on cost of electricity increase for coal when emission controls in place: Power Plants: Characteristics and Costs Kaplan, S. (2008). Power Plants: Characteristics and Costs. CRS Report for Congress, RL34746. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. [Full-text at http://bit.ly/d7M0Ja]
- Table 2. Emission Controls as an Estimated Percentage of Total Costs for a New Pulverized Coal Plant
News[edit | edit source]
Green Manufacturing: An Inconvenient Reality (2007)[edit | edit source]
Jonathan Katz,Green Manufacturing: An Inconvenient Reality,Industry Week, 3 pages.
- "Are you turning green at the thought of going green? Like it or not more environmental regulations are on the way, and manufacturers who don't jump on the green bandwagon may be left behind."
- "In 2004 the business sector shouldered 65% of environmental regulatory costs, with manufacturers paying an average of $4,850 per employee, according to a 2005 U.S. Small Business Administration report."
May 1, 2007
Journals[edit | edit source]
- CIRP Annals
- Professional Engineering Publication: http://www.pepublishing.com/acadpub/acadjournals.htm
- IMechE: http://www.imeche.org/
- Journal of Engineering Sustainability
- International Journal of Sustainable Engineering : http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=g794528710~db=all
Literature Review[edit | edit source]
The links and abstracts of documents will be presented here. The link will only be accessible to those who have subscriptions to the respective journals. Add DOI: http://dx.doi.org.proxy.queensu.ca/
Manufacturing, Product Life Cycle, Sustainable Challenges[edit | edit source]
Sustainable green product design and manufacturing / assembly systems engineering principles and rules with examples[edit | edit source]
Ranky, Paul G.; , "Sustainable green product design and manufacturing / assembly systems engineering principles and rules with examples," Sustainable Systems and Technology (ISSST), 2010 IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.1-6, 17-19 May 2010
Abstract: Sustainable product and process engineering, green, lean design, manufacturing / assembly system and factory design / management rules and principles are offered with a focus on 'monozukuri'. The Japanese phrase, 'monozukuri' means sustainable, environmentally friendly, green factories and products with simultaneously integrated product and process designs. Based on the author's extensive research and study of products, processes and factories in the USA, Japan, Europe and China, eighteen 'monozukuri-focused' green product, process, factory design & management principles are explained. The rule-based approach introduced in this article, when integrated into an intelligent Sustainable Enterprise Engineering (iSEE:Green) design, will reduce waste at all levels, and create new eco-friendly (a.k.a. Earth-friendly), sustainable opportunities for satisfying rapidly changing market needs.
An integrated architecture, methods and some tools for creating more sustainable and greener enterprise[edit | edit source]
Ranky, Paul G.; , "An integrated architecture, methods and some tools for creating more sustainable and greener enterprises," Sustainable Systems and Technology (ISSST), 2010 IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.1-6, 17-19 May 2010
Abstract: Sustainable green engineering design and manufacturing are changing every aspect of our life. This is because the climate is changing and customers are demanding sustainable green products and processes. Since many methods, designs and systems have to be changed, this is a complex field of integrated science and engineering, and we are only at the beginning… Sustainable green engineering has already attracted a wide area of research topics, including all aspects of energy management in every process step throughout the system's lifecycle, renewable energy creation and storage, all sorts of waste reduction methods, new approaches to risk analysis and customer requirements analysis, new biodegradable materials, sustainable non-toxic manufacturing processes and machinery, new levels of optimization in control systems, advanced digital design/manufacturing system simulation methods, sustainability statistics, human and machine error prevention, reuse, recycling, and others. In this paper we offer an overview, as well as some methodology and concrete results.
An investigation of indicators for measuring sustainable manufacturing[edit | edit source]
Chengcheng Fan; Carrell, John D.; Hong-Chao Zhang; , "An investigation of indicators for measuring sustainable manufacturing," Sustainable Systems and Technology (ISSST), 2010 IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.1-5, 17-19 May 2010
Abstract: This paper presents an investigation of sustainable manufacturing indicators in both industry and academia. While the concept of Sustainable Manufacturing has been brought up for a long time, little consensus has been researched so far with respect to how to define or measure it, especially in Economic and Social dimensions. This research tries to investigate current application status of sustainable indicators within U.S. manufacturing companies, and explore various views from academia in regards to weighting Economic / Social indicators through Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The paper concludes with a summary of statistical results as well as recommendations for its further development and practical application.
Life-cycle carbon and cost analysis of energy efficiency measures in new commercial buildings[edit | edit source]
Joshua Kneifel, Life-cycle carbon and cost analysis of energy efficiency measures in new commercial buildings, Energy and Buildings, Volume 42, Issue 3, March 2010, Pages 333-340, ISSN 0378-7788, DOI: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.09.011.
Abstract: Energy efficiency in new building construction has become a key target to lower nation-wide energy use. The goals of this paper are to estimate life-cycle energy savings, carbon emission reduction, and cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures in new commercial buildings using an integrated design approach, and estimate the implications from a cost on energy-based carbon emissions. A total of 576 energy simulations are run for 12 prototypical buildings in 16 cities, with 3 building designs for each building-location combination. Simulated energy consumption and building cost databases are used to determine the life-cycle cost-effectiveness and carbon emissions of each design. The results show conventional energy efficiency technologies can be used to decrease energy use in new commercial buildings by 20-30% on average and up to over 40% for some building types and locations. These reductions can often be done at negative life-cycle costs because the improved efficiencies allow the installation of smaller, cheaper HVAC equipment. These improvements not only save money and energy, but reduce a building's carbon footprint by 16% on average. A cost on carbon emissions from energy use increases the return on energy efficiency investments because energy is more expensive, making some cost-ineffective projects economically feasible.
Platform for the Integration of Assembly, Disassembly and Life Cycle Management[edit | edit source]
E. Westkamper, http://dx.doi.org.proxy.queensu.ca/10.1016/S0007-8506(07)61459-0 Platform for the Integration of Assembly, Disassembly and Life Cycle Management, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, Volume 51, Issue 1, 2002, Pages 33-36,.
Abstract: Thinking in terms of product life cycles is one of the challenges facing manufacturers today: efforts to increase efficiency throughout the life cycle do not only lead to an extended responsibility of the concerned parties. As a result, economically successful business areas can be explored. Whether new service concepts are required, new regulations have been passed or consumers values are changing, the differences between business areas are disappearing. `Life Cycle Management' (LCM) considers the product life cycle as a whole and optimizes the interaction of product design, manufacturing and life cycle activities. The goal of this approach is to protect resources and maximize the effectiveness during usage by means of Life Cycle Assessment, Product Data Management, Technical Support and last but not least by Life Cycle Costing. This paper shows the existing approaches of LCM and discusses their visions and further development.
Evaluation of Life Cycle Cost Analysis Methodologies[edit | edit source]
Senthil Kumaran Durairaj, S. K. Ong, A. Y. C. Nee, R. B. H. Tan, Evaluation of Life Cycle Cost Analysis Methodologies, Corporate Environmental Strategy, Volume 9, Issue 1, February 2002, Pages 30-39, ISSN 1066-7938, DOI: 10.1016/S1066-7938(01)00141-5. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VNW-45C0X12-8/2/24b70247116f529a0b2c79e76f127134) Abstract: After the emergence of Life Cycle Engineering as an effective tool for analyzing the various environmental impacts of a product in the stages of design/development, manufacturing, service and disposal, a necessity arises to analyze the cost information pertaining to these impacts. There are possibly many approaches to analyze and evaluate the cost criteria involved in the different life cycle stages of any product or investment. This paper attempts to review many of those approaches methodologically, and specifically outline a practical framework that provides a new tool for evaluating all the eco-costs and developing a cost effective eco-design of any product.
Life Cycle Management and Assessment: Approaches and Visions Towards Sustainable Manufacturing[edit | edit source]
E. Westkamper, Alting, Arndt,^http://dx.doi.org.proxy.queensu.ca/10.1016/S0007-8506(07)63453-2¸Life Cycle Management and Assessment: Approaches and Visions Towards Sustainable Manufacturing (keynote paper), CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, Volume 49, Issue 2, 2000, Pages 501-526, ISSN 0007-8506, DOI:.
Abstract: Thinking in terms of product life cycles is one of the challenges facing manufacturers today: efforts to increase efficiency throughout the life cycle do not only lead to an extended responsibility of the concerned parties. As a result, economically successful business areas can be explored. Whether new service concepts are required, new regulations have been passed or consumers values are changing, the differences between business areas are disappearing. 'Life Cycle Management' (LCM) considers the product life cycle as a whole and optimizes the interaction of product design, manufacturing and life cycle activities. The goal of this approach is to protect resources and maximize the effectiveness during usage by means of Life Cycle Assessment, Product Data Management, Technical Support and last but not least by Life Cycle Costing. This paper shows the existing approaches of LCM and discusses their visions and further development.
- Industrialization has allowed massive growth in prosperity and manufactured capital
- Critical factors faced by society: 1) Rising consumption of natural resource, 2)exponential growth in population, 3)environmental impacts, 4)global communication networks, 5) unstoppable globalization (changing paradigms)
- Production covers several phases in the life of technical products: Manufacturing, Usage and Service and Recycling
- Demand for life cycle management driven by need to balance economic, social, environmental and technical aspects- need for optimization of the production life cycle
- Manufacturers are responsible for their products over the complete life cycle.
Product Life Cycle Costing Applied to Manufacturing Systems[edit | edit source]
E. Westkamper, D.v.d. Osten-Sacken, Product Life Cycle Costing Applied to Manufacturing Systems, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, Volume 47, Issue 1, 1998, Pages 353-356, ISSN 0007-8506, DOI: 10.1016/S0007-8506(07)62849-2.
Abstract: Life Cycle Costing (LCC) supports the adaptation of product features, both consumer and capital goods, to their life cycle. The costs of production, installation, usage and disposal are analyzed and allocated, aiming at the minimum of the total cost. A new method to calculate the life cycle costs of capital goods, such as machines and manufacturing systems, is presented to anticipate the life cycle costs. Single processes connected to the product's life cycle are represented and described in a potential-, program- and process-related way by the above mentioned life cycle costing method. Aiming on a redesign of current product structures, it is possible to derive approaches from the cost structures of the life cycle and also to create possibly new operational and maintenance concepts, as well as new financing models and cooperation forms.
Economics & Manufacturing[edit | edit source]
Why Carbon Reporting is a Growth Industry: Metrics for Measuring Carbon Emissions are Increasingly Important[edit | edit source]
Amanda Dahl, Why Carbon Reporting is a Growth Industry: Metrics for Measuring Carbon Emissions are Increasingly Important,Mar 3, 2010, Suite 101
Companies are turning to specialized software for carbon emissions accounting in order to cope with pressure from regulators, clients and suppliers.
- Massaro, Traci. Groom Energy Research. Groom Energy Research Study Reveals 2009 Growth in Enterprise Carbon Accounting Software Market Research details latest market sizing, recent investments and acquisitions; selects emerging leaders for 2010. Published: 19 Jan 2010, http://web.archive.org/web/20120526134709/http://www.groomenergy.com/files/2010_ECA_release_final.pdf
Economics, environment, and energy life cycle assessment of automobiles fueled by bio-ethanol blends in China[edit | edit source]
Zhiyuan Hu, Gengqiang Pu, Fang Fang, Chengtao Wang, Economics, environment, and energy life cycle assessment of automobiles fueled by bio-ethanol blends in China, Renewable Energy, Volume 29, Issue 14, November 2004, Pages 2183-2192
Abstract: This study examines the life cycle economics, environment impacts, and energy consumptions of Chinese automobiles fueled by bio-ethanol blends, utilizing life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques, and puts forward C, Env, En, EEE indicators to assess the economics, combined environmental impacts, energy consumption, and the balance of the three, as a means to evaluate whether the energy utilization efficiency and the domestic environment improvement are achieved at the lowest cost possible. A generic gasoline fueled car is used as a baseline case, and the cassava-based E85 fueled FFV in Guangxi is used as a case study. On the life cycle basis, the cost of cassava-based E85 fueled FFV is about 15% higher than that of gasoline fueled car, of which the two key factors are the price of cassava and gasoline, through a cost breakdown analysis. It also has lower life-cycle emissions of CO2, CO, HC, and PM pollutants, higher NOX emissions, while about 20% combined environment indicator is lower than that of the gasoline fueled car. And, it is higher in total energy consumption, lower in fossil fuels and petroleum consumptions, and has a better combined energy indicator. Lastly, the EEE indicator of the cassava-based E85 fueled FFV is about 29% less than that of the gasoline fueled car. Hence, E85 fueled FFV is a better vehicle than the gasoline fueled car, taking the balance of all the 3 'E's, the energy, environmental and economical aspects, into considerations.
A framework for modern manufacturing economics[edit | edit source]
Son, Y. (1991).A framework for modern manufacturing economics. International Journal of Production Research, 29(12), 2483-2499.
Modern manufacturing economics is an interdisciplinary research subject which deals with the cycles of performance measurement, cost estimation, and decision analysis that are enmeshed with quantification of ill-structured benefits of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMT). This paper proposes a framework of modern manufacturing economics by examining recent research trends of AMT economics. It underscores integrated, quantitative, global, and strategic studies of AMT economics. 14 Jan 2010
Fuzzy geometric programming approach to a fuzzy machining economics model[edit | edit source]
Liu, S. -T. (2004). Fuzzy geometric programming approach to a fuzzy machining economics model. International Journal of Production Research, 42(16), 3253-3269.
Abstract:Machining economics is an important function of the process planning activity for manufacturing products with high quality and low cost. The machining economics model usually contains a highly non-linear objective function and equations that could be formulated as a geometric programming problem. The paper develops a solution method for deriving the fuzzy objective value of the fuzzy machining economics problem when some of the parameters in the problem are fuzzy numbers. A pair of geometric programs is formulated to calculate the lower and upper bounds of the unit production cost at possibility level α. With the ability to calculate the fuzzy objective value developed, it might help lead to a more realistic modeling effort. The developed methodology can also be applied to other engineering design problems with fuzzy numbers.
12 Jan 2010
Optimal solutions for the machining economics problem with stochastically distributed tool lives[edit | edit source]
Eleftherios Iakovou, Chi M. Ip, Christos Koulamas, Optimal solutions for the machining economics problem with stochastically distributed tool lives, European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 92, Issue 1, 5 July 1996, Pages 63-68, ISSN 0377-2217, DOI: .
Abstract: This paper proposes analytical models and numerical procedures for simultaneously determining the optimal cutting speed and tool replacement policy in machining economics problems with stochastic tool lives when the objective is the minimization of the machining cost per part. It is shown that the objective function is separable for certain phase type tool life distributions, including Gamma, which leads to an efficient solution procedure. Keywords: Machining economics; Manufacturing; Maintenance; Tool replacement
Product Life Cycle Economic Models[edit | edit source]
V.A. Tipnis, Product Life Cycle Economic Models -- Towards a Comprehensive Framework for Evaluation of Environmental Impact and Competitive Advantage, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, Volume 40, Issue 1, 1991, Pages 463-466
Abstract: A quest for a comprehensive life cycle economic model has been launched, prompted by the need to know the cost of making products and processes environmentally safe as well as the need to evaluate alternate product and process designs before the first production run is made. Classical manufacturing cost models, cost and management accounting models, and microeconomic models are not adequate. Recently introduced micro- and macro- economic models of manufacturing processes provide cut and sequence level analysis. The constraint (bottleneck) model demonstrates the importance of bottlenecks for minimizing throughput time. Activity Based Costing is a welcome development from accounting discipline. Significant progress has been made in determining the penalty cost when products and processes fail in field and in production. The real challenge is to develop the model in such a manner that it becomes a valuable tool for designing products and processes robust, competitive, and environmentally safe to operate, dispose and recycle.
Optimal Lot-Sizing and Machining Economics[edit | edit source]
Christos P. Koulamas The Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 41, No. 10 (Oct., 1990), pp. 943-952 (article consists of 10 pages) Published by: Palgrave Macmillan Journals on behalf of the Operational Research Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2583272
An economic model for the machining of cast parts[edit | edit source]
Pius J. Egbelu, Robert P. Davis, Richard A. Wysk, Jose M.A. Tanchoco, An economic model for the machining of cast parts, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, Volume 1, Issue 2, 1982, Pages 207-213, ISSN 0278-6125
Abstract: A procedure for selecting a casting/machining strategy is presented. The procedure emphasizes the casting/machining process sequence rather than the mathematics of optimization that generally characterizes research in this class of problems. By using information readily available in most machine shops, the technique is practical, easy to implement, and requires a minimal amount of computational effort to arrive at a good solution strategy. 14 Jan 2010
Optimization of the Second-Order Logarithmic Machining Economics Problem by Extended Geometric Programming Part II: Posynomial Constraints[edit | edit source]
Hough, C. & Goforth, R. (1981). Optimization of the Second-Order Logarithmic Machining Economics Problem by Extended Geometric Programming Part II: Posynomial Constraints. IIE Transactions, 13(3), 234-242.
An algorithm is presented for solution of the machining economics problem with a Quadratic Posylognomial (QPL) objective function and single term posynomial constraints, meeting certain sufficient conditions. The algorithm applies to minimum cost or maximum productivity when the tool-life equation is a single term QPL and the removal rate is a single-term posynomial. A peripheral end-milling example, using the same tool-life equation and cost parameters as Part I, with the addition of experimentally derived constraints, is solved to illustrate the computational aspects of the algorithm. The QPL and posynomial (Taylor) formulations of the constrained machining problem are compared using the same experimental tool-life data. The QPL formulation is based on a quadratic logarithmic model whereas the posynomial formulation is based on a linear logarithmic tool-life model. An optimum without active constraints is possible using the QPL formulation in several independent machining variables, such as feed, speed, and depth, whereas the posynomial optimum, by nature, requires active constraints for more than one independent variable. This is tantamount to having additional "degrees of freedom" for optimization, as illustrated by the example problem. 14 Jan 2010
Economic analysis of machining including a consideration of tool life scatter[edit | edit source]
G.L. Ravignani, Economic analysis of machining including a consideration of tool life scatter, Wear, Volume 62, Issue 1, July 1980, Pages 233-243, .
Abstract: Scatter in the wear rate and sudden fracture are often concomitant causes of premature tool failure. To control the economics of a machining process the related cutting conditions require to be selected according to a balanced estimate of expected results. Some mathematical relations including these modes of tool decay have been applied to newly established optimization procedures valid for the main economic objectives. The fundamentals of these techniques are briefly described and their implementation in machining economics is illustrated.
Economic considerations in tolerance design[edit | edit source]
Williams, R.H.; Hawkins, C. F., Economic considerations in tolerance design, Economics of Design, Test, and Manufacturing, 1994. Proceedings., Third International Conference on the , vol., no., pp.73-, 16-17 May 1994
Abstract: A method is presented which, from the customer's point of view, connects the quality with which an arbitrary number of manufacturing tolerances are met to the manufacturer's profit per unit. The method assumes specific quadratic forms to model customer satisfaction for the three major tolerance types: nominal is best, less is better, and more is better. Theoretical and numerical examples are presented to illustrate the method for the cases of low and high quality in manufacture. 14 Jan 2010
The performance-envelope concept in the economics of machining[edit | edit source]
J.R. Crookall, The performance-envelope concept in the economics of machining, International Journal of Machine Tool Design and Research, Volume 9, Issue 3, September 1969, Pages 261-278
Abstract: The performance-envelope concept, representing the permissible and desirable operating regions of machining, is developed for a particular combination of workpiece and tool. Analysis of cost and time provides an economic envelope bounded by the maximum and minimum production rates, and within which a choice of near-optimal operation is available. One objective is to utilize the flexibility which is a basic characteristic of machining. The effect of various constraints in limiting the operating range is examined, and include the machine tool in terms of range and power, and the tool-workpiece combination in terms of various tool failure modes, workpiece rigidity and surface roughness produced. Finally, experimental data is used to demonstrate the undesirable effects of operating near the built-up edge region, and also some aspects of the effect of the operating point on the nature and quality of the machine surface.
12 Jan 2010
STUDY OF ECONOMICAL MACHINING: AN ANALYSIS OF THE MAXIMUM-PROFIT CUTTING SPEED[edit | edit source]
Okushima, K. & Hitomi, K. (1964). A STUDY OF ECONOMICAL MACHINING: AN ANALYSIS OF THE MAXIMUM-PROFIT CUTTING SPEED. International Journal of Production Research, 3(1), 73-78.
Apart from the conventional theory of the minimum-cost or maximum-production cutting speed, a new concept of the machining conditions for maximizing the profit for the manufacturing enterprise was presented. Based upon this concept, an analysts of the maximum-profit cutting speed was made and the theoretical expression for it was deduced.
- E. Westkamper, Platform for the Integration of Assembly, Disassembly and Life Cycle Management, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, Volume 51, Issue 1, 2002, Pages 33-36, ISSN 0007-8506, DOI: 10.1016/S0007-8506(07)61459-0.
- E. Westkamper, Alting, Arndt, Life Cycle Management and Assessment: Approaches and Visions Towards Sustainable Manufacturing (keynote paper), CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, Volume 49, Issue 2, 2000, Pages 501-526, ISSN 0007-8506, DOI: 10.1016/S0007-8506(07)63453-2.