Category:EE5805-Directed study

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Agrivoltaic Bifacial Vertical PV[edit | edit source]

Joshua S. Stein, Daniel Riley, Matthew Lave, Clifford Hansen, Chris Deline, Fatima Toor "Outdoor Field Performance from Bifacial Photovoltaic Modules and Systems" 2017 44th IEEE PV Specialist Conference At: Washington, DC[edit | edit source]

  • Bifacial PV Modules deliver more energy than equivalent monofacial modules in the same orientation.
  • Bifacial benefit varies with tilt angle, module height, reflectivity/albedo and other factors that influence the total amount of light reaching both sides of PV cells.
  • Single Module DC Monitoring on microinverters at five different orientations.
  • Bifacial gains increase as the orientation of the front side of the array (tilt and azimuth) deviates from the optimal orientation for monofacial.
  • Bifacial modules with module-scale MPPT (microinverters or optimizers) perform significantly better than series connected modules and string-level MPPT.
  • Bifacial performance is quite sensitive to enhanced albedo of the ground surface.
  • W90 has higher output yield compared to S90 at a latitude of 35N degrees.


Thomas Baumanna, Hartmut Nussbaumera, Markus Klenka,⁎, Andreas Dreisiebnerb, Fabian Carigieta, Franz Baumgartnera "Photovoltaic systems with vertically mounted bifacial PV modules in combination with green roofs" 2019 International Solar Energy Society, Volume 190, 15 September 2019, Pages 139-146[edit | edit source]

  • Combination of green roofs and vertical bifacial modules avoids goal conflicts.
  • Specific energy yield with vertical bifacial system comparable to monofacial standard.
  • Roof greening gets increasingly important in urban areas, solutions for PV needed.
  • Silvery leaves can improve the system yield compared to standard roof greening.
  • Vertical bifacial PV beneficial with regard to maintenance and electrical properties.
  • The output of vertical installations is however heavily dependent on the albedo and the ground cover ratio.
  • Due to the vertical installation, the maintenance of the green roofs can be carried out efficiently because the area in between the PV module rows is easily accessible.


M. Ryyan Khan, Amir Hanna, Xingshu Sun, Muhammad A. Alamb "Vertical Bifacial Solar Farms: Physics, Design, and Global Optimization" 2017 Applied Energy, Volume 206, 15 November 2017, Pages 240-248[edit | edit source]

  • Efficient insolation model combining meteorological data and clear-sky model.
  • Non-uniform illumination on panels from direct, diffused, and albedo light.
  • Non-uniform illumination combined with circuit model to find hourly energy-output.
  • Global, location specific optimization and output of vertical bifacial solar farm.
  • Vertical bifacial outperforms monofacial farm by 10–20% globally (2 m row spacing).
  • The increased energy yield of a bifacial farm requires closely spaced panels.
  • A farm designed with optimally tilted and elevated panel array produces much more energy than a ground-mounted vertical bifacial farm.


Siyu Guo, Timothy Michael Walsh, Marius Peters "Vertically mounted bifacial photovoltaic modules: A global analysis" 2017 Energy,Volume 61, 1 November 2013, Pages 447-454[edit | edit source]

  • Vertically mounted bifacial module and conventionally monofacial module are compared.
  • The key factors affecting the performance of the two configurations are investigated.
  • Which module configuration is more suitable for each place is shown in a world map.
  • The minimum albedo for bifacial modules to have a better performance is calculated.
  • For bifacial modules, tilting at 90° facing East–West (VMBM) is the most commonly used configuration, since this configuration is easy to be realized and also allows a relatively high performance for the modules.
  • It is found that a mono-facial module will generate the maximum output when it tilts at an angle which is almost equal to the latitude and faces the equator.


H. K. Hajjar; F. A. Dubaikel; I. M. Ballard "Bifacial Photovoltaic Technology for the Oil and Gas Industry" 2015 Saudi Arabia Smart Grid (SASG),doi:10.1109/SASG.2015.7449283[edit | edit source]

  • The use of vertically installed bifacial PV panels will result in many advantages among which is the elimination of dust accumulation on the panels as well as achieving higher efficiency and smooth output throughout the day.
  • Bifacial panels capture direct, diffused and ground reflected radiations.
  • For large scale systems, the bifacial solar panels may require more row-row spacing to minimize shading in mornings and evenings.
  • Bifacial module shows double peak characteristics whereas the fixed monofacial module have a single peak.
  • Performance of Vertically installed bifacial solar panels could be useful in Remote locations where cleaning may not occur on a regular basis.


Xingshu Sun, Mohammad Ryyan Khan, Chris Deline, and Muhammad Ashraful Alam "Optimization and Performance of Bifacial Solar Modules: A Global Perspective" Applied Energy, Volume 212, 15 February 2018, Pages 1601-1610[edit | edit source]

  • A physics-based modeling framework for bifacial solar modules is developed..
  • Global maps of the performance and optimization of bifacial modules are presented.
  • Bifacial gain is below 10% worldwide for ground-mounted modules with albedo = 0.25.
  • Elevating modules to 1 m and increase albedo to 0.5 can boost bifacial gain to 30%.
  • Show a set of empirical guidelines for analytically optimizing bifacial modules.
  • Ground Mounted, Vertical, E-W facing bifacial module outperforms S-N facing, optimally tilted counterparts by upto 15% below the latitude of 30%, for an albedo of 0.5.
  • Low ground albedo of 0.25 corresponding to vegetation/soil, ground-mounted bifacial solar modules can only achieve bifacial gain up to 10% relative to their monofacial counterpart across the entire world (except for the Arctic and Antarctic regions).
  • By boosting the albedo to 0.5 via artificial ground reflectors as well as lifting modules 1 m above the ground surface to reduce self-shading, one can potentially enhance the bifacial gain up to 30%.

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