| By Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.
Wanted: Students to make a distributed future with solar-powered open-source 3-D printing.
- 1 Open-Source Lab, 1st Edition: How to Build Your Own Hardware and Reduce Research Costs
- 2 Reviews
- 3 In the Media
- 4 International Media
- 5 References
Open-Source Lab, 1st Edition: How to Build Your Own Hardware and Reduce Research Costs
- written by Appropedia user J.M. Pearce
- J.M. Pearce, Open-Source Lab: How to Build Your Own Hardware and Reduce Research Costs, Elsevier, 2014.
- ISBN: 9780124104624
- 2016 Open source lab equipment interview on Radio New Zealand - Ogg,MP3
This guide details the development of the free and open-source hardware revolution and provides you with step-by-step instructions on building your own laboratory hardware.
In the first two chapters displayed here, the author defines the basic terms of open-source software and discusses the rise of the open-source hardware revolution and how it impacts science before exploring five pragmatic advantages to joining the open-source scientific community for both your research in general, and most importantly, your equipment and instrumentation.
- Numerous examples of technologies and the open-source user and developer communities that support them
- Instructions on how to take advantage of digital design sharing
- Explanations of Arduinos and RepRaps for scientific use
- A detailed guide to open-source hardware licenses and basic principles of intellectual property
Open-Source Lab: How to Build Your Own Hardware and Reduce Scientific Research Costs details the development of the free and open-source hardware revolution. The combination of open-source 3D printing and open-source microcontrollers running on free software enables scientists, engineers, and lab personnel in every discipline to develop powerful research tools at unprecedented low costs.
After reading Open-Source Lab, you will be able to:
- Lower equipment costs by making your own hardware
- Build open-source hardware for scientific research
- Actively participate in a community in which scientific results are more easily replicated and cited
Open source scientific hardware is open source hardware used by scientists to do research or for education. This gallery and associated sub-pages are an extension of the book the Open Source Lab, which is about how to make scientific equipment following open source principles. Click on the hyperlinks under the images in this index to go to pages with hundreds of examples.
|Open-source scientific hardware collections and resources|
|Open-source scientific hardware by discipline|
- DSTat - OS potentiostat
Table of Contents
|Open-source 3D Printing for Scientific Equipment|
- Introduction to Open-Source Hardware for Science
- The Benefits of Sharing - Nice Guys and Girls Do Finish First
- Open Licensing - Advanced Sharing
- Open-Source Microcontrollers for Science: How to Use, Design Automated Equipment with, and Troubleshoot
- RepRap for Science: How to Use, Design, and Troubleshoot the Self-Replicating 3-D Printer
- Digital Designs and Scientific Hardware
- OpenSCAD, RepRap, and Arduino Microcontrollers
- Physics: Open-Source Optics
- Engineering: Open-Source Laser Welder, Radiation Detection, and Oscilloscopes
- Environmental Science: Open-Source Colorimeter and pH Meter
- Biology: OpenPCR, Open-Source Centrifuges and More
- Chemistry: Open-Source Spectrometers and Other Chemical Research Tools
- The Future of Open-Source Hardware and Science
- Quantifying the Value of Open Source Hardware Development
- Return on Investment for Open Source Hardware Development
- Building research equipment with free, open-source hardware
- Open-source colorimeter
- Open-source 3D-printable optics equipment
- Open source science
- Open source 3-D printing of OSAT
- Category:Open source optics
- Open-source hardware
- Open-source hardware for science in Ecuador
External Links with Open Hardware for Science
|Open-source Optical Microscope|
|Open Lab Tools Initiative at the University of Cambridge, UK|
- Tekla Labs - Tekla Labs is creating a library of open source DIY (do-it-yourself) documents that guide in the construction of quality lab equipment.
- Open Source Physiology Lab - this site is devoted to the collaboration and development of 3D printing physiology equipment
- Open Lab Tools - U. of Cambridge - created open source microscope prototype that cost around US$800, whereas conventional microscopes cost between US$15,000 and US$80,000 
- Open Neuroscience
- Backyard Brains micromanipulator
- Hackteria and more specific on Generic Laboratory Infrastructure
- Gnome X Scanning Microscopy
- Open Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM)
- 3D printed scientific equipment in Africa- “TReND in Africa” (Teaching and Research in Neuroscience for Development) is a higher education charity dedicated to improving university level science education and research in sub-Saharan Africa.
- 50 Cent origami microscope
- open-ephys - open-source electrophysiology
- smart phone to microscope with inexpensive lens
- Nature Methods editorial on OSH
- Labrigger - Labrigger is a source for open solutions for research. Their goal is to accelerate and enable research by reducing the duplication of effort by multiple labs, and offering alternatives to expensive lab equipment.
- Klavins lab open-source mixture controlled turbidostat - University of Washington synthetic biology
- From Jim Haseloff lab:
- NIH's 3d printable category for custom scientific labware
- Smoky Mountain Scientific - develops and sells modular, Low cost, open-source instrumentation for electrochemistry, fluidics, and datalogging
- From Gongkai to Open Source - Bunnie studios blog on Chinese views of IP
- Experimenting with open science: Open source in the field and in the lab - Free E-book at Opensource.com
- Open Neuroscience
- openMicroanalysis is a community-driven open source project quantitative electron microanalysis. See: discussion forum. Its goals are to:
- centralize physical quantity databases and algorithms used for quantification
- encourage collaborative work
- provide the necessary building blocks for new projects in microanalysis
- https://open.nasa.gov/ (only software now)
- OS Rodent Operant Bucket
- PLOS Blog - with good list of OS toolkits
- Open and Collaborative Science in Development
-  - The Cave Pearl Project uses easy to build Arduino data loggers for hydrology research
- Warwick Open Source Microscope: http://wosmic.org/
- Baden and Chagas' collection at PLOS: http://collections.plos.org/open-source-toolkit-hardware
- OpenFlexure Microscope documented at http://docubricks.com/
- Institute for Development of Advanced Applied Systems http://irnas.eu/projects.html and https://github.com/IRNAS/OpenSourceLabEquipment
Supporting publications and examples in the peer-reviewed literature
|Making Open Hardware the New Standard in Science @ 2015 Open Source Hardware Summit|
- Pearce, Joshua M. 2012. Building Research Equipment with Free, Open-Source Hardware. Science 337 (6100): 1303–1304. DOI: 10.1126/science.1228183
- Pearce, J.M. (2015) Quantifying the Value of Open Source Hardware Development. Modern Economy, 6, 1-11. doi: 10.4236/me.2015.61001.Free open access to the full text
- Joshua M. Pearce. (2015) Return on Investment for Open Source Hardware Development. Science and Public Policy. DOI :10.1093/scipol/scv034 open access
- Pearce, Joshua M. 2013. Free Innovation Accelerator, Analytical Scientist, Issue #1113, Article #303, December 17th, 2013.
- Pearce, J.M., 2014. Laboratory equipment: Cut costs with open-source hardware. Nature 505, 618. doi:10.1038/505618d
- Joshua M. Pearce "Bone replacements and heart monitors spur health revolution in open source 3D printing" The Conversation, Feb 28, 2014. Reprinted: Live Science
- Joshua Pearce Benjamin Franklin would be proud: hundreds of open-source hardware designs for scientific equipment proliferate - SciTech Connect, June 9, 2014.
- J.M. Pearce, “Commentary: Open-source hardware for research and education”, Physics Today 66(11), 8 (2013); doi: 10.1063/PT.3.2160
- J.M. Pearce, 3D-printing your lab equipment—it’s cheaper than you think - Elsevier Connect, 2013.
- Zhang C, Anzalone NC, Faria RP, Pearce JM (2013) Open-Source 3D-Printable Optics Equipment. PLoS ONE 8(3): e59840. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059840 open access
- Anzalone GC, Glover AG, Pearce JM. Open-Source Colorimeter. Sensors. 2013; 13(4):5338-5346. doi:10.3390/s130405338 open access
- Joshua M. Pearce, Share, and We All Grow Richer, The Analytical Scientist, Issue #0213, Article #301 (2013).
- Bas Wijnen, Emily J. Hunt, Gerald C. Anzalone, Joshua M. Pearce, 2014. Open-source Syringe Pump Library, PLoS ONE 9(9): e107216. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0107216 open access
- Joshua Pearce, Guest Blog: Circumventing Science Lab Budget Cuts with Open-Source Hardware. Sparkfun Education Blog. January 23, 2015. Joshua Pearce on Open Hardware for Education --Oomlout
- Joshua M. Pearce. Buckle up for fast-tracked science thanks to open-source hardware. Engineering for Change. June 8, 2015.
- Joshua M. Pearce. Science for All: How to Make Free, Open Source Laboratory Hardware, Scientific American Blog. Dec. 4, 2015.
- Baden, T., Chagas, A. M., Gage, G., Marzullo, T., Prieto-Godino, L. L., & Euler, T. (2015). Open Labware: 3-D Printing Your Own Lab Equipment. PLOS Biology, 13(3). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002086 http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1002086
- Niezen, G., Eslambolchilar, P. and Thimbleby, H., 2016. Open-source hardware for medical devices. BMJ Innovations, pp.bmjinnov-2015. 
- Salazar-Serrano, L.J., Valencia, A. and Torres, J.P., 2016. A 3D Printed Toolbox for Opto-Mechanical Components. arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.09563. 
- Mista, C., Zalazar, M., Peñalva, A., Martina, M. and Reta, J.M., 2016, April. Open Source Quartz Crystal Microbalance with dissipation monitoring. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 705, No. 1, p. 012008). IOP Publishing.
- Coakley, M. and Hurt, D.E., 2016. 3D Printing in the Laboratory Maximize Time and Funds with Customized and Open-Source Labware. Journal of laboratory automation, p.2211068216649578.
- Sharkey et al., A one-piece 3D printed microscope and flexure translation stage. arXiv:1509.05394 [physics] (2015) http://arxiv.org/abs/1509.05394
- Barber et al., The Gray Institute “open” high-content, fluorescence lifetime microscopes. Journal of Microscopy. 251, 154–167 (2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jmi.12057 group webpage with more info: http://users.ox.ac.uk/~atdgroup/optical_microscopy.shtml
- Damase TR, Stephens D, Spencer A, Allen PB. Open source and DIY hardware for DNA nanotechnology labs. J Biol Methods 2015;2(3):e24. doi: 10.14440/jbm.2015.72
- L. K. Wolf, 3D printers move into research labs. Chemical & Engineering News, 91, 44-45, 2013.
- Hang Qu, Tiberius Brastaviceanu, Francois Bergeron, Jonathan Olesik, Ivan Pavlov, Takaaki Ishigure, and Maksim Skorobogatiy, Photonic bandgap Bragg fiber sensors for bending-displacement detection, 6344 APPLIED OPTICS, Vol. 52, No. 25, 1 September 2013
- Carvalho, M. C., & Eyre, B. D. (2013). A low cost, easy to build, portable, and universal autosampler for liquids. Methods in Oceanography, 8, 23-32.
- Lücking, T. H., Sambale, F., Beutel, S., & Scheper, T. (2014). 3D‐printed individual labware in biosciences by rapid prototyping: A proof of principle. Engineering in Life Sciences.
- Gross, B. C., Erkal, J. L., Lockwood, S. Y., Chen, C., & Spence, D. M. (2014). Evaluation of 3d printing and its potential impact on biotechnology and the chemical sciences. Analytical chemistry, 86(7), 3240-3253.
- Harnett, C. (2011). Open source hardware for instrumentation and measurement. Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, IEEE, 14(3), 34-38.
- Maldonado-Torres, M., López-Hernández, J. F., Jiménez-Sandoval, P., & Winkler, R. (2014). ‘Plug and Play’assembly of a low-temperature plasma ionization mass spectrometry imaging (LTP-MSI) system. Journal of proteomics, 102, 60-65.
- Urban, Pawel L. "Open-Source Electronics As a Technological Aid in Chemical Education." Journal of Chemical Education (2014).
- Kelley, C. D., Krolick, A., Brunner, L., Burklund, A., Kahn, D., Ball, W. P., & Weber-Shirk, M. (2014). An Affordable Open-Source Turbidimeter. Sensors, 14(4), 7142-7155.
- Kitson, P. J., Symes, M. D., Dragone, V., & Cronin, L. (2013). Combining 3D printing and liquid handling to produce user-friendly reactionware for chemical synthesis and purification. Chemical Science, 4(8), 3099-3103.
- Ting, H., Hu, J. B., Hsieh, K. T., & Urban, P. L. (2014). A pinch-valve interface for automated sampling and monitoring of dynamic processes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytical Methods.
- Herrmann, K. H., Gärtner, C., Güllmar, D., Krämer, M., & Reichenbach, J. R. (2014). 3D printing of MRI compatible components: Why every MRI research group should have a low-budget 3D printer. Medical engineering & physics. Volume 36, Issue 10, October 2014, Pages 1373–1380.
- Koenka, I. J., Sáiz, J., & Hauser, P. C. (2014). Instrumentino: An open-source modular Python framework for controlling Arduino based experimental instruments. Computer Physics Communications. Volume 185, Issue 10, October 2014, Pages 2724–2729. Instrumentino project page
- Gopalakrishnan, M., & Gühr, M. (2013). A low-cost mirror mount control system for optics setups. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.6557.
- Su, C. K., Hsia, S. C., & Sun, Y. C. (2014). Three-Dimensional printed sample load/inject valves enabling online monitoring of extracellular calcium and zinc ions in living rat brains. Analytica chimica acta.
- Wittbrodt, J. N., Liebel, U., & Gehrig, J. (2014). Generation of orientation tools for automated zebrafish screening assays using desktop 3D printing. BMC biotechnology, 14(1), 36.
- Leigh, S. J., Purssell, C. P., Billson, D. R., & Hutchins, D. A. (2014). Using a magnetite/thermoplastic composite in 3D printing of direct replacements for commercially available flow sensors. Smart Materials and Structures, 23(9), 095039.
- Open Science at RQEMP - by Tiberius Brastaviceanu
- Chiu, S. H., & Urban, P. L. (2014). Robotics-Assisted mass spectrometry assay platform Enabled by Open-Source Electronics. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Volume 64, 15 February 2015, Pages 260–268.
- Chemin, Y., Sanjaya, N., & Liyanage, P. K. N. C. (2014, September). An Open Source Hardware & Software Online Raingauge for Real-Time Monitoring of Rainwater Harvesting in Sri Lanka. In Symposium on Mainstreaming Rainwater Harvesting as a Water Supply Option (p. 13).
- Ham, J. M. (2013, December). Using Arduinos and 3D-printers to build research-grade weather stations and environmental sensors. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 1, p. 1573).
- Xabier E. Barandiaran, Daniel Araya. Stream 1: Human Capabilities Policy Doc ID: 1.2 ScienceFree/Libre, Open, Commons and Collaborative Science Buen Conocer - FLOK Society v. 0.9.302/08/2014
- Resnick, M., Berg, R., & Eisenberg, M. (2000). Beyond black boxes: Bringing transparency and aesthetics back to scientific investigation. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 9(1), 7-30. (nice account of the art behind making equipment - then tied to STEM education)
- Koenka, I. J., Sáiz, J., & Hauser, P. C. (2015). Instrumentino: An Open-Source Software for Scientific Instruments. CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry, 69(4), 172-175.
- Bullmann, T., Arendt, T., Frey, U., & Hanashima, C. (2015). A transportable, inexpensive electroporator for in utero electroporation. Development, growth & differentiation.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/dgd.12216/full
- Kuat Telegenov, Yedige Tlegenov and Almas Shintemirov. A Low-Cost Open-Source 3D-Printed Three-Finger Gripper Platform for Research and Educational Purposes. IEEE Access. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=7109102
- Schausberger, S., Kaltseis, R., Drack, M., Cakmak, U., Major, Z., & Bauer, S. Cost-Efficient Open Source Desktop Size Radial Stretching System With Force Sensor. http://imechanica.org/files/RSS_LQ.pdf
- Desai, A., Krynitsky, J., Pohida, T.J., Zhao, H. and Schuck, P., 2016. 3D-Printing for Analytical Ultracentrifugation. arXiv preprint arXiv:1602.07181.http://arxiv.org/pdf/1602.07181
- Sharing blueprints for better research. Nature Methods 10, 591 (2013) doi:10.1038/nmeth.2554 http://www.nature.com/nmeth/journal/v10/n7/full/nmeth.2554.html
- Promoting shared hardware design. http://blogs.nature.com/methagora/2013/06/promoting-shared-hardware-design.html
- Moser, R., Kettlgruber, G., Siket, C.M., Drack, M., Graz, I.M., Cakmak, U., Major, Z., Kaltenbrunner, M. and Bauer, S., 2016. From Playroom to Lab: Tough Stretchable Electronics Analyzed with a Tabletop Tensile Tester Made from Toy‐Bricks. Advanced Science. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/advs.201500396/abstract
- Schausberger, S.E., Kaltseis, R., Drack, M., Cakmak, U.D., Major, Z. and Bauer, S., 2015. Cost-efficient open source desktop size radial stretching system with force sensor. IEEE Access, 3, pp.556-561.http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp
- A. Zwicker, J. Bloom, R. Albertson, and S. Gershman, ‘‘The suitability of 3D printed plastic parts for laboratory use,’’Bull. Amer.Phys. Soc., vol. 59, no. 15, p. 281, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1119/1.4900746
"This is a manual that every scientist should read and it holds a message so powerful and disruptive that the Anarchist Cookbook is a fairy tale in comparison." -- 3D Printing Industry
"Open-source and 3D printing pioneer Joshua Pearce has demonstrated in numerous ways how the technology can both save researchers money and increase accessibility to lab equipment through his studies with Michigan Technological University."- Engineering.com
Review on 3D Hacker! online, November 18, 2013
“3dhacker is truly impressed by the amount of work Dr. Pearce has put into Open-Source Lab. It’s immediately clear how a teacher or researcher in any institution around the world can reduce their laboratory equipment costs by 60-90%. Additionally Dr. Pearce illustrates the benefits of open source hardware and how it’s a must if the world wants to move at the fastest pace for scientific development!” -- 3dhacker Review: Open-Source Lab
Review on Nanowerk.com, November 18, 2013
“’Open-Source Lab’ is written for a wide audience, from novices to those who are “at one with the force of open source,” who can skip the introductory material and get right to work printing their own equipment.” --Nanowerk
Review Machine Design December 4, 2013
“Pearce intends his book to be a sort of guide to creating your own open-source lab gear. The topics he covers include software rights, best practices and etiquette for using open-source hardware, open-source microcontrollers, open-source centrifuges and spectrometers, colorimeters, and even open-source laser welding. There are also some helpful hints for those who are 3D-printing their equipment for the first time.” --Machine Design
Review on Midwest January, 2014
"Pearce's examples make it abundantly clear that the more people creating and sharing their hardware designs will only help research and technology accelerate and flourish. All things considered, the Open-Source Lab is a must read for every professional and amateur scientist. Even science educators would benefit from reading it and being able to improve their teaching laboratories for their students. And while he may not cover all the issues related to social and business aspects of open-source hardware, Pearce's writing throughout the Open-Source Lab is both inspiring and instructive as he covers all the information about the new and exciting possibilities with open-source hardware and 3-D printing." -- Midwest Book Review
5 stars -- "Thorough guide to save a ton of money for your lab" - Amazon Reviews
Original Spanish text:
"Este adalid del uso del código abierto en la investigación continúa con su infatigable labor y ahora ha recopilado una serie de herramientas que pueden ayudar a biólogos, químicos, físicos, médicos, farmacéuticos e investigadores y científicos en general en la realización de sus experimentos de laboratorio." - Imprimalia 3D
"This champion of the use of open source in the investigation continues his tireless work and now has compiled a series of tools that can help biologists, chemists, physicists, doctors, pharmacists and researchers and scientists in general in conducting laboratory experiments."
In the Media
|Why Open Source Hardware is Important to Scientists - Interview with Allison Mills|
Using Open Source Lab as a Textbook
- Michigan Tech course to build your own 3D printer - OpenSource
- Unchained with Open Source: Michigan Tech 3D Printing Course Teaches Students to Build 3D Printers - 3D Print
- Michigan Tech’s Open Source Course – The Future of 3D Printing Education) - 3D Printing Industry
- An Interview with 3D Printers for Peace’s Dr. Joshua Pearce - 3D Printing Industry
- Just Another Incredible Saturday Of MTU Research - CBS Detroit
- Pearce Pens a 3D Printing Guide for Scientists on a Budget - Michigan Tech News
- 3D-printing your lab equipment—it’s cheaper than you think - Elsevier Connect
- MTU Prof Writes 3D Printing Guide For Scientists On A Budget - CBS Detroit
- DIY and Save: A Scientist's Guide to Making Your Own Lab Equipment - Science Daily, Phys.org, Biomedicine, Technology.org, Hispanic Business
- Design-for-3D Printing as community organizing - Design Activism
- MTU Prof writes 3D printing guide to making your own low-cost lab equipment - 3Drs, B3D
- 3D printing can reduce science lab equipment costs by 90% - Nanowerk
- 3D Printers – Open Source Enablers Indeed - Encore
- 3D printing used to create a basement laboratory on the cheap - Geek.com
- How Scientists Can Cut Costs by Making Their Own Lab Equipment - Lab Manager Magazine
- Ready Roundup: Microsoft 3D Builder, Open Source Lab, DMG Mori, and Victoria’s Secret - Rapid Ready Tech
- Equip your lab for less - 3D print your equipment -Labonline
- DIY Guide for 3D Printed Lab Equipment - 3D Printing Insider
- Top 15 New Books About Sharing, Cities and Happiness - Shareable
- Opinion: Science Counterculture - On taking DIYbio to the next level - The Scientist (great op ed with biohack examples)
- Book of the Day - P2P Foundation blog
- Kurzweil, Labrigger
- How to build lab equipment with open-source hardware - Machine Design
- Book Covers DIY Open-Source Hardware for Science Projects - Power Electronics
- 3d printing low cost open source laboratory equipment by Dr. Joshua Pearce -DIY 3D Printing
- Open Source Laboratory Equipment - Usin'Life
- 3-D printing could offer savings on replica lab kit -- Sci Dev Net, Thomson Reuters Foundation, All Africa, The Guardian, Aid News
- Beyond Jeremy Rifkin: How Will the Phase Transition to a Commons Economy Actually Occur? - Huffington Post
- How to 3D Print Your Own Lab Equipment - SciTech Connect
- 3D Printing's Success Points to a Rosy Future for Open Hardware - Linux.com
- Open Science News - F1000 Research
- Printing a Better Community - Laboratory Equipment
- Building your Science Lab with Open Source - Open Electronics
- Open-source coops as a bottom-up global shift - International Young Professionals Foundation
- Design your own lab - Bikcha
- Predicting the Lab of the Future - Laboratory Equipment
- World of 3-D Printing Brings Medical Breakthroughs to Life - Washington Diplomat's Magazine pages 25-28.
- Can Open Source Really Work in Scientific Research? - 3D Printing Industry, Internet Medicine, Bioportfolio
- What ever you need, chances are a 3D printer can print it - The Examiner
- 3-D Printing Could Offer Savings On Replica Lab Kit- Open Health News
- Prof. Pearce’s “Open-Source Lab” Unleashes the Power of 3D Printed Lab Equipment - 3D Printing Industry
- The $900 Renegade: Ourobotics Releases Fully Open Source Bioprinter - 3D Printing and Industry
- ‘Open-hardware’ pioneers push for low-cost lab kit -Nature News, Open Electronics
- Open Technical Infrastructures - Free/Libre Open Knowledge Society
- Do it yourself and save - guide researchers to make their own laboratory equipment -Science for business and society: Mokslas verslui ir visuomenei
- Open-Source Lab: a guide for researchers to make their own laboratory equipment - Technologijos
- How to cook their own laboratory equipment - Balsas, Elektronkika
- Laboratory equipment with their own hands - CNews - the largest online publication in the field of high technologies in Russia, Russian Electronics, Just-Hiend
Pearce Publications By Topic: Energy Conservation • Energy Policy • Industrial Symbiosis • Life Cycle Analysis • Materials Science • Open Source • Photovoltaic Systems • Solar Cells • Sustainable Development • Sustainability Education