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Difference between revisions of "Lonicera caerulea"

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This article discusses cultivation, uses and preservation of ''Lonicera caerulea'' (Honeyberry / Haskap berry), a cool temperate climate shrub with edible fruit in the honeysuckle family. The plant may perform moderately well as part of the shrub layer in a temperate climate [[forest garden]].
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This article discusses cultivation, uses and preservation of ''Lonicera caerulea'' (Honeyberry / Haskap berry), a cool temperate climate shrub with edible fruit in the honeysuckle family. It is native to boreal forests in temperate Eurasia and North America. The plant may perform moderately well as part of the shrub layer in a temperate climate [[forest garden]].
  
 
==Background Information==
 
==Background Information==
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===History===
 
===History===
Originally cultivated as a food crop in Siberia, northern China and northern Japan. Some cultivars have been developed at the University of Saskatchewan and the commercial growing of haskap is growing in Canada.<ref name=cockrallking2016>Cockrall-King, J (2016). [https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=527hCwAAQBAJ Food Artisans of the Okanagan: Your Guide to the Best Locally Crafted Fare.] TouchWood Editions. ISBN 9781771511537.</ref>
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The Ainu people knew of the plant centuries ago.<ref name=williams2017 /> Originally cultivated as a food crop in Siberia, northern China and northern Japan.<ref name=cockrallking2016 /> Thought to have been first cultivated in Russia in the 1950s.<ref name=williams2017 /> Some cultivars have been developed at the University of Saskatchewan and the commercial growing of haskap is growing in Canada.<ref name=cockrallking2016>Cockrall-King, J (2016). [https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=527hCwAAQBAJ Food Artisans of the Okanagan: Your Guide to the Best Locally Crafted Fare.] TouchWood Editions. ISBN 9781771511537.</ref>
  
 
===Varieties===
 
===Varieties===
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===Range===
 
===Range===
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They are only found in the North. Although there are Haskaps native to North America, they are fairly rare occuring and have berries smaller than a pea. Those varieties native to Asia have larger fruit, thought to be why the Russians and the Japanese cultivated them first.<ref name=williams2017 />
  
 
''Native to:''
 
''Native to:''
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==Requirements==
 
==Requirements==
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''L. caerulea'' grows on the edge of swamps and wetlands in the wild.<ref name=williams2017>Williams, S; Bors, B (2017). [https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=z9skDwAAQBAJ Growing Fruit in Northern Gardens.] Coteau Books. ISBN 9781550509144.</ref>
  
 
===Hardiness===
 
===Hardiness===
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===Allelopathy===
 
===Allelopathy===
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Haksaps do not compete well with grass or other palnts with deeper roots.<ref name=williams2017 />
  
 
===Propagation===
 
===Propagation===

Latest revision as of 04:28, 16 June 2019

This article discusses cultivation, uses and preservation of Lonicera caerulea (Honeyberry / Haskap berry), a cool temperate climate shrub with edible fruit in the honeysuckle family. It is native to boreal forests in temperate Eurasia and North America. The plant may perform moderately well as part of the shrub layer in a temperate climate forest garden.

Background Information[edit]

Approximately 180 honeysuckle species are identified. They are arching shrubs or twining vines, some are fragrant and are grown as garden ornamentals. Most have mildly poisonous berries. Other edible honeysuckles include Lonicera augustifolia (Narrow-leaf Honeysuckle) and Lonicera villosa (Mountain Fly Honeysuckle).

Taxonomy[edit]

Family: Caprifoliaceae ("honeysuckle family")

Genus: Lonicera

Species: L. caerulea

Common names[edit]

  • Honeyberry
  • Sweetberry Honeysuckle
  • Haskap (haskappu, hascap, hascup)
  • Blue-berried Honeysuckle / Blue honeysuckle
  • Honeyberry Honeysuckle
  • Deepblue Honeysuckle
  • Bluefly honeysuckle
  • Edible honeysuckle
  • Swamp fly honeysuckle

Etymology[edit]

Lonicera after Renaissance botanist Adam Lonicer.W

Caerulea/caeruleus dissimilation of caeluleus, derived from caelum (“sky, heaven”) +‎ -uleus (diminutive suffix indicating small size or youth).

Haskap from Ainu language meaning "little present on the end of the branch".

History[edit]

The Ainu people knew of the plant centuries ago.[1] Originally cultivated as a food crop in Siberia, northern China and northern Japan.[2] Thought to have been first cultivated in Russia in the 1950s.[1] Some cultivars have been developed at the University of Saskatchewan and the commercial growing of haskap is growing in Canada.[2]

Varieties[edit]

Characteristics[edit]

Range[edit]

They are only found in the North. Although there are Haskaps native to North America, they are fairly rare occuring and have berries smaller than a pea. Those varieties native to Asia have larger fruit, thought to be why the Russians and the Japanese cultivated them first.[1]

Native to:

Albania, Amur, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Chita, Czechoslovakia, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., Magadan, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Primorye, Romania, Sakhalin, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Norway

[Source= Plants of the World Online][3]

Morphology[edit]

Mature height 1.2-1.5 m (5"), spread 1.5 m (5")[4][5]

Flowers yellow - white.[6]

Fruits 0.8-1.0cm long, dark blue. Thin skin.[2] Unique flavor variably compared to blueberry (but more tart + acidic), raspberry, saskatoon, blackcurrant

Growth Habit[edit]

Fast growing, deciduous shrub.[7] Not a climber, unlike the commonly known ornamental honeysuckles.[6]

Reproduction[edit]

Self-sterile,[5] i.e. at least 2 cultivars needed for cross pollination and good cropping.[8]

Flowering from late winter[4] to spring (March-April in UK).[5] Flowers frost tolerant.[5]

Fruiting in summer (May), often the first berries to come into fruit.[8]

Lifespan approx. 25-30 years.[9] New plants produce first (limited) crop in second growing season. 3-4 year old plants start cropping heavily.[9]

Requirements[edit]

L. caerulea grows on the edge of swamps and wetlands in the wild.[1]

Hardiness[edit]

Soil Type[edit]

Tolerant of most soils.[5] Well-drained, organic matter rich soil is ideal.[4] Semi-toleratant of wet soil conditions, but not clay.[9]

Soil pH[edit]

Tolerates acidic and alkaline soil,[4] from pH 4-8, ideal pH 5.5-6.5.[9]

Shade Preference[edit]

Full sun

Shade Tolerance[edit]

Moderate shade, cropping reduced

Aspect[edit]

Exposure[edit]

Not tolerant of high winds.[9] Choose or create a sheltered site (e.g. see windbreaks).

Cultivation[edit]

Easy to grow

Planting[edit]

Other sources advise Potted or bare rooted plants in winter.[5] For the first few years deep water to promote healthy root system development.[9]

Forest Gardening[edit]

Like many berries, cropping is reduced in shade. In this regard, there are potentially more productive options for the shrub layer which will perform slightly better in partial shade (e.g. Gooseberry, Jostaberry, currants). However, marked hardiness, early cropping, disease resistance and low maintenance are potentially useful factors. Honeyberry plants may be best positioned in relatively sunnier patches in a forest garden to perform best, and they may benefit from the wind-sheltered microclimate provided by nearby trees.

One author of a forest gardening textbook gave honeyberry a "good" rating (2 out of 4) to describe the plants potential to perform in a temperate forest garden.[5]

Companion Planting[edit]

Allelopathy[edit]

Haksaps do not compete well with grass or other palnts with deeper roots.[1]

Propagation[edit]

Difficult from seed. The tiny seeds only germinate after deep chilling (cold stratification). Put in a freezer for 3-4 months.[9] Easier to buy young plants or take cuttings.

Semi ripe/softwood cuttings in late summer. Hardwood cuttings in winter.[5]

Maintenance[edit]

Low maintenance. Annual application of balanced fertilizer.[4] Over fertilization will lead to vigorous growth at the expense of flowers and fruit.[4] Mulch around base of plant.

Watering[edit]

Pruning[edit]

Problems[edit]

Generally resistant to pests and disesases.[7]

  • Birds: some species will damage the buds, others will eat the crop. Consider using nets or cages to keep birds off.[9]

Harvest[edit]

Harvest when berries darken and soften.[5] Darkening starts from skin and goes towards center of fruit meaning they can be blue on the outside before they are fully ripe, tasting bitter. Wait until berries are deep purple - red on the inside.[9]

Stores for about 1 week.

Approx. 2.3-2.7kg (5-7 lbs) per mature plant.[9]

Preservation[edit]

  • Freezing

Uses[edit]

Berries can be eaten raw.

  • Jams
  • Jellies
  • Fruit leather

Secondary uses:

Cooking[edit]

Generally speaking, can substitute for blueberry in recipes, e.g. in pies or crumbles.[6] Seeds are very small, so no need to sieve.

Add recipes or links here

Nutritional Values[edit]

  • High in antioxidants (3x higher than blueberries).
  • High in Vitamin C
  • High in calcium

References[edit]