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Difference between revisions of "Blackberries"

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==Hardiness==
 
==Hardiness==
 
==Soil Type==
 
==Soil Type==
Tolerant of most soil types.<ref name=crawford2016 />
+
Tolerant of most soil types.<ref name=crawford2016 /> Prefers well-drained soil.<ref name=seymour2014 />
 
==Soil pH==
 
==Soil pH==
 +
Ideal is pH 7.<ref name=seymour2014 />
 
==Shade Preference==
 
==Shade Preference==
 
Full sun.<ref name=crawford2016 />
 
Full sun.<ref name=crawford2016 />
Line 24: Line 25:
 
==Aspect==
 
==Aspect==
 
==Exposure==
 
==Exposure==
 +
Prefer a sheltered site.<ref name=seymour2014>Seymour, M (2014). [https://www.worldcat.org/title/new-self-sufficient-gardener/oclc/972683557?referer=br&ht=edition The New Self-Sufficient Gardener: The complete illustrated guide to planning, growing, storing and preserving your own garden produce.] Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 9781409346784.</ref>
 
==Propagation==
 
==Propagation==
Hardwood cuttings taken in winter. Tip layering.
+
'''From Seed''': Seed requires warm and cold stratification (see Seed Stratification{{w|Stratification (seeds)}}). E.g. keep seed in a box of sand at warm room temperature for 3 months, then store at 4°c (40°F) for a further 3 months.<ref name=seymour2014 />
  
Plant potted or bare-rooted new plants in winter.<ref name=crawford2016 />
+
'''Tip cuttings''': cut the tip of a cane off and push it in the soil and usually it will root.<ref name=seymour2014 /> The simplest method.<ref name=seymour2014 />
 +
 
 +
'''Tip layering''':
 +
 
 +
'''Hardwood cuttings''': take in winter.<ref name=crawford2016 /> 
 +
 
 +
Plant cuttings, layers, roots or seedlings in late autumn or early spring.<ref name=seymour2014 />
 +
 
 +
Plant potted or bare-rooted new plants in winter.<ref name=crawford2016 />  
 +
 
 +
Allow 1.8m (6ft) between plants.<ref name=seymour2014 />
 
==Maintenance==
 
==Maintenance==
 
The plant can stay healthier and more productive if it is allowed to move.<ref name=crawford2016 /> Little maintenance needed.<ref name=crawford2016 />  
 
The plant can stay healthier and more productive if it is allowed to move.<ref name=crawford2016 /> Little maintenance needed.<ref name=crawford2016 />  
 
==Watering==
 
==Watering==
 
==Pruning==
 
==Pruning==
 +
Fruiting occurs on stems which are in their second year. Generally idea of pruning blackberry is therefore to remove the canes which have just fruited in the last growing season.<ref name=seymour2014 /> This pruning is best done in winter<ref name=seymour2014 /> when the plant is dormant. 
 +
Exceptions to the above are "Himalaya" and "Evergreen" varieties which can fruit for several years on the same wood, so should not be pruned hard.<ref name=seymour2014 />
 
==Problems==
 
==Problems==
 
==Harvest==
 
==Harvest==

Revision as of 16:38, 23 March 2019

Wild blackberries

Blackberries are the fruit of many Rubus species grouped together as the Rubus fruticosus species aggregateW, sometimes commonly referred to as "brambles" or "canefruit" (including raspberries).

Taxonomy

Varieties

Common names

Etymology

Range

History

Morphology

Behaviour

Deciduous shrub.[1] Growth habit is long and scrambling.[1] It is perennial but the stems are biennial, fruiting on the second year.

In the wild, it "moves" by putting down new roots where its arching shoots touch the ground.[1]

Reproduction

White flowers in Spring.[1] Self fertile (one plant will fruit by itself).[1] Insect pollinated.

Hardiness

Soil Type

Tolerant of most soil types.[1] Prefers well-drained soil.[2]

Soil pH

Ideal is pH 7.[2]

Shade Preference

Full sun.[1]

Shade Tolerance

Tolerates fairly deep shade (i.e. no direct sun but some indirect light).[1] Fruiting is reduced in shade.[1]

Aspect

Exposure

Prefer a sheltered site.[2]

Propagation

From Seed: Seed requires warm and cold stratification (see Seed StratificationW). E.g. keep seed in a box of sand at warm room temperature for 3 months, then store at 4°c (40°F) for a further 3 months.[2]

Tip cuttings: cut the tip of a cane off and push it in the soil and usually it will root.[2] The simplest method.[2]

Tip layering:

Hardwood cuttings: take in winter.[1]

Plant cuttings, layers, roots or seedlings in late autumn or early spring.[2]

Plant potted or bare-rooted new plants in winter.[1]

Allow 1.8m (6ft) between plants.[2]

Maintenance

The plant can stay healthier and more productive if it is allowed to move.[1] Little maintenance needed.[1]

Watering

Pruning

Fruiting occurs on stems which are in their second year. Generally idea of pruning blackberry is therefore to remove the canes which have just fruited in the last growing season.[2] This pruning is best done in winter[2] when the plant is dormant. Exceptions to the above are "Himalaya" and "Evergreen" varieties which can fruit for several years on the same wood, so should not be pruned hard.[2]

Problems

Harvest

Fruiting occurs from August to October.[1] Fruit ripens over several weeks.[1] In Oklahoma, the berries are picked in the weeks following the July 4th weekend.

When harvesting blackberries, watch out for chiggers (also known as berry bugs, see TrombiculidaeW). These are small mites that can cause rashes and itchiness when they bite.

Preservation

Fresh fruits do not store for long.[1]

Uses

  • Fruit is edible raw, or cooked. Can be made into jams, cobblers, pies, etc.
  • Fruit can be made into wine (see Blackberry wine recepie: Making fruit, vegetable and flower wines#Berry Wines).
  • Bee plant.[1]
  • Young shoots (when spines are still soft) can be cooked.[1]
  • Leaves can be used to make tea.[1]
  • Purple dye from fruit and shoots.[1]
  • Basket weaving (spines can be removed by pulling stems through a small hole).[1]

Nutritional Values

Cooking

References