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Difference between revisions of "Bicycles in developing contexts"

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== Introduction ==
+
This article details the installation of panniers and luggage carriers unto regular [[bicycle]]s, ie to allow use of the bicycle as a '''freight bicycle'''.<ref name="KVDP, november 2012" />
Isolation is one of the key elements of [[poverty]]; isolated communities have little or no access
+
to goods and services, and few opportunities to travel beyond their immediate surroundings.
+
This restricts agricultural productivity, reduces health and educational and limits
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opportunities for employment and political opportunity.
+
  
[[Image:bicycle1.jpeg|thumb|250px|left|Figure 1: Cyclist carrying mattresses, Puttalam District. An example of ordinary bicycle used to transport difficult loads. Photo: Practical Action.]]
+
== Pannier installation ==
Limited financial resources prevents investment in transport maintaining the position of
+
[[Image:bicycles_construction_panniers.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Figure 1: Construction of panniers]]
poverty and isolation. Consequently,
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[[Image:bicycles_extentions.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Figure 2: Construction of luggage carrier for a standard bicycle]]
there is a need to develop alternative,
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[[Image:bicycles__panniers20in.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Figure 3: Construction of luggage carrier with small (20”) rear wheel]]
more affordable means of transport
+
  
Developing such systems requires
 
consideration of four key elements:<br>
 
• the improvement of village level
 
infrastructure such as paths,
 
tracks, and footbridges<br>
 
• the provision of adequate and
 
affordable rural transport services<br>
 
• the siting of services closer to the
 
communities , thereby removing or
 
reducing the need for lengthy travel<br>
 
• the promotion and use of
 
intermediate means of transport
 
including; pack animals, sledges,
 
animal carts, cycle based transport
 
and some low cost motorised
 
devices. One of the more common
 
types of intermediate transport is
 
the bicycle.<br clear="all">
 
 
== Bicycles ==
 
Bicycles are a low cost means of transport that can improve access to water, health facilities
 
and, for example, address stove marketing problems faced by woman producer groups in
 
Kenya.
 
 
The bicycle is still expensive for poorer families in Africa and can cost between 20 to over
 
100 per cent of a rural household’s annual income. Therefore, transport needs to be
 
supported by an affordable system of manufacture, supply, and repair.
 
 
Affordability is related to the availability of spare parts and repair services, which are
 
sometime lacking in rural areas. Several projects have attempted to boost local economics
 
by encouraging artisanal production of suitable transport and improve the local capabilities of
 
metal workers to maintain and repair bicycles and other types of transport.
 
 
== Panniers ==
 
 
The carrying capacity of the bicycle can be greatly increased by attaching panniers either
 
The carrying capacity of the bicycle can be greatly increased by attaching panniers either
 
side of the wheel. However, the loads in the panniers must be reasonably well balanced.
 
side of the wheel. However, the loads in the panniers must be reasonably well balanced.
Line 62: Line 22:
 
type material. The ends can be filled in on fixed panniers but not on fold-up designs.
 
type material. The ends can be filled in on fixed panniers but not on fold-up designs.
  
[[Image:bicycles_construction_panniers.jpg|thumb|900px|center|Figure 2: Construction of panniers]]
+
===Luggage carrier installation===
 
+
===Bicycle extensions===
+
 
These low cost adaptations of standard bicycles enable larger and more bulky loads to be
 
These low cost adaptations of standard bicycles enable larger and more bulky loads to be
 
carried on an extended rear carrier.
 
carried on an extended rear carrier.
Line 70: Line 28:
 
The load that can be carried is limited by the strength of the rear wheel and tyre. A
 
The load that can be carried is limited by the strength of the rear wheel and tyre. A
 
strengthened wheel can be used so that the limiting factor is the load capacity of the tyre.
 
strengthened wheel can be used so that the limiting factor is the load capacity of the tyre.
[[Image:bicycle_extended_bicycle.jpg|thumb|250px|left|Figure 3: Extended bicycle Photo: Practical Action]]
 
 
 
 
 
{|border="1"
 
|-
 
|bgcolor="silver"|
 
Extended cycle user, W
 
Aloysius Fernando, cultivator of
 
mainly plantains & peanuts,
 
sells peanuts in nearby towns.
 
With the extended cycle, he can
 
now transport enough to meet
 
demand (1200 packets as
 
oppose to 400 packets on his
 
original bicycle). With increased
 
business earnings he began to
 
cultivate a larger area of land
 
and could hire a peanut shelling
 
machine.
 
|}
 
 
 
 
  
 
This particular bicycle adaptation requires; the chain to be lengthened, the brackets for the
 
This particular bicycle adaptation requires; the chain to be lengthened, the brackets for the
Line 100: Line 33:
 
be cut or modified in any way.
 
be cut or modified in any way.
  
 
+
===Construction of a luggage carrier with small (20”) rear wheel===
[[Image:bicycles_extentions.jpg|thumb|900px|center|Figure 4: Construction of extension for a standard bicycle]]
+
 
+
===Construction of extension with small (20”) rear wheel===
+
 
The advantages of a small rear wheel are; there is more space for the load, the load is lower
 
The advantages of a small rear wheel are; there is more space for the load, the load is lower
 
and easier to balance, the wheel is stronger, and the bicycle is easier to pedal. The main
 
and easier to balance, the wheel is stronger, and the bicycle is easier to pedal. The main
 
disadvantage is that the smaller wheel does not ride as easily over pumps and potholes.
 
disadvantage is that the smaller wheel does not ride as easily over pumps and potholes.
[[Image:bicycles__panniers20in.jpg|thumb|900px|center|Figure 5: Construction of extension with small (20”) rear wheel]]
 
  
===Bicycle taxis===
+
== References ==
The Bicycle taxi or boda boda has become popular in Uganda and Kenya, they operate for
+
This document was produced by Neil Noble for Practical Action and last updated
hire from stands in towns, bus stops and market centres. The name boda boda is said to
+
in January 2007.
come from the time when the East African Community existed and there was free movement
+
across the boarder between Uganda and Kenya. Travellers were offered transport to the
+
boarder by bicycle-riders shouting ‘Border Border’ to attract passengers.
+
Converting a bicycle to a taxi requires reinforced forks, stronger brakes, a passenger seat
+
and footrests, and cushions. New seat designs enable woman to ride side-addle should help
+
to improve access.
+
 
+
Although the work is hard, the operators can earn a living despite a lack of formal education.
+
The community transport organisation in Ndhiwa and The Kibos Cycle Taxi Association of
+
Kisumu, Western Kenya worked in conjunction with [[Practical Action East Africa]] to:<br>
+
  
• enhance the safety of bicycle taxis<br>
+
Since then, the document has been edited by several Appropedians:
• provide a cycle lane along the Kibos road<br>
+
<ref name="KVDP, november 2012">Text added by KVDP, november 2012</ref>
• set up a mini-medical insurance scheme for passengers and operators<br>
+
{{reflist}}
• provide a credit scheme and repair fund for the members
+
  
== References and further reading ==
+
==Further reading==
Bicycle Trailers ([[Practical Action Technical Brief]])<br>
+
* Bicycle Trailers ([[Practical Action Technical Brief]])<br>
Low-cost Load-carrying Devices: The Design & Manufacture of Some Basic Means
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* Low-cost Load-carrying Devices: The Design & Manufacture of Some Basic Means of Transport Ron Dennis and Alan Smith ITDG Publishing 1995
of Transport Ron Dennis and Alan Smith ITDG Publishing 1995<br>
+
* Puncture Prevention Techniques for Low Cost Vehicles Michael Ayre & Alan Smith
Puncture Prevention Techniques for Low Cost Vehicles Michael Ayre & Alan Smith<br>
+
* The Impact of Road Condition on Operating Costs of Bicycles, IT Transport, 2004, DFID. http://www.ittransport.co.uk/index.php?page=publications
The Impact of Road Condition on Operating Costs of Bicycles, IT Transport, 2004,
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* Forum News, IFRTD
DFID. http://www.ittransport.co.uk/index.php?page=publications<br>
+
A quarterly newsletter looking at the issues of transport with animal power, bridges, bicycles, gender and transport, financing, engineering, sustainable rural livelihoods, and community planning. Forum News is produced four times a year in English, French and Spanish.
Forum News, IFRTD
+
A quarterly newsletter looking at the issues of transport with animal power, bridges,
+
bicycles, gender and transport, financing, engineering, sustainable rural livelihoods,
+
and community planning. Forum News is produced four times a year in English,
+
French and Spanish.
+
  
 
== Useful contacts and addresses ==
 
== Useful contacts and addresses ==
Line 183: Line 96:
 
productivity, the quality of life and the environment in Africa.<br>
 
productivity, the quality of life and the environment in Africa.<br>
  
Re~Cycle<br>
+
Re-Cycle<br>
 
Unit A Global Park<br>
 
Unit A Global Park<br>
 
Moorside<br>
 
Moorside<br>
Line 245: Line 158:
 
unwanted bicycles to send to reliable partners in developing countries.<br>
 
unwanted bicycles to send to reliable partners in developing countries.<br>
  
== Wikis ==
+
Practical Action
HowtoPedia http://www.howtopedia.org/en/How_to_use_a_Bicycle_to_carry_things<br>
+
Appropedia http://www.appropedia.org/BICYCLE
+
 
+
{|border="1"
+
|-
+
|bgcolor="silver"|'''Practical Action'''
+
 
The Schumacher Centre for Technology and Development<br>
 
The Schumacher Centre for Technology and Development<br>
 
Bourton-on-Dunsmore<br>
 
Bourton-on-Dunsmore<br>
Line 260: Line 167:
 
E-mail: inforserv@practicalaction.org.uk<br>
 
E-mail: inforserv@practicalaction.org.uk<br>
 
Website: http://www.practicalaction.org/<br>
 
Website: http://www.practicalaction.org/<br>
This document was produced by Neil Noble for Practical Action and last updated
 
in January 2007.
 
|}
 
  
 +
==Gallery==
 +
<gallery>
 +
File:bicycle1.jpeg|Figure 1: Cyclist carrying mattresses, Puttalam District. An example of ordinary bicycle used to transport difficult loads. Photo: Practical Action.
 +
File:bicycle_extended_bicycle.jpg|Figure 2: Extended bicycle Photo: Practical Action
 +
</gallery>
 +
 +
== External links ==
 +
*[http://www.howtopedia.org/en/How_to_use_a_Bicycle_to_carry_things HowtoPedia]
  
 
{{attrib PATB}}
 
{{attrib PATB}}
{{Includes content from}}
+
{{Includes content from|Bicycles (original)}}
  
 
[[Category:Cycling]]
 
[[Category:Cycling]]
 
[[Category:Transport]]
 
[[Category:Transport]]

Latest revision as of 07:58, 18 December 2012

This page is in Appropedia's offline content bundle.


This article details the installation of panniers and luggage carriers unto regular bicycles, ie to allow use of the bicycle as a freight bicycle.[1]

Pannier installation[edit]

Figure 1: Construction of panniers
Figure 2: Construction of luggage carrier for a standard bicycle
Figure 3: Construction of luggage carrier with small (20”) rear wheel

The carrying capacity of the bicycle can be greatly increased by attaching panniers either side of the wheel. However, the loads in the panniers must be reasonably well balanced. Panniers are particularly suited to carrying containers such as used for carrying water.

Panniers may simply be sacks or woven baskets hung from lengths of wood or bamboo fixed across the carrier or may be frames manufactured from wood or steel. They need to be as light as possible.

The design shown is a steel frame, which may be either welded or pinned together so that it can be folded up when it is not in use.

The base and sides may be filled in with wire mesh (weldmesh), wooden slats or canvas type material. The ends can be filled in on fixed panniers but not on fold-up designs.

Luggage carrier installation[edit]

These low cost adaptations of standard bicycles enable larger and more bulky loads to be carried on an extended rear carrier.

The load that can be carried is limited by the strength of the rear wheel and tyre. A strengthened wheel can be used so that the limiting factor is the load capacity of the tyre.

This particular bicycle adaptation requires; the chain to be lengthened, the brackets for the rear break to be moved, and the brake rods to be lengthened. The frame does not have to be cut or modified in any way.

Construction of a luggage carrier with small (20”) rear wheel[edit]

The advantages of a small rear wheel are; there is more space for the load, the load is lower and easier to balance, the wheel is stronger, and the bicycle is easier to pedal. The main disadvantage is that the smaller wheel does not ride as easily over pumps and potholes.

References[edit]

This document was produced by Neil Noble for Practical Action and last updated in January 2007.

Since then, the document has been edited by several Appropedians: [1]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Text added by KVDP, november 2012

Further reading[edit]

A quarterly newsletter looking at the issues of transport with animal power, bridges, bicycles, gender and transport, financing, engineering, sustainable rural livelihoods, and community planning. Forum News is produced four times a year in English, French and Spanish.

Useful contacts and addresses[edit]

International Forum for Rural Transport and Development - IFRTD
2 Spitfire Studios
67-73 Collier Street
London N1 9BE
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)20 7713 6699
Fax: +44 (0)20 7713 8290
Email: ifrtd@gn.apc.org
Website: http://ifrtd.gn.apc.org/
The International Forum for Rural Transport and Development is a global network of individuals and representatives from government, academia, multilateral and bilateral donor agencies, consultancies and technical institutions, national and international NGOs and groups of community organisations in Africa, Asia, Europe and North and South America.

I. T. Transport Ltd.
The Old Power Station
Ardington, Nr Wantage
Oxon
OX12 8QJ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 1235 833753 /821366
Fax: +44 1235 833753/821366
E-mail: itt@ittransport.co.uk
Website: http://www.ittransport.co.uk/
Consultants in transport for rural development

International Bicycle Fund
4887 Columbia Dr S
Seattle WA 98108-1919
USA
Website: http://www.ibike.org/index.htm
A non-governmental, non-profit, advocacy organisation, promoting sustainable transport and international understanding. Major areas of activity are non-motorised urban planning, economic development, bike safety education, responsible travel and cycle tourism, and cross-cultural, educational programmes.

Pan Africa Bicycle Information Network (PABIN)
Website: http://www.ibike.org/pabin/index.htm
Working to improve opportunities for bicycle transport and low-cost mobility to improve productivity, the quality of life and the environment in Africa.

Re-Cycle
Unit A Global Park
Moorside
Colchester
Essex, CO1 2TW
United Kingdom
Tel: 0845 4580 852 or 01206 863111
Email: mailbox@afribike.org
Website: www.re-cycle.org
Re-cycle is a charity whose mission is to collect and ship second hand bicycles and parts to less developed countries. Re-cycle helps to teach local people the skills of how to repair and maintain bicycles, to improve their lives in a sustainable manner.

First African Bicycle
Information Office
PO Box 1537
Jinja
Uganda
Tel: 00256-77-620312
E-mail: africa.bike@jessas.de
http://www.jessas.de/index.html
FABIO (First African Bicycle Information Office) is providing literature and videos on bicycles as sustainable means of transport and is organising national and international seminars on bicycle-awareness. There is a bicycle-workshop and training-centre for youths in assembling and maintenance of bicycles.

Cycling out of Poverty
info@cyclingoutofpoverty.com
http://www.cyclingoutofpoverty.com/
Cycling out or Poverty is a Dutch organisation engaged in raising funds for bicycle micro credit projects in Africa. Cycling out of Poverty is running 3 projects: in Uganda, Burkina Faso and Ghana.

Jacana Real World Development
1321-B North Carolina Avenue NE
Washington, D.C. 20002, USA
E-mail: info@jacanaworld.org
Website: http://www.jacanaworld.org
Jacana has been working on the Build A Better Bicycle (BABB) project. The objective of the BABB project is to commercialise a bicycle designed specifically for use in demanding African conditions. They have an office in Mozambique. Jacana is a member of bicycles for Humanity.

Bicycle Empowerment Network - BEN Namibia
PO Box 23150
Windhoek
Namibia
Tel: +264 61 250 200
Fax: +264 61 225 006
E-mail: michael@benbikes.org.za
Website: www.benbikes.org.za/namibia
BEN import donated new and secondhand bikes from partner organisations and refurbish them by employing and training local people. They distribute bicycles to community-based organisations (CBOs) whose staff in their work. BEN is a member of Bicycles for Humanity. They are supported by biking for Bikes http://www.biking4bikes.com.au/.

Bicycles for Humanity
E-mail: info@bicycles-for-humanity.org
Website: http://www.bicycles-for-humanity.org/
Bicycles for Humanity began in 2005 with the aim of enabling others to raise funds and collect unwanted bicycles to send to reliable partners in developing countries.

Practical Action The Schumacher Centre for Technology and Development
Bourton-on-Dunsmore
Rugby, Warwickshire, CV23 9QZ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0)1926 634400
Fax: +44 (0)1926 634401
E-mail: inforserv@practicalaction.org.uk
Website: http://www.practicalaction.org/

Gallery[edit]

External links[edit]


This page, Bicycles in developing contexts, includes work from a Technical Brief created by Practical Action.

This fully editable article includes content from an original document. The ported version of the original document is protected at this page: Bicycles (original).