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Besides their initial use (such as for their aesthetic value, human consumption, coloring, medicinal use, and so on), plants can can also be used for other things. Examples include:
- reducing soil evaporation and the providing of shade to other plants and animals
- work as a ground cover preventing other plants (such as weeds) from growing on that location
- forming attractive and fragrant flowers and leaves: these can be pleasing to people, and stimulate local biodiversity (attract/maintain pollinators)
- some plants can do the opposite: the repelling of certain insects and some larger animals
- some plants act as companion plants: these plants can stimulate the growing of other plants
- some plants (namely, tall and strong plants, thorny plants) when placed in a row (hedge) can be used to deny (or reduce) access to a space behind it, increasing safety
- some plants (namely, densely growing plants) when placed in a row (hedge) can be used to act as a windbreak and/or reduce vision of a space behind it (the latter increasing privacy)
- enriching the soil, through nitrogen fixation, organic matter or encouraging soil organisms
- reducing soil erosion
- generate electricity through microbial activity at the roots (plant-MFC).