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Board on Science and Technology for International Development National Research Council

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competence and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Their is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

The Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) of the Office of International Affairs addresses a range of issues arising from the ways in which science and technology in developing countries can stimulate and complement the complex processes of social and economic development. It oversees a broad program of bilateral workshops with scientific organizations in developing countries and conducts special studies.

This report was prepared by an ad hoc advisory panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Office of International Affairs, National Research Council. Staff support was funded by the Office of the Science Advisor, Agency for International Development, under Grant No. DAN-5538-G-SS-1023-00.


RALPH W. PHILLIPS, Deputy Director General (Retired), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Chairman
EDWARD S. AYENSU, Senior Advisor to the President, African Development Bank, Abidjan, Ivory Coast.
BONNIE V. BEAVER, Professor of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA
KURT BENIRSCHKE, Professor of Pathology and Reproductive Medicine, University of California-San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
ROY D. CRAWFORD, Professor of Animal and Poultry Genetics, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
TONY J. CUNHA, Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus, University of Florida, Gainesville, and Dean Emeritus, School of Agriculture, California Polytechnic University, Pomona, California, USA
DAVID E. DEPPNER, Director, New Forest Project, International Center, Washington, D.C., USA
ELIZABETH L. HENSON, Executive Director, American Minor Breeds Conservancy, Pittsboro, North Carolina, USA
DONALD L. HUSS, Menard, Texas, USA (Formerly Regional Animal Production Officer, FAO, Santiago, Chile)
DAVID R. LINCICOME, Guest Scientist, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland, USA
THOMAS E. LOVEJOY, Assistant Secretary for External Affairs, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA
ARNE W. NORDSKOG, Professor Emeritus, Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA
LINDA M. PANEPINTO, Director, Miniature Swine Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
KURT J. PETERS, Professor of Animal Breeding and Husbandry in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, West Germany, and Director of Research, International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
JOHN A. PINO, Senior Fellow, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., USA
HUGH POPENOE, Director, International Program in Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
MICHAEL H. ROBINSON, Director, National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C., USA
KNUT SCHMIDT-NIELSON, James B. Duke Professor of Physiology, Department of Zoology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
ALBERT E. SOLLOD, Associate Professor and Head, Section of International Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, Massachusetts, USA
LEE M. TALBOT, Visiting Fellow, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C., USA
CLAIR E. TERRILL, Sheep and Goat Scientist, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland, USA
CHRISTEN M. WEMMER, Assistant Director for Conservation, National Zoological Park, Front Royal, Virginia, USA
DANNY C. WHARTON, Associate Curator Animal Departments, New York Zoological Park, Bronx Zoo, The Bronx, New York, USA
CHARLES A. WOODS, Professor and Curator, Florida State Museum, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
THOMAS M. YUILL, Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Training, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

  • * *

NOEL D. VIETMEYER, Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID), National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Microlivestock Study Director and Scientific Editor

MARK DAFFORN, Technical Writer
ELIZABETH MOUZON, Senior Secretary


The following individuals have made general contributions to the development of this book. All of the persons listed as research contacts in Appendix B also contributed - usually on one or two species that are their scientific specialty.

ASHIQ AHMAD, Wildlife Management Specialist, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan
ANGEL C. ALCALA, Division Research, Extension and Development, Silliman University, Dumaguete City, Philippines
HARTI AMMANN, Basel, Switzerland
PATRICK ANDAU, Forest Department, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia
S.P. ARORA, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India
S. AYYAPPAN, CIFRI, Kausabyaganga, Bhubaneswar Orissa, India
WALTER BAKHUIS, Caribbean Marine Biological Institute, Willemstad, Curacao, Netherlands Antilles
JAMES R. BARBORAK, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica
PUSHKAR NATH BHAT, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India
STEVE BENNETT, Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies
K.P. BLAND, Department of Physiology, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland
MELVIN BOLTON, Yeppoon, Queensland, Australia
JOSEPH BONNEMAIRE, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Sciences Agronomiques Appliquees, Dijon, France
R.D.S. BRANCKRAERT, Faculte des Sciences Agronomiques, Universite du Burundi, Bujumbura, Burundi
PETER BRAZAITIS, Herpetology, New York Zoological Society, The Bronx, New York, USA
L. DE LA BRETONNE, JR., Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA
P. BRINCK, Department of Animal Ecology, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden
D. HOMER BUCK, Illinois Natural History Survey, Kinmundy, Illinois, USA
GERARDO BUDOWSKI, Natural Renewable Resources Programme, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica
DAVID BUTCHER, Taronga Zoo, Mosman, New South Wales, Australia
JULIAN O. CALDECOTT, World Wildlife Fund Malaysia, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia
GARY CALLIS, Texline, Texas, USA
J.K. CAMOENS, Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines
A. CHRISTOPHER CARMICHAEL, The Museum, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
ROBERT H. CHABRECK, School of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA
A.M. CHAGULA, Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania
CHARAN CHANTALAKHANA, Department of Animal Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand
PETER R. CHEEKE, Rabbit Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA
G.S. CHILD, Forest Resources Division, FAO, Rome, Italy
A.S. CHOPRA, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, New Delhi, India
W. Ross COCKRILL 29 Downs Park West, Bristol, England, BS6 7QH
CRISOSTOMO CORTES, Dairy Promotion and Extension Section, Dairy Development Division, Manila, Philippines
WYLAND CRIPE, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
A. BEN DAVID, Holon, Israel
C. DEVENDRA, International Development Research Centre, Singapore
RODNEY DILLINGER, International Agency for Apiculture Development, Rockford, Illinois, USA
DIRECTOR, Natal Parks Board, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
ROLLANDE DUMONT, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Sciences Agronomiques Appliquees, Dijon, France
N.G. EHIOBU, Department of Agricultural Sciences, College of Education, Agbor, Nigeria
DONALD FARNER, Department of Zoology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
JOHN A. FERGUSON, Overseas Development Administration, Eland House, London, England
ABELARDO FERRER D., Quinta Nueva Exparta, San Bernardino, Caracas, Venezuela
LYNWOOD A. FIEDLER, Section of International Programs, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver Wildlife Research Center, Denver, Colorado, USA
H. FISCHER, Tropical Science Centre, Division of Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, West Germany
J. FURTADO, Commonwealth Science Council, London, England
FRANK GOLLEY, Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
E. GONZALES J., Instituto de Produccion Animal, Universidad Central de Venezuela, El Limon-Maracay, Venezuela
GRAHAM GOUDIE, Mainland Holdings, Lae, Papua New Guinea
ALISTAIR GRAHAM, Tanglewood, Crowborough, East Sussex, England
GORDON GRIGG, Zoology, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
M.R. DE GUMAN, JR., Food and Fertilizer Technology Center, Taipei, Taiwan
COLIN P. GROVES, Department of Prehistory and Anthropology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia
J. HARDOUIN, Institut de Medicine Tropicale "Prince Leopold," Antwerp, Belgium
GEOFFREY HAWTIN, International Development Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada
GORDON HAVORD, Technical Advisory Division, UNDP, New York, New York, USA
TIN HLA, Veterinary Department, Director General's Office, Rangoon, Burma
JAMES HENTGES, Department of Animal Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
W.F. HOLLANDER, Department of Genetics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA
RENE E. HONEGGER, Herpetology, Zurich Zoo, Zurich, Switzerland
JACK HOWARTH, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, USA
HUANG CHU-CHIEN, Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, Beijing, China
ANGUS HUTTON, Gympie, Queensland, Australia
H.A. JASIOROWSKI, Animal Production and Health Division, FAO, Rome, Italy
MUHAMMAD YAQUB JAVAID, Directorate of Fisheries, Government of the Punjab, Punjab, India
J. MANGALARAJ JOHNSON, Nudumalai Sanctuary, Vannarpet, Udagamandalani, India
MATI KAAL, Tallinn Zoo, ESSR Tallinn, USSR
STELLAN KARLSSON, Simontorp Aquaculture AB, Blentarp, Sweden
JACKSON A. KATEGILE, International Development Research Centre, Nairobi, Kenya
ROBERT E. KENWARD, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Furzebrook Research Station, Wareham, Dorset, England
JAMES M. KEARNEY, Miami, Florida, USA
F. WAYNE KING, Florida State Museum, Gainesville, Florida, USA
H.-G. KLOS Zoologischer Garten Berlin, Berlin, West Germany
NELS M. KONNERUP, Boom International, Stanwood, Washington, USA
NAVU KWAPENA, Office of Environment and Conservation, Boroko, Papua New Guinea
THOMAS E. LACHER, Huxley College of Environmental Studies, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington, USA
JOHN K. LOOSLI, Gainesville, Florida, USA
PETER LUTZ, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA
CRAIG MACFARLAND, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica
CONSTANCE M. MCCORKLE, Department of Rural Sociology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA
ROBERT E. MCDOWELL, Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
JEFFREY A. MCNEELY, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland
ADRIAN G. MARSHALL, Institute of South-East Asian Biology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland
RICHARD R. MARSHALL, Veterinary Medicine, Sutter Hospitals Medical Research Foundation, Sacramento, California, USA
G.H.G. MARTIN, Department of Zoology, Kenyatta University College, Nairobi, Kenya
IAN L. MASON, Edinburgh, Scotland
JOHN C. MASON, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C., Canada
J. MAYO MARTIN, Fish Farming Experimental Station, Stuttgart, Arkansas, USA
YOLANDA MATAMOROS, Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica
ROBIN MCKERGON, Livestock Development Corporation, Lae, Papua New Guinea
M. MGHENI, Faculty of Agriculture, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
P. MONGIN, Station de Recherches Avicoles, INRA-Centre de Tours, Nouzilly, Monnaie, France
JOSE ROBERTO DE ALENCAR MOREIRA, Agricultural Research Center of the Humid Tropics, Belem, Para, Brazil
W.L.R. OLIVER, Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey, Channel Islands, United Kingdom
WERNER PAUWELS, Basel, Switzerland
W.J.A. PAYNE, Worcester, England
IAN PLAYER, Wilderness Leadership School, Bellair, Natal, South Africa
JAMES H. POWELL, JR., Plainview, Texas, USA
WILLIAM R. PRITCHARD, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, USA
HECTOR HUGO LI PUN, International Development Research Centre, Bogota, Colombia
VICENTE T. QUIRANTE, Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Project, Bureau of Animal Industry, Manila, Philippines
DAN RATTNER, The Institute of Animal Research, Kibbutz Lahav, D.N. Negev, Israel
C.V. REDDY, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India
RHOEHEIT, Institute of Applied Science and Technology, University Campus, Turkeyen, Guyana
CHARLES T. ROBBINS, Department of Zoology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA
CARMEN MA. ROJAS G., CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica
D.H.L. ROLLINSON, Sardinia, Italy
JULIO E. SANCHEZ P., Museo Nacional, San Jose, Costa Rica
JEFF SAYER, World Conservation Centre, Gland, Switzerland
G. SEIFERT, Tropical Cattle Research Centre, CSIRO, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia
ANDRES ELOY SEIJAS, Servicio Nacional de Fauna Silvestre, Maracay, Venezuela
S.K. SHAH, Institute of Animal Sciences, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan
SIEH CHENXIA, Department of Animal Science, Nanjing Agricultural College, Nanjing, People's Republic of China
B.P. SINGH, College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Chandra Sekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India
C. CATIBOG SINHA, Forest Research Institute, College, Laguna, Philippines
A.J. SMITH, Tropical Animal Health, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, Great Britain
A. MITHAT EFENDI, Ankara, Turkey
HENRY STODDARD, Shamrock Veterinary Clinic and Fisheries, Cross City, Florida, USA
SUKUT SULARSASA, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Gadjalu Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
D.L. SUTTON, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA
NICHOLAS SMYTHE, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama
J. SZUMIEC, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Fish Culture Station, Chybie, Poland
N. TABUNAKAWAI, Ministry of Primary Industries, Suva, Fiji
FRANK M. THOMPSON, Wild Animal Brokers, Bradenton, Florida, USA
ALLEN D. TILLMAN, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA
DON TULLOCH, Winnellie, Northern Territory, Australia
CONRADO A. VALDEZ, Dairy Development Division, Bureau of Animal Industry, Manila, Philippines
LUIS VARONA, Havana, Cuba
PRAN VOHRA, Department of Avian Sciences, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Davis, California, USA
ANTOON DE VOS Whitford, Auckland, New Zealand
GRAHAME WEBB, Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Winnellie, Northern Territory, Australia
DAGMAR WERNER, Fundacion Pro Iguana Verde, Heredia, Costa Rica
GARY WETTERBERG, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C., USA
CHARLES H. WHARTON, Clayton, Georgia, USA
F.W. BERT WHEELER, College Station, Texas, USA
ROMULUS WHITAKER, Madras Crocodile Bank, Perur, Tamil Nadu, India
WILDLIFE CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL, New York Zoological Society, The Bronx, New York, USA
R.R. YEO, USDA-ARS, University of California, Davis, California, USA
BRUCE A. YOUNG, Department of Animal Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
CHAROON YOUNGPRAPAKORN, The Samutprakan Crocodile Farm and Zoo, Samutprakan, Thailand
THOMAS M. YUILL School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
W. ZEILLER, Miami Seaquarium, Miami, Florida, USA

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