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Low level concentration for PV applications literature review

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---D. McDaniels, D. Lowndes, H. Mathew, J. Reynolds, R. Gray, Enhanced solar energy collection using reflector-solar thermal collector combinations, Solar Energy. 17 (1975) 277-283.

H.Thomanson, energy increase of 30%

non-specular mirrors used by sherman, babor and others [11-15]

Solar collector mounted vertically

Includes correlation for reflectance at large angles of incidence

Takes into account beam and diffuse radiation

preliminary impovment of 1.6+/-0.6 over straight collector

uses spectrally averaged data for reflectivity, 0.9 new 0.7 weathered, coated with SiO

optimum performance when angle between panel and reflector is 90 degrees

focus on winter improvment

reccomends reflector length of twice the height of the panel in winter, 1.6 in summer

good graph showing enhansement factor of the array

---M.D.J. Pucar, A.R. Despic, The enhancement of energy gain of solar collectors and photovoltaic panels by the reflection of solar beams, Energy. 27 (2002) 205-223.

First reflection work by Shuman [1]

McDaniels et al. [3], Seitel [4], Grassie and Sheridan [5], Baker et al. [6] and Larson [7] investigated the energy enhancements received by thermal collector–reflector systems under different conditions

Reflector attached to the top edge of the system

optimization for a single panel

does not take into account the electrical properties of the PV cell

does not take into account diffuse radiaiton

does not look at thermal effects on panel performance

assumes p=1

good derivation of radiation reflection onto a panel

gains of 71,24, 19% for December March/September and June resp.

Discussion of tracking concepts

--H.M.S. Hussein, G.E. Ahmad, M.A. Mohamad, Optimization of operational and design parameters of plane reflector-tilted flat plate solar collector systems, Energy. 25 (2000) 529-542.

McDaniels et al. [1], Baker et al. [2], and Larson [3]. Optimal winter tilts of reflector and collector for winter space heating

Narasimha Rao et al. [8] optimized the reflectors’ tilt angles of a two plane reflectors-collector system with the reflectors located facing East/West

South or North [4–7].

reflector located above the panel

specular reflectivity of 0.88

Considers only a single panel, therefore edge losses

Geometric interpretation including plane transformations are discussed

Summertime boost of 5%-10% wintertime of 30%-35%

once a day, once a month, once a season, twice a year, and once a year16.9%, 16.3%, 14.4%,13.3%, and 6.6%, respectively

reflector is angled towards the sky

System not optimized for yearly boost

--B. Huang, F. Sun, Feasibility study of one axis three positions tracking solar PV with low concentration ratio reflector, Energy Conversion and Management. 48 (2007) 1273-1280.

Integrates the concentrator into the module

uses a three position tracking system, that tracks one module by itself.

Increase due to concentration: 23%, increase due to tracking , 56%

Performs economic analysis assuming the cost of modules is 3-5$/Wp, this is too high now

--S.L. Grassie, N.R. Sheridan, The use of planar reflectors for increasing the energy yield of flat-plate collectors, Solar Energy. 19 (1977) 663-668.

presents a derivation of view factor for use with diffuse reflectors, this could possibly be used to estimate the diffuse radiation boost.

diffuse reflector estimated by use of a white painted sheet.Had a negligable effect

also presents optical derivation for light

14% increase due to reflector

reflector above the panel is good for winter time, below is good for summer

--S. Subramanyam, A.V. Narasimha Rao, T.L. Sitharama Rao, Strip element mirror boosters for solar devices, Energy Conversion and Management. 30 (1990) 107-113.

--A.V.N. Rao, S. Subramanyam, T.L.S. Rao, Performance of east/west plane booster mirror, Energy Conversion and Management. 35 (1994) 543-554.

--A. Narasimha Rao, R. Chalam, S. Subramanyam, T. Sitharama Rao, Energy contribution by booster mirrors, Energy Conversion and Management. 34 (1993) 309-326.

--H.P. Garg, D.S. Hrishikesan, Enhancement of solar energy on flat-plate collector by plane booster mirrors, Solar Energy. 40 (1988) 295-307.

--D.G. Burkhard, D.L. Shealy, Design of reflectors which will distribute sunlight in a specified manner, Solar Energy. 17 (1975) 221-227.

--G.E. Ahmad, H.M.S. Hussein, Comparative study of PV modules with and without a tilted plane reflector, Energy Conversion and Management. 42 (2001) 1327-1333.