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Difference between revisions of "Gooseberry"

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==Background Information==
 
==Background Information==
 
===Taxonomy===
 
===Taxonomy===
 +
 
===Common names===
 
===Common names===
 +
 
===Etymology===
 
===Etymology===
 +
 
===Varieties===
 
===Varieties===
  
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===Growth Habit===
 
===Growth Habit===
 +
The roots are shallow but spread laterally to a significant degree.<ref name=seymour2014 />
 +
 
===Reproduction===
 
===Reproduction===
 
Gooseberry is self fertile (one plant will fruit by itself).<ref name=crawford2016 /> Flowers in spring.<ref name=crawford2016 /> Flowering fairly resistant to frost.<ref name=crawford2016 /> Bee pollintated.<ref name=crawford2016 />  
 
Gooseberry is self fertile (one plant will fruit by itself).<ref name=crawford2016 /> Flowers in spring.<ref name=crawford2016 /> Flowering fairly resistant to frost.<ref name=crawford2016 /> Bee pollintated.<ref name=crawford2016 />  
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===Soil Type===
 
===Soil Type===
 +
Slight preference for heavy soils, but can thrive in almost any soil.<ref name=seymour2014 />
 +
 
===Soil pH===
 
===Soil pH===
 +
pH 6-8.<ref name=seymour2014 /> Consider adding some lime if the pH is less than 6.<ref name=seymour2014 />
 +
 
===Shade Preference===
 
===Shade Preference===
 
Full sun.<ref name=crawford2016 />
 
Full sun.<ref name=crawford2016 />
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===Aspect===
 
===Aspect===
 +
 
===Exposure===
 
===Exposure===
  
 
==Cultivation: Techniques==
 
==Cultivation: Techniques==
Typically purchased from suppliers as bare-rooted or potted bushes. These are best planted in winter,<ref name=crawford2016 /> or autumn.<ref name=seymour2014 />
+
Typically purchased from suppliers as bare-rooted or potted bushes. These are best planted in winter,<ref name=crawford2016 /> or autumn.<ref name=seymour2014 /> To prepare the site, one method is to dig deeply and mix manure or compost in the top layer, over a wide area (gooseberry has shallow, lateral spreading roots).<ref name=seymour2014 />
  
 
Bushes should be spaced 1.5m apart.<ref name=seymour2014 /> As cordons, gooseberries should be spaced 30cm apart (in the row).<ref name=seymour2014 /> With the deep bed method, the spacing can be reduced to 1.2m.<ref name=seymour2014 />
 
Bushes should be spaced 1.5m apart.<ref name=seymour2014 /> As cordons, gooseberries should be spaced 30cm apart (in the row).<ref name=seymour2014 /> With the deep bed method, the spacing can be reduced to 1.2m.<ref name=seymour2014 />
  
Gooseberries are good for small gardens since they fruit heavily and do not take a lot of space.<ref name=seymour2014>Seymour, M (2014). [https://www.worldcat.org/title/new-self-sufficient-gardener/oclc/972683557?referer=br&ht=edition The New Self-Sufficient Gardener: The complete illustrated guide to planning, growing, storing and preserving your own garden produce.] Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 9781409346784.</ref>
+
Gooseberries are good for small gardens since they fruit heavily and do not take a lot of space (particularly if trained as cordons), and can also be used to utilise shaded areas.<ref name=seymour2014>Seymour, M (2014). [https://www.worldcat.org/title/new-self-sufficient-gardener/oclc/972683557?referer=br&ht=edition The New Self-Sufficient Gardener: The complete illustrated guide to planning, growing, storing and preserving your own garden produce.] Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 9781409346784.</ref>
 +
 
 +
In a temperate climate [[forest garden]], gooseberries perform excellently in the shrub layer since they are quite shade tolerant.<ref name=crawford2016 /> Along with other ''Ribes'' spp. such as [[blackcurrant]]s (''R. nigrum'') and [[Currants|redcurrants/whitecurrants]] (''R. rubrum''), some consider gooseberries to be the backbone of the shrub layer.<ref name=hart2019 /> They are woodland plants in their natural state.<ref name=hart2019 /> Some even state that gooseberry is one of the most useful plants for the shrub layer (UK).<!--creating a temperate forest garden-youtube vid - get source-->
  
 
===Propagation===
 
===Propagation===
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===Maintenance===
 
===Maintenance===
 +
 
===Watering===
 
===Watering===
 +
 
===Pruning===
 
===Pruning===
 +
 
===Problems===
 
===Problems===
 +
* '''American Gooseberry Mildew:''' first sign is white felt covering young leaves and shoots. Berries have a brown covering. Do not give bushes too much nitrogen to prevent it. Remove and burn any afffected shoots. One method is to spray with a mixture of soft soap (228g), washing soda (500g) and water (23 litres), and again during flowering and again when fruit is set.<ref name=seymour2014 />
 +
 +
* '''Gooseberry Sawfly:''' green and black spotted, yellow tailed small caterpillars. They can reproduce 3 times in a signle growing season and can eat all the leaves from gooseberry bushes.<ref name=seymour2014 />
 +
 +
* '''Red Spider Mite:''' Tiny red mites gather on leaves, which will turn bronze with a white underside, and eventually dry up and die. Use a jet of water to dislodge them.<ref name=seymour2014 /> 
  
 
==Harvest==
 
==Harvest==

Revision as of 09:46, 14 April 2019

This article is about the plant species Ribes uva-crispa, a shrub with edible fruit commonly referred to as Gooseberry. The berries are usually green, but different cultivars produce a range of yellow, red or white fruit. The flavour is usually tart but modern varieties tend to be sweeter. In a temperate climate forest garden, gooseberries perform excellently in the shrub layer since they are fairly shade tolerant.[1] Along with other Ribes spp. such as blackcurrants (R. nigrum) and redcurrants/whitecurrants (R. rubrum), some consider gooseberries to be the backbone of the shrub layer.[2] They are woodland plants in their natural state.[2]

Background Information

Taxonomy

Common names

Etymology

Varieties

  • "Whinhan's Industry": especially shade tolerant and therefore more appropriate for forest gardens.[2]

History

Originally a woodland and hedgerow plant, the first selective breeding took place in the British Ilses in the 16th century, particularly by amatuer growers in the industrial midlands.[3] Traditionally, gooseberry was grown in orchards in the Fens (Eastern England).[2] Yearly gooseberry competions with awards for the largest gooseberry took place in Lancashire,[2] and still take place in some UK villages.[3]

Behaviour

Range

It is sometimes debated whether goosebrry is native to the UK, but it almost certainly is.[3] Some gooseberries growing in the wild do represent garden "escapes" which have been bird sown.[3]

Morphology

Single trunked, multistemmed deciduous shrub.[1] Mature height 1-1.5m and similar spread.

Leaves are 3 or 4 lobed and have blunt toothed margins.[3]

Flowers are green-white,[1] or green-red and drooping.[3]

Fruit are grape sized but more rounded.[3] They are usually hairy.[3] Bushes will crop for about 25 years.[1]

Growth Habit

The roots are shallow but spread laterally to a significant degree.[4]

Reproduction

Gooseberry is self fertile (one plant will fruit by itself).[1] Flowers in spring.[1] Flowering fairly resistant to frost.[1] Bee pollintated.[1]

Cultivation: Site Selection

Hardiness

USDA hardiness zone 5.[1]

Soil Type

Slight preference for heavy soils, but can thrive in almost any soil.[4]

Soil pH

pH 6-8.[4] Consider adding some lime if the pH is less than 6.[4]

Shade Preference

Full sun.[1]

Shade Tolerance

Tolerates quite a lot of shade.[1] Under shaded conditions it tends to be more "leggy", fruiting higher up.[1]

Aspect

Exposure

Cultivation: Techniques

Typically purchased from suppliers as bare-rooted or potted bushes. These are best planted in winter,[1] or autumn.[4] To prepare the site, one method is to dig deeply and mix manure or compost in the top layer, over a wide area (gooseberry has shallow, lateral spreading roots).[4]

Bushes should be spaced 1.5m apart.[4] As cordons, gooseberries should be spaced 30cm apart (in the row).[4] With the deep bed method, the spacing can be reduced to 1.2m.[4]

Gooseberries are good for small gardens since they fruit heavily and do not take a lot of space (particularly if trained as cordons), and can also be used to utilise shaded areas.[4]

In a temperate climate forest garden, gooseberries perform excellently in the shrub layer since they are quite shade tolerant.[1] Along with other Ribes spp. such as blackcurrants (R. nigrum) and redcurrants/whitecurrants (R. rubrum), some consider gooseberries to be the backbone of the shrub layer.[2] They are woodland plants in their natural state.[2] Some even state that gooseberry is one of the most useful plants for the shrub layer (UK).

Propagation

  • Hardwood cuttings: take cuttings in late autumn and place them in outdoors nursery bed.[1]

Maintenance

Watering

Pruning

Problems

  • American Gooseberry Mildew: first sign is white felt covering young leaves and shoots. Berries have a brown covering. Do not give bushes too much nitrogen to prevent it. Remove and burn any afffected shoots. One method is to spray with a mixture of soft soap (228g), washing soda (500g) and water (23 litres), and again during flowering and again when fruit is set.[4]
  • Gooseberry Sawfly: green and black spotted, yellow tailed small caterpillars. They can reproduce 3 times in a signle growing season and can eat all the leaves from gooseberry bushes.[4]
  • Red Spider Mite: Tiny red mites gather on leaves, which will turn bronze with a white underside, and eventually dry up and die. Use a jet of water to dislodge them.[4]

Harvest

In the wild, gooseberries can be found scattered in woods and hedgerows in most of Europe.[3] Wild gooseberries fruit from early July onwards.[3]

Acidic, green gooseberries can be harvested in May but they need to be cooked.[1]

For cultivated varieties, yield is about 4kg per year per bush under full sun conditions.[1] Yield is reduced in shade.[1]

One method of quickly harvesting gooseberries is to pull the branches through your hand while wearing a thick glove. Catch the fruit in a sheet. To separate the fruit from fallen leaves and thorns etc, place the contents of the sheet down a board which allows the round fruit to roll down into a container.[4]

Preservation

Fresh fruit will store for only 1-2 weeks.[1]

Uses

  • Wine -- See: Household Cyclopedia, Wines and Ciders (1881)
  • Jam -- Gooseberries are high in pectin and are useful to add to low pectin fruits which would otherwise not set easily when making jam.[5]
  • Jelly
  • Fruit leather -- pulp needs thickening.[1]
  • Sauces
  • Pies
  • Can be bottled, pickled and served cooked with food.

Secondary uses:

Cooking

  • Gooseberry Pie
  • Gooseberry Fool, a traditional English desert.
  • Fennel and Gooseberry sauce for mackerel.

Nutritional Values

References