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Difference between revisions of "Chicken Tractor (Optimized Construction and Design)"

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== Functional Specifics ==
 
== Functional Specifics ==
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The Chicken Tractor is to be used for housing chickens, they can enter through a movable wire flap in the front or in the rear of the structure.  The whole system is designed to move with chickens inside or outside.  The front of the Tractor is lifted up and pulled with the arms.  The system doesn't need to move far, just enough to get to a new section of grass for the chickens to use.  The system should be moved every few days depending on the size and number of chickens inside.
  
 
== Force Analysis ==
 
== Force Analysis ==

Revision as of 00:57, 16 April 2010

MECH425 Project Page in Progress
This page is a project page in progress by students in Mech425. Please refrain from making edits unless you are a member of the project team, but feel free to make comments using the discussion tab. Check back for the finished version on May 1, 2010.


Introduction

Chicken tractors are commonly used all over the world, however they have not been given much engineering attention. They are almost always developed in a trial and error fashion and therefore there is an opportunity for their design to be optimized.

Optimized Design

Overview

The chosen design was optimized to meet the requirements set out in the Design Requirements section, it can be seen bellow.

Step Overview 1.jpeg


The Chicken Tractor is split into 2 main sections, the outdoor section enclosed with only chicken wire, and the interior section enclosed by two plywood walls and covered by a tarp of some sort. The two sections were designed large enough to hold four chickens at any time, leaving the chickens 4 Sq-ft of space each. The exterior section is meant for use during the day, when the chickens want to get sun, they will be able to walk on the grass, pick seeds and defecate outside, turning up the shallow surface of the ground like a tractor does. At night, or during unfavorable weather the chickens can move into the enclosed section, where they will be protected from the elements.

Having two sections in the design allows for much more flexibility then a one chamber system. The overall design is friendly to modifications for more sheltering or openness. Using a tarp or other light plastic for the covering material has many advantage, particularly the simplicity of removing or attaching it. If the size of the enclosed area needs to be changed (increased, or deceased) for any reason it is very simple to do, the entire Tractor can become enclosed by a tarp during rainy seasons, or the tarp can be removed during hot dry periods. The floor for the enclosed section can also be modular, by not permanently attaching it, the grass area of the Chicken Tractor can be doubled, as seen in figure 2.

Step Overview 2.jpeg

Although the design is very large the system is still mobile, which is critical for the concept of a Chicken Tractor. This design which which kept costs to a minimum did not include wheels or an axle and is dragged along on it's side supports like a sled. A possible location for an axle and wheels are located at the back and with additional money a more complex movement system can be installed. However the current configuration, with someone using the arms at the front to pull the system along does not require excessive force.

Functional Specifics

The Chicken Tractor is to be used for housing chickens, they can enter through a movable wire flap in the front or in the rear of the structure. The whole system is designed to move with chickens inside or outside. The front of the Tractor is lifted up and pulled with the arms. The system doesn't need to move far, just enough to get to a new section of grass for the chickens to use. The system should be moved every few days depending on the size and number of chickens inside.

Force Analysis

The forces on the Chicken Tractor are being evaluated to determine how much effort will be required to move it. It is assumed the system will be lifted from one end and dragged on the back tracks, so the whole thing makes an angle with the ground. The free body diagram for the system can be seen bellow in figure 1.

Figure 1: Free Body Diagram of Chicken Tractor

The sum of the forces is taken in the Y-direction knowing that there is no acceleration, since the object is not moving up or down, the sum of the forces must equal zero.

 \ \sum F_y= 0

 \ 0=F_N-F_g+F_y

The force of gravity can also be written as gravitational acceleration multiplied by mass.

 \ 0=F_N-g*m+F_y

The sum of the forces is taken in the X-direction, since the object will be pulled at a constant velocity the sum of the forces will be equal to zero.

 \ \sum F_x= 0

 \ 0=F_x-F_f

The force of friction can also be written as the normal force times the coefficient of friction, 0.62[1] was used for the coefficient of friction between the object and the grass, based on the value between wood and concrete.

 \ 0=F_x-F_N* \mu

The sum of the moments is taken about point A, this point cannot support a torque, therefore the moment, M at that point must be equal to zero.

 \ \sum M_A= 0

 \ 0=F_y*L*cos( \theta )-F_x*L*sin(\theta)-m*g*(L/2)*cos(\theta)

The total force required to move the Chicken Tractor is calculated as the resultant of the forces in the X and Y direction.

 \ F= \sqrt(F_x^2+F_y^2)


The dimensions of the system were optimized so that the force required to move it are minimized for a given mass. The calculated forces are shown bellow in table 1.

Table 1: Resulting Force's on Chicken Tractor
Force (N)
X #
Y #
Total #

Design Requirements

There were a number of requirements for the design so that the final chicken tractor would be optimized. The following criteria were used to choose the final design.

  • Mobility - The chicken tractor must be easy to move, however it also needs to be sturdy enough to withstand incremental weather conditions.
  • All Season - The design must be able to keep the inhabitants warm and dry at night and during rain storms, while still remaining cool during the day. The design does not have to be able to withstand Canadian winters as it is intended for warmer climates.
  • Spacious - The design must be able to accommodate between 3-4 grown chickens, at 4 sq-ft per chicken.
  • Affordable - The design must cost less then $50.00 to fully construct.
  • Flexibility - Easily modified for different needs.
  • Locally available - All the materials must be locally available.

Construction and Assembly

Required Materials

Shown bellow in table 2 is a list of all the materials that are needed to construct the Chicken Tractor, along with the approximate cost of all the items.

Note: These are only guidelines and different materials can be substituted where appropriate.


Table 2: Required Materials
Material Number Required Total Cost (CAD)
Chicken Wire

48"x50'

1 $19.99 [2]
1/4" Plywood sheet 4x8 1 $6.87 [3]
2X4 10 ft 3 #
Nails 100 #

Required Tools

To construct a Chicken Tractor you will need access to a number or tools. Shown bellow in table 3 are the tools that are required, and what they will be used for, so that alternative tools can be used where possible.

Table 3: Required Tools
Tool Use
Hammer Nailing 2x4 framing together
Saw Cutting 2x4's and plywood to length, shaping plywood
Staple Gun Attaching the chicken wire to the wood frame

Construction

Shown bellow in table 4 is a list of all the different pieces that will be needed to construct the Chicken Tractor, they are co-located with dimensional drawings so that they can be easily produced.

Table 4: Parts

Assembly

Once all The pieces have been cut to the proper length it is possible to begin assembly. Follow the step to construct the Chicken Tractor.

Table 5: Assembly
Part Dimensional Drawings

(Note: The thumbnails may not display the proper image,

click on them and then download the actual file.)

Bottom Frame
Fig 5: Bottom Frame
Complete Chicken Wire Casing
Fig 6: Complete Chicken Wire Casing
Cross Support
Fig 6: Cross Support
Door Cover
Fig 6: Door Cover
Floor Sheet
Fig 6: Floor Sheet
Front Cross Support
Fig 6: Front Cross Support
Entrance
Fig 6: Entrance
Vertical Supports
Fig 6: Vertical Supports
Step # Required Parts Instructions Figure
1 Bottom Frame Layout the 2 pieces as shown in the figure.
Fig 9: Step 1
2 Cross Support, Front Cross Support Layout the 2 pieces as shown in the picture. Using screws or nails attach the pieces together.
Fig 9: Step 2
3 Floor Sheet Layout the floor sheet as shown in the figure and nail down, or leave unattached for a larger grass section.
Fig 9: Step 3
4 Vertical Supports Screw or nail the vertical supports down into position so that they are centered and securely attached.
Fig 9: Step 4
5 Entrance Screw or nail the 3 entrances in, as shown in the figure.
Fig 9: Step 5
6 Door Cover Attach the two door covers using nails or on one side so they can hing open for the chickens.
Fig 9: Step 6
7 Complete Chicken Wire Casing Unroll the chicken wire to surround the frame as shown in the figure, attach along the Bottom Frame with staples or nails and anywhere else that is appropriate.
Fig 9: Step 7
8 Cover Cover the floor section chicken wire with a tarp, as shown in the figure.
Fig 9: Step 8

Regional Considerations

References

  1. Engineer's Handbook, "Coefficient of Friction", http://www.engineershandbook.com/Tables/frictioncoefficients.htm, Accessed April 7, 2010
  2. Home Hardware, "NETTING, POULTRY GALV 21G 2X48X50'", http://www.homehardware.ca/Products/index/show/product/I5258231/name/netting_poultry_galv_21g_2x48x50, Accessed April 7, 2010
  3. Andysezwoodshop.ca, "Plywood Prices: Typical Prices for Estimating the Cost of Plywood Panels", http://www.ezwoodshop.com/plywood/plywood-prices.html, Updated March 2010