Difference between revisions of "Bayside Park Farm solar dehydrator"
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===Components of solar dehydrators===
===Components of solar dehydrators===
Revision as of 01:42, 5 May 2014
- 1 Background
- 2 Problem Statement
- 3 Project Criteria
- 4 Timeline
- 5 Budget and Costs
- 6 Literature Review
- 7 References
Bayside Park Farm (formerly known as the Arcata Educational Farm) has been in operation since 1993, and was Arcata's first CSA (community supported agriculture) farm. In order to allow for the preservation of the farm's excess crops, a solar dehydrator was implemented in 2009 by a previous Engr305 Appropriate Technology class. Dehydrating food is an especially important process for farms because it allows them to maintain their livelihood (food) for the long term. However, after problems with adequately drying produce, the dehydrator fell into disuse and was ultimately removed from the property. We were asked to build an effective, educational follow-up to the initial dehydrator.
The objective of this project is twofold:
- To produce a durable and effective solar dehydrator to aid in the preservation of Bayside Park Farm's excess produce.
- To design the solar dehydrator simply and accessibly enough to foster adoption and replication of the solar dehydration process.
In summary, it is our ultimate goal to provide the Bayside Park Farm with a solar powered food dehydrator that will meet their produce needs, is easy to maintain, and will last much longer than the one before it.
This criteria list, while not final, represents what we feel are the most important considerations concerning the scope and objective of this project. The scale is weighted from "1" being of the least significance to "10" being of the most significance.
|Functionality||Device working as intended|
|Maintainability||Has to be maintenance friendly to the user, little knowledge required for maintenance and repairs|
|Safety||Device must pose no outstanding operational dangers to user|
|Usability||Ease of regular operation is key, intuitive handling|
|Budget||Must not exceed budget|
|Reproducibility||Design can be easily reproduced by others|
|Aesthetics||Must look like a natural extension of the farm|
|2/02/14||Began setting up Appropedia page.|
|2/08/14||Chose two designs to begin prototyping.|
|2/14/14||Met with client in order to determine specific requirements for dehydrator.|
|2/20-2/22/14||Constructed two prototypes from cardboard and cellophane wrap; conducted 1 day of testing.|
|3/02/14||Began accumulating materials for full-size construction and possible wood prototypes.|
|3/14/14||Finish wood prototypes (if they happen).|
|3/16-3/22/14||Prototype testing in Southern California or Hawaii (spring break destinations) in order to determine effectiveness. Source materials for final design.|
|3/23/14||Determine dimensions and parts necessary for final design.|
|3/26/14||Finish sourcing materials for final design. Begin construction of final design.|
|4/09/14||Finish construction of final design.|
|4/10-4/19/14||Trial runs of design in order to determine flaws and necessary improvements|
|4/20-4/30/14||Fix flaws, final trial run. Record results.|
|5/01/14||Construct protective tarp for dehydrator.|
|5/02-5/04/14||Deliver dehydrator to Bayside Park Farm.|
Budget and Costs
Below is a proposed budget for the Bayside Park Farm solar dehydrator. Costs are estimates and thus may be inaccurate, however a finalalized budget is underway.
|Wood Screws||Ace Hardware||60||0.13||8.00|
|Lumber: 2"x4'||Ace Hardware||4||4.00||16.00|
|Lumber: 0.25"x2'x2'||Ace Hardware||2||5.00||10.00|
|Plexiglass Sheet||Ace Hardware||1||15.00||15.00|
|Metal Roofing||Ace Hardware||1||10.00||10.00|
|6' Wheels||Ace Hardware||2||7.00||14.00|
|Heat Absorber||Personally Owned||1||0.00||0.00|
|Assorted Lumber||Donated from Bayside Farm||4||0.00||0.00|
The table above is a preliminary piece, as the project becomes more developed and as construction of the final design commences materials may be added or removed at our discretion. The costs at the point this table was written are merely estimates, as our final design is not yet ready for construction. Once our blueprint is finalized, a finished budget will replace the one above. The above being merely a proposed budget reflects this tentative nature.
This is a review of the available literature pertinent to the proposed solar dehydrator at Bayside Park Farm.
The dehydration of food is the oldest method of preservation, dating back as far as 12,000 B.C., with proponents and users including the Roman empire, ancient Middle Eastern and Asian cultures, and the Europeans of the Middle Ages.  Solar dehydration was likely the first (and least resource intensive) method of food drying, and is very simple to do in a sunny, warm environment. Food is placed in a container designed to trap heat, and the air is then heated to a temperature high enough to prevent microbial growth, but not high enough to actively cook the food (roughly 130 degrees Fahrenheit for produce and 150F for meat).  One of the most important aspects of a dehydrator is the airflow: the air should be able to flow in one side, heat up and absorb water from the food, and escape from the other side.
One of the biggest issues with solar dehydration, particularly in Humboldt County, is its reliance on the ambient climate. Arcata falls and winters are typically characterized by cool temperatures with intermittent sun. Alongside the cool, cloudy days, an average relative daytime humidity of roughly 60% (with nighttime humidities commonly reaching 90%) will pose a challenge to achieving satisfactory food dehydration. 
Types of solar dehydrators
Three main types of solar dehydrators exist: natural-convection dryers (which do not require electricity or mechanical energy for operation), forced-convection dryers (which commonly use an electric fan to maintain a constant airflow), and solar-assisted dryers (which uses an auxiliary heating source as its primary dryer).
Two main types of natural-convection dryers exist: the simplest, a box dryer, is essentially just that: a large box with one face angled to catch the maximum amount of sun. The box serves as both the solar collector and the drying chamber, with air intake holes drilled low on the box and exhaust holes drilled high to allow moisture-laden, warm air to escape. The box dryer's simplicity allows it to be easily reproduced, and the single-chamber design keeps the heat where it's needed, reducing heat loss via convection. However, the single-box design dramatically reduces the dehydrator's working capacity, and the solar angle cannot be adjusted to maximize seasonal sunlight.
The other type, called a tower dryer, relies on an attached solar collector to heat air, which then rises, is directed into a tall drying chamber, then is released from ventilation holes at the top of the tower. The tower dryer's design is more complicated than that of the box dryer, requiring fabrication of a secure, flexible duct to move air from the solar box to the dehydration chamber. This allows for increased heat loss; however, the increased shelf space in the dehydrator tower and the ability to change the angle of the solar collector make it a more adaptable design for certain climates.
Components of solar dehydrators
There are a multitude of designs, shapes, and plans for solar dehydrators. However, all of them share a few similar components: a heat chamber, a method of keeping it off the ground, and a removable tray that contains the food.
The heat chamber is most often a solid-sided box with a clear polycarbonate top; this acts as a greenhouse and traps incoming solar heat in order to facilitate the drying process. It is almost always backed by a dark material in order to promote heat absorption. The heat chamber can either be used as a simple heat collector (which acts as a way to foster convective air currents in a system) or as the drying chamber itself. 
In order to prevent the intrusion of insects and foreign contaminants, the dehydrator is commonly placed on legs or elevated in some way. This prevents animals from approaching the dried goods from the ground, and keeps dirt from contaminating the food as well. 
The trays must be permeable in order to allow for either good airflow or to allow any excess moisture to easily escape from the materials being dried. Some sources advocate the use of readymade plastic trays , others suggest custom-building the trays in order to allow for optimal circulation and permeability. 
- "Historical Origins of Food Preservation." National Center for Home Food Preservation. http://nchfp.uga.edu/publications/nchfp/factsheets/food_pres_hist.html (accessed February 7, 2014).
- Torrey, M. Dehydration of Fruits and Vegetables. Park Ridge, N.J.: Noyes Data Corp, 1974.
- "Dehydration." Pickyourown.org. http://www.pickyourown.org/dryingfoods.htm (accessed February 9, 2014).
- "DIY Solar Dehydrator." TheHomesteadingBoards.com. http://thehomesteadingboards.com/2012/03/diy-solar-dehydrator/ (accessed February 9, 2014).
- "WeatherSpark Beta." Average Weather For Arcata, California, USA. https://weatherspark.com/averages/29570/Arcata-California-United-States (accessed February 9, 2014).
- Hui, Y.H., Clary, C., Farid, M.M., et. al. Food Drying Science and Technology. Lancaster, Penn.: [DEStech Publishing], 2008
- Fodor, E. The Solar Food Dryer: How to Make and Use Your Own Low-Cost, High-Performance, Sun-Powered Food Dehydrator. Gabriola Island, Canada: [New Society Publishers], 2005.
- "How To Build a Solar Food Dehydrator." Off The Grid News. http://www.offthegridnews.com/2012/04/16/how-to-build-a-solar-food-dehydrator/ (accessed February 9, 2014).
- Russon, Jonathan K., Michael L. Dunn, and Frost M. Steele. "Optimization of a Convective Air Flow Solar Food Dryer." International Journal of Food Engineering 5, no. 1 (2009). http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/IR/id/67 (accessed February 9, 2014).
- Karla, S. K., and K. C. Bhardwaj. "Use of simple solar dehydrator for drying fruit and vegetable products." Journal of Food Science and Technology (1981). http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?f=2013/US/US2013019795410012440.xml;US201301979541
- Wheeler, E. Home Food Dehydration: The Hows, What and Why. Seattle, Wash.: [Wheeler Enterprises], 1974.