3-D printing of electrically conductive materials literature review
| By Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.
Wanted: Students to make a distributed future with solar-powered open-source 3-D printing.
This page comprises a literature review of 3D printing with electrically conductive materials. Information is taken straight from sources, as credited.
 Search Phrases
- Conductive 3D printing
- Conductive 3D printing polymers
- Conductive additive layer manufacturing
- 3D printing electronics
- 3D printing electronic components
- Conductive RepRap
- Conductive Fab@Home
- Conductive MakerBot
 A Simple, Low-Cost Conductive Composite Material for 3D Printing of Electronic Sensors.
Leigh SJ, Bradley RJ, Purssell CP, Billson DR, Hutchins DA (2012) A Simple, Low-Cost Conductive Composite Material for 3D Printing of Electronic Sensors. PLoS ONE 7(11): e49365. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049365 http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0049365
 "Rapid prototyping of electrically conductive components using 3Dprinting technology"
- made of plaster-based powder bound layer-by-layer by an inkjet printing of a liquid binder
- impregnated by a dispersion of carbon nanofibers (CNF) in epoxy resin
- Surface resistivity of the model below 800 Ω/sq has been obtained when impregnated by a mixture containing less than 4 wt.% CNF. Volume resistivity of the molded and hardened CNF dispersion used for model impregnation have also been measured and a value less than 200 Ω cm has been obtained at 3 wt.% CNF content
- carbon-black or metal powders increases the viscosity of the infiltrant so that it is not able to impregnate the 3D model structure
- the average diameter of the fibers is 100 nm and typical length is 50–200 μm
 "Inkjet Printing of Narrow Conductive Tracks on Untreated Polymeric Substrates"
- Small conductive tracks are created by direct inkjet-printing
- Ink with 30 nm silver particles onto flexible and transparent untreated polyarylate foils
- Diameter as narrow as 40 micrometers
- Conductivity is 13 to 23 % that of bulk silver
- may be applied in plastic electronics
 "Gravure printing of conductive particulate polymer inks on flexible substrates"
- conductive lines on paper and plastic films
- inks contained metal particles in an organic medium and were cured in temperatures of 70–120 °C
- A printed resistance down to ∼50 mΩ/□ was obtained, with conductor lines 4–7 μm thick
- thick ink layer is needed for high conductivity
- printed antennas and inductors
 "Reprinting the Telegraph:Replicating the Vail Register Using Multi-materials 3D Printing"
- Used SFF to fabricate a complete, active electromechanical system (telegraph)
- produced a complete electromagnet:stacked layers of 20 turns each, total resistance of 11.4Ω
 "SpoolHead(RepRap Wiki)"
- Reprap toolhead for printing with metal wire
- Made to print with nichrome wire to replicate RepRap electrical components
 "Materials Science(RepRap Wiki)"
- ConductiveMaterials can serve as CircuitBoard traces, wiring, antennae, electro magnets, and faraday cages, along with actual electrical components such as capacitors, resistors, and inductors
- Work done with printing metals and conductive filler
 "April 12, 2012 RepRap Blog"
- one Bowden extruder (for the plastic) and one "standard" extruder for the metal
- Arduino compatible Sanguino board
- plastic was printed before dropping in pre-tinned components and finally printing the metal tracks
- electron beam based printer (an electron gun and vacuum chamber are the primary requirements for thin film solar cell printers)
- Fully functional parts directly from standard metals
- For most parts it may offer dimensionally finished metal parts IT grade 7
- Good metallurgy on all common metals (Melting process rather than sintering process ensures near 100% of solid material)
- Closed loop system
- Self measurement of finished part tolerances.
- May offer automatic self correction (subtractive machining steps during build process and feedback with compensation used in the additive process).
- Can print thin film CIGS Solar cells in existing 10− 4 vacuum chamber with existing electron gun
 "DESIGN OF AN ELECTROMAGNETIC ACTUATOR SUITABLE FOR PRODUCTION BY RAPID PROTOTYPING"
- motor capable of being produced by RepRap, capable of printing with conductive materials
- print all electronic componenets of a 3D printer
 "3-D Printing of Open Source Appropriate Technologies for Self-Directed Sustainable Development"
- The ability to incorporate recycled metals into printed items would allow for the printing
of mechanically reinforced objects as well as switches and other electrically conductive applications
- Fab@Home can print with conductive paste
- Fab@Home can print electronics
 "Towards cyclic fabrication systems for modular robotics and rapid manufacturing"
- Extruder that extrudes low melting temp alloys into plastic parts
- The Reprap group has demonstrated formation of circuit wiring by extruding metal into plastic parts
- The extruder consists of a heated copper nozzle and a motorized syringe pump
- Used to print metal coil plates
 "Rapid Prototyped Electronic Circuits"
- create electrical circuits by using casting channels for low melting-point alloys within components
- Wood's alloy has a lower melting point (70 °C) than the ABS used for RP components
- able to replicate full printer
- print circuits
 'Printing Embedded Circuits'
- able to deposit conductive silicone traces within silicone and epoxy structures,
to drop in multiple electronic components, and then to continue building, resulting in three-dimensional objects with fully-embedded functional electronic circuits
- resistivity of approximately 5.0 x 10-6 Ω m
- successfully printed a planar circuit, flashlight, and 3D timer circuit using Fab@Home
 "Getting Rid of the Wires: Curved Layer Fused Deposition Modeling in Conductive Polymer Additive Manufacturing"
- potential to print plastic components with integral conductive polymer electronic circuits.
- Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process in which the layers of material that make up the part are deposited as curved layers instead of the conventional flat layers
 "CubeSat Fabrication through Additive Manufacturing and Micro-Dispensing"
- integrate conductive traces for electrical interconnect between components.
- enhancements to integration techniques by introducing channels into the substrate in which the conductive material could be placed
- Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) was described by Arnold , which allowed for highly precise deposition of conductive materials
- successfully printed a accelerometer, microcontroller,and magnetometer
- J. Czyżewski, P. Burzyński, K. Gaweł, J. Meisner, Rapid prototyping of electrically conductive components using 3D printing technology, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 209, Issues 12–13, 1 July 2009, Pages 5281-5285, ISSN 0924-0136, 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2009.03.015. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092401360900106X)
- van Osch, T. H. J., Perelaer, J., de Laat, A. W. M. and Schubert, U. S. (2008), Inkjet Printing of Narrow Conductive Tracks on Untreated Polymeric Substrates. Adv. Mater., 20: 343–345. doi: 10.1002/adma.200701876
- Marko Pudas, Niina Halonen, Päivi Granat, Jouko Vähäkangas, Gravure printing of conductive particulate polymer inks on flexible substrates, Progress in Organic Coatings, Volume 54, Issue 4, 1 December 2005, Pages 310-316, ISSN 0300-9440, 10.1016/j.porgcoat.2005.07.008. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0300944005001700)
- Alonso, Matthew P., Evan Malon e, Francios C. Moon, and Hod Lipson. "Reprinting the Telegraph:Replicating the Vail Register Using Multi-materials 3D Printing." Cornell.edu. Web. 30 May 2012. <http://creativemachines.cornell.edu/sites/default/files/SFF09_Alonso.pdf>.
- "SpoolHead." - RepRapWiki. Web. 30 May 2012. <http://reprap.org/wiki/SpoolHead>.
- "MaterialsScience." - RepRapWiki. Web. 30 May 2012. <http://reprap.org/wiki/MaterialsScience>.
- Moses, Matthew S., and Gregory S. Chirikjian. "DESIGN OF AN ELECTROMAGNETIC ACTUATOR SUITABLE FOR PRODUCTION BY RAPID PROTOTYPING." Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences &Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. N.p., 31 Aug. 2011. Web. 14 June 2012. <https://custer.lcsr.jhu.edu/wiki/images/0/08/DETC2011-48602.pdf>.
- Pearce, J. M., C. M. Blair, K. J. Laciak, R. Andrews, A. Nosrat, and I. Zelenika-Zovko. "3-D Printing of Open Source Appropriate Technologies for Self-Directed Sustainable Development." Journal of Sustainable Development, Dec. 2010. Web. 14 June 2012. <http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jsd/article/view/6984/6385>.
- Moses, Matt, Hiroshi Yamaguchi, and Gregory S. Chirikjian. "Towards Cyclic Fabrication Systemsfor Modular Robotics and Rapid Manufacturing." John Hopkins University, n.d. Web. 14 June 2012. <http://diyhpl.us/~bryan/papers2/Towards%20cyclic%20fabrication%20systems%20for%20modular%20robotics%20and%20rapid%20manufacturing.pdf>.
- E. Sells and A. Bowyer, “Rapid prototyped electronic circuits,” University of Bath, Tech. Rep., Nov. 2004. [Online]. Available: http://staff.bath.ac.uk/ensab/replicator/Downloads/report-01-04.doc
- Periard, Daniel, Evan Malone, and Hod Lipson. "Printing Embedded Circuits." Fabathome.org. Cornell University, n.d. Web. 14 June 2012. <http://fabathome.org/wiki/uploads/7/7a/Printing_Embedded_Circuits_Papers.pdf>.
- Olaf Diegel et al., 2011, Key Engineering Materials, 467-469, 662. http://www.scientific.net/KEM.467-469.662.
- Gutierrez, Salas, Hernandez, Muse, Olivas, MacDonald, Irwin, and Wicker. "CubeSat Fabrication ThroughAdditive Manufacturing and Micro-Dispensing." Www.cosmiacpubs.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 June 2012. <http://www.cosmiacpubs.org/pubs/IMAPS2011_CassieGutierrezUTEP.pdf>.