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Technology

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Technology covers the use of tools, techniques and systems. It is often dependent on a knowledge of science, as well as the evolution of design.

Appropriate technology and sustainable technology are particular focuses in technology. While they often overlap, sustainable technology may be very simple or complex, cheap or expensive; while appropriate technology emphasizes affordability and robust design.


Contents

History of Technology[edit]

The history of technology proceeds parallel to the history of humanity. It is focused on the invention of tools and techniques. The timeline reaches from the Stone Age to the medieval and modern history until present.

Prehistory[edit]

Stone Age

Homo sapiens evolved some 200,000 years ago. Homo erectus, which has become extinct learned to make use of fire for heating and cooking. They even knew how to build rafts for travelling across the ocean. Furthermore, a huge number of stone tools were developed in this period of time. These stone tools were mainly made of flint, which was formed into a tool with the help of a hammerstone. Such a struck flintstone has a sharp edge so it can be used as a chopper or a scraper.

Copper and Bronze Ages

The Stone Age developed into the Bronze Age. This was distinguished by the development of agriculture, animal domestication and permanent settlements, whereas humans in the Stone Age mostly lived as migrants. Because of this the development of metal smelting was made possible. Copper and later bronze were commonly used. An alloy of tin and copper was also produced. Polished stone tools were still used during this period.


Iron Age

The Iron Age combined older knowledge with iron smelting technology. Iron replaced bronze, so that the produced tools became stronger, lighter and cheaper than those made of bronze.

Ancient[edit]

In this time the growth of ancient civilizations took place. This civilizations like the Sumerians, the Babylonians, the Greek or Romans produced greatest advances in technology and engineering. New ways of living and governance were evolved.

The Egyptians for example developed a hugh number of elementary machines, such as the ramp to aid construction processes.

The peoples of Mesopotamia (Sumerians, Assyrians, and Babylonians) were famous for their inventions. It is no longer certain, whether they invented the wheel or not. What is evidenced is that they lived in cities in contrast to former societies. Their architecture based on mud-brick and stone.

The Greek and Hellenistic civilization generated an immense number of inventions and improvements to existing technology.

Medieval to early modern[edit]

At this time European technology was revealed as a combination of tradition and innovation. Former knowledge was enhanced with new perceptions.

Industrial Revolution[edit]

The British Industrial Revolution was mainly characterized through textile manufacturing, mining, metallurgy and the transport driven by steam engines. Whereat the production of energy was based on coal, which is a cheap form of energy. Converting coal into coke made it possible to produce and use blast furnace and cast iron in hugh numbers. Based on this innovation several new constructions like The Iron Bridge [1] could be buildt. That is the reason why the industry depended no longer alone on water resources which drove mills. By the way water resources were still a very effective kind of energyproduction.

With the help of steam engines mines could be drained. That is why more coal reserves could be reached so that the effect of coal increased. The invention of the high-pressure steam engine enabled the development of locomotives. So that a revolution of transport involved.


20th century[edit]

The development of technology has rapidly taken place since the first landing on the moon [2] in 1969.

Modern science and technology have contributed to reach rapidly improvements in the fields

- Communication technology

- transportation technology

- broad teaching and

- implementation of scientific methods.

Military research and development enabled great proceedings in the field of technology, especially in electronic computing.

The invention of the telephone, the fax machine and the magnetic storage of data based upon the key technologies radio, radar and early sound recording. Enormous improvement based on energy and engine technology took place. Nuclear power was among this. It was developed after the Manhattan project [3].

The modern science with its advanced research labs made the recombination of DNA possible.

21th century[edit]

In the early 21st century main proceedings have relied on electronics. Broadband Internet has been spread in developed countries. Smartphones build up an wireless connection with the Internet. Smartphones have become capable of multimedia playback (video, audio, and eBooks). Furthermore applications, like navigation, productivity tools and games work on Smartphones. The 3D printer has been established in many areas.

Among others further proceedings take place in the areas

- quantum computers, - nanotechnology, - bioengineering/biotechnology, - nuclear fusion - artificial intelligence (for example the simulation of the human brain), etc.

Other improvements can be registered in field of particle physics, especially through particle accelerator projects [4].

Further developments are expected in spacecraft designs such as the project Orion [5]. Space Telescopes are used to explore new horizons. The dwarf planet Pluto and its moon will be studied in 2015.

Technologies in our daily life[edit]

Today, in the 21st century it is hard to find a place, where no modern technologies are used. May every one use a modern technology every day, for example about one billion peoples use mobile telephones every day, and while are they using these devices they are using many technologies. Today living in such a technologised world make it easier to communicate with other people. It simplify the work (like machines) and solve problems. There are also some critical situations and areas where we need the technologies and there we can't waive them. These are medical areas, the technologies in this division rescues lives every day.


Recent examples for technologies in daily life:
1. Smartphones
2. GPS
3. Internet

The above mentioned technologies are typical examples for these ones which are used everyday by almost everyone. These technologies makes our life more easier and solves problems everyday, e.g. you use smartphone with internet access to navigate to the next doctor.


How has technology changed our lives?[edit]

Modern technologies make our life easier for the most parts. There are many technologies we used everyday which save a lot of time and help us to survive. The space of change is increasing rapidly. For example, twenty years ago, people didn't have modern technologies like the Internet, smartphones and laptops etc. Today we are dependent on them to a large extent.

These modern technologies help us to be more efficient on our daily lives, that means for example you can work on the laptop while sitting in train or learn english with Duolingo on a smartphone while riding the bus to university. We are also outsourcing our memories onto external platforms. For example there is a solution for almost everything on the internet and you can use it to quickly solve your problems. A simple example of how we have outsourced other mentala abilities can be seen when we reach for a calculator instead of doing the math in our heads.

But the Internet does not just provide quality information, and there is a lot of rubbish on the web. One picture says more than thousand words!

Bildschirmfoto 2014-10-22 um 15.21.01.png

A big factor of change which is affected with the introduction of smartphones is that personal contact between people has decreased because many people do not meet friends anymore and just communicate over the Internet and smartphone. This virtual existence is not necessarily a good thing as many people feel they have to be connected everywhere all the time.


Medicine[edit]

Especially in the field of health, technology has a huge impact on our life. The most recognizable change we can observe are better living conditions and a longer life span. This is due to more efficient ways of spotting and treating diseases as well as a greater knowledge about what is good and what is harmful to our health. On the other side we can observe a higher dependency on technology as more and more people use the possibilities of technology to make your life easier. This can lead to a less resistant immune system. Also bigger populations lead to higher risk of new diseases and less resources to cure them.

Jobs[edit]

Increased use of technology leads to increasing globalization which causes different pro and cons. On the one hand it offers a opportunity to find more specialized jobs faster by the use of the internet. Especially in the information technology new jobs are created everyday. On the other hand more and more task can be handled by robots and/or programs. Also a higher population through better medicine as stated above leads to a higher demand for jobs. So at the same rate technology creates new jobs, it makes older jobs redundant.

The banning of light bulbs[edit]

In 2008 the EU-committee announced the step by step banning of light bulbs. Since September 2012 all light bulbs with an energy efficiency class C and below are banned from trading in the EU.



Light bulb alternatives[edit]

energy saving lamps[edit]

Energy saving lamps are more expensive than light bulbs, but need about 75% less energy. The have a ten times longer life span. After about 1000 hours of usage it makes up for its higher price.These lamps are not allowed to be disposed of in regular household waste.

LED[edit]

LEDs are more expensive than light bulbs, but on the other side much more energy efficient. Like energy saving lamps need about 75% less energy to emitt the same brightness. LED lamps reach their full brightness in an instant as opposed to energy saving lamps which need a while to warm up. Because of their hight efficiency they do not get hot. They have a estimated life span of about 20.000 hours. LED lamps do not belonge in the regular household waste.

halogen lamps[edit]

Halogen lamps have double the life span of a light bulb and are much cheaper than LED lamps and energy saving lamps. Their energy efficiency is just a little bit better.



In the future[edit]

For the future the Trend goes to smaller devices and minimalism. But therefore many technologies have to be more efficient, for example the biggest part in a smartphone is the battery, so the smartphones can only be smaller if the battery is smaller.

Technologies we will may user in the future every day:
1. Biometrics (Face detection against the normal key, to open doors and checking in)
2. Robots for home (vacuum robots for cleaning rooms, robots that will do all the housework and food)
3. Virtual Reality

Certainly some technologies will not appear any more in the future because they are just old or there is a newer technology which is better. Today, there are some technologies, which will be detached by a newer technology. As mentioned above the trend goes to minimalism and smallnes, therefore it is possible that some technologies will combined in one device. This effect can be seen by the smartphones, ahead the introduction of the smartphone the people uses an digital camera, a mp3 player, a navigation device and a mobile phone, now there is the smartphone that combines all the mentioned technologies

Technologies wich will be detached in the future:
1. Desktop PCs
2. Classic HDD spinning disks
3. CD DVD and Blueray

These are three typical examples for technologies which will detached in the next 20 years. In the future many people won't use desktop pc because there are tablets and notebooks, which are lighter and uncommitted to the place of execution. CDs DVDs and Bluerays are very interesting in this point of view because the technology self of bleary for example is not bad, you can store few hundred gigabytes on one disk. But on the other site there is a video on demand market, where you can stream movies and series, without going out of your house, or buy an external player for this medium. Video on demand can be used with any smart tv, laptop, tablet, smartphone.

Battery Technology[edit]

One of the biggest problems is, that the battery technology is not contemporary. Smartphones or other portable devices have only the power for one day. In the last years a lot of companies and universities have develop technologies for better batteries, but this developments are only

                         .  

The developer wanted to increase the capacity of the batteries, but this was and is today very difficult. So they search a other way and find him. Scientist from University in Singapur have develop a battery wich can charge 70% of the battery in two minutes. A other reason for this battery is that it have more charge cycles.

For example a lithium ion battery bring it to 700 until 1000 charge cycles and the creation from Singapore comes to 10.000 charge cycles, this means that the battery will alive 20 years and a normal ion battery comes only down to two years.

This battery plus version will be available perhaps in the next two until for years.

Nanotechnology[edit]

Nanotechnology (Greek:νᾶνος/nános for 'dwarf') is the science of manipulating molecules and atoms. It is used in the fields of surface science, organic chemistry and molecular biology. Objects and materials which were manufactured or manipulated on molecular basis react differently to heat, power, light or magnetic fields than normal objects. There are already many different objects like self cleaning surfaces, antibacterial and non-smelling textiles, color switching windows, water filter, scratchproof autopaint or graffiti resistent wallpaint.

Communication[edit]

Digital communication[edit]

As a result of the history of technology the world "connected" with the establishment of the Internet in the last 40 years. Thanks to technology communication became easier and we're able to communicate with people from all over the world now.

Communication Protocols[edit]

Communication between different devices of the same or different type is controlled by so called "protocols". These protocols contain rules for syntax, semantics and the synchronization of communication. Protocols can be implemented with hardware, software or a combination of both. Communication protocols are an essential part of the internet and have a huge influence on their success and performance. Most important are the Internet Protocol (IP) and the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The expression "TCP/IP" is used for a collection of the most used protocols of the internet. Most of the communication protocols are defined in the RFC's of the "Internet Engineering Task Force" (IETF).

In general only the basic protocols are used alone. Most of the protocols, especially network protocols are protocol stacks which include different layers. The tasks to realize the output is shared between the different protocols within the stack.

Internet Protocol[edit]

The Internet protocol (IP) is the most common one these days. It's used for communication between networks and in the internet aswell. So far there are two major IP implementations. The first one was version 4 and is often referred to as IPv4. An IPv4 address consists of 32 bits in binary notation. When reading such an address it's usually devided into four seperate 8 bit parts. To make it easier for the end-user to use these addresses they are usually displayed in a decimal notion with dots between the four 8 bit parts.

An example: Decimal: 192.168.100.1 Binary: 11000000 10101000 1100100 00000001

In theory it would be possible to have about 2^32 (4.294.967.296) addresses using all 32 bits of an IP address. However there are some restrictions in practice due to different address spaces for different purposes. These days we're in the situation that there's not much address space left in the IPv4 address pool whilst the number of network-braced devices rapidly increases. Whereas some people didn't believe that the IPv4 address pool will not be enough at some point others investigated counter measures. Starting in the nineties another IP procotol implementation was developed which is now often referred to as IP version 6 or IPv6. Its purpose was to offer more address space, but also solve other problems in the IPv4 implementation.

An IPv6 address consists of 128 bits. Without its restrictions for different address spaces it would allow for a total of 2^128 (340.282.366.920.938.463.463.374.607.431.768.211.456 ≈ 3,4 · 10^38) addresses. Using decimal notation the addresses would be quite long, so that it was decided to use the hexadecimal notion in favor. An IPv6 address in hexadecimal notation consists of eight seperate 16 bits parts which are divided by colons.

An example: 2001:0db8:85a3:08d3:1319:8a2e:0370:7347

For various reasons the development of IPv6 was rather slow. It took about twenty years until the majority of companies started to experiment with and use it. The optimum isn't reached yet since the IPv4 and IPv6 implementations coexist.


However thanks to the free address pool in IPv6 it's possible to connect a lot of devices with the Internet - and this is exactly the development that's happening these days. Mobile devices are getting a higher marketshare every month and other uses for the Internet Protocol are explored. In example some people already connect their homes with the internet..

Mobile telecommunication[edit]

The newest of mobile telecommunication technology is the fourth generation (4G). Apart from the usual voice and other services 3G, it provides mobile broadband internet access, for example to laptops with wireless modems, to smartphones, and to other mobile devices. Potential and current applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing, 3D television, and cloud computing.

With the developments that have taken place in the field of mobile technology, the scope of conference calling in businesses has also gained unprecedented momentum. Some of these applications facilitating mobile communication exclusive of any spatial or temporal boundaries include GotoMeeting, Mobileday, Agenday and MeetingMogul

Smart Devices and Environments[edit]

Smartphones[edit]

Technology is always in development and so is the phone industry. With the mass adoption of feature phones the market has been saturated and people's needs evolved in time. The American company Apple Inc. noticed that and introduced the original iPhone in 2007. Though it was not the first of it's kind it became a milestone in the development of mobile communication devices. Features such as a capacitive touchscreen changed the way of interacting with the device because it is more responsive and enables much faster and precise user input compared to resistive touchscreen technologies. With the original iPhone having a much larger display than feature phones at the time the users were able to see more content on the screen such as websites and other multimedia contents.

For a few months the iPhone had no real competitor but the company Google Inc. saw their opportunity in entering the market of mobile phones. With the introduction of the Android OS the Apple iPhone had its first serious competitor on the market. One substantial difference between the iPhone and its operating system iOS and the Android OS is the fact that Android OS is partially open source and generally free to use for phone manufactures. The iOS operating system on the other hand is a closed source product which is only installed on products sold by Apple Inc. such as the iPhone, iPod touch and iPad.

Today, smartphones are widely used in every part of the world. By the end of 2014 1.75b people are expected to use smartphones. The market is dominated by iOS and Android OS but Google's OS has a bigger share (about 75%) because there are also cheap phones running Android OS while Apple's products are very expensive.

Tablets[edit]

It seems to me that tablets have become a new category itself, just as how we distinguish smartphones from laptops and desktops. If you want to position tablets into this group, it probably falls between smartphones and laptops. With the portability of a smartphone but the functionality of a laptop, tablets seem to serve users with top-notch on-the-go entertainment. The tablet screen is large enough to enjoy a movie on, yet the tablets are light enough for you to carry around.

Entertainment aside, one benefit of the tablet is the option for a good sketching, either with a good stylus pen or just with your fingers. In other words, it can afford the user more artistic freedom than the standard laptops can. Smartphones are pretty limiting due to its screen size, which fundamentally rules out the possibility of drafting and other similar activities. Tablets are also great tools to jot down any ad hoc detail or idea, and they allow the user to share almost anything instantly without reproducing the text, photo or picture, making it a very convenient tool for designers.

In terms of organizational capabilities, tablets make it easier for you to manage your life: your finances, schedules, reviews, etc. Again, smartphones are absolutely restricting in that sense due to its screen size, although they are great in providing useful reminders for your daily chores.

Diverse companies:

Apple:

Samsung:

Amazon:

Smartwatches[edit]

Like the feature phone developed into a smartphone, smart watches are an evolution in the functions and capabilities of traditional watches. A substantial difference between smartphones and smartwatches is that you wear watches usually on your wrist so you see it the whole time. For many people it is also an accessories. Most smartwatches are a companion to the smartphone or tablet which send the information that should be displayed over Bluetooth 4.0 Low Energy or wireless LAN. Google Inc. introduced their operating system for watches in 2014 called Android Wear. It is compatible with smartphones running Android OS 4.3 Jelly Bean and above. Are variety of models is available from companies like LG, Motorola, Asus and Sony etc. Features include seeing notifications from your phone and interacting with them and the voice search with Google Now. Smartwatches are also used as a companion for activities like running and cycling among others and many of Google's Android Wear watches offer a pedometer and GPS to track your activities. Some of them even offer a heart rate monitor. In September 2014, Apple Inc. introduced the Watch which will be available for purchase in early 2015. Compared to other smartwatches on the market it is more of a fashion accessories while offering the same functionality as the ones.

Smart Homes & Connected Living[edit]

Smart Home includes all technical procedures and systems in the home. The goal is an increase of living and quality of life, safety and efficient use of energy. This is achieved through the intelligent integration of home automation, home appliances and entertainment media.

Some scientist warn for problems and high security holes in Smart homes because there a many projection where hacker can access unauthorized and take over control of the home system. Then they are able to collect more personal information than anybody else know about the owner. Another point is if attacker have a connection to the network of the victim he can be used as a base for attacks on other devices such as laptops, mobile phones.


Wearable Technologies[edit]

Google Classes:

Is a device that brings rich text and notifications as well as other information straight to your eyes. Its various functions are activated via voice command.

At CES 2014, wearable technology was a popular topic, and the event was coined the "The Wearables, Appliances, Cars, and Bendable TVs Show” by many industry influencers. [20] Several wearable products that were showcased include Smart watches, SmartBands, Smart Jewelry, glasses, and earbuds. Valencell PerformTek technology powered many of the new products unveiled at the show, including the iriverON earbuds, which provide users with the most accurate and comprehensive health and fitness metrics through the ear. The iriverON requires no bracelet to wear or dongle to clip on; users just monitor their heart rate, distance, cadence, speed, and calories burned while listening to music.


Networks[edit]

History[edit]

-1960: AT&T designed its Dataphone, the first commercial modem
-1964: The commercial airline reservation system (SABRE) went online. Using telephone lines, SABRE linked 2,000 terminals in 65 cities to a pair of IBM 7090 computers
-1965: Thomas Marill and Lawrence G. Roberts created the first wide area network (WAN).
-1966: John van Geen of the Stanford Research Institute vastly improved the acoustically coupled modem. His receiver reliably detected bits of data despite background noise heard over long-distance phone lines.
-1969: The University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah were connected as the beginning of the ARPANET network using 50 kbit/s circuits.
-1971: Ray Tomlinson of the research firm Bolt, Beranek and Newman sent the first e-mail when he was supposed to be working on a different project.
-1972: Commercial services using X.25 were deployed, and later used as an underlying infrastructure for expanding TCP/IP networks.
-1973: Robert Metcalfe wrote a formal memo at Xerox PARC describing Ethernet. In July 1976, Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs published their paper "Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks" and collaborated on several patents received in 1977 and 1978. In 1979, Robert Metcalfe pursued making Ethernet an open standard.
-1974: Telenet, the first commercial packet-switching network and civilian equivalent of ARPANET, was born.
-1976: John Murphy of Datapoint Corporation created ARCNET, a token-passing network first used to share storage devices.
-1983: The ARPANET splits into the ARPANET and MILNET.
-1988: Robert Morris´ worm flooded the ARPANET. Then-23-year-old Morris, the son of a computer security expert for the National Security Agency, sent a nondestructive worm through the Internet, causing problems for about 6,000 of the 60,000 hosts linked to the network.
-1990: The World Wide Web was born when Tim Berners-Lee developed HyperText Markup Language.
-1995: The transmission speed capacity for Ethernet was increased from 10 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s. By 1998, Ethernet supported transmission speeds of a Gigabit. The ability of Ethernet to scale easily (such as quickly adapting to support new fiber optic cable speeds) is a contributing factor to its continued use today.

Properties[edit]

Network packet[edit]

Network topology[edit]

Network links[edit]

Wired technologies

-Twisted pair wire is the most widely used medium for all telecommunication. Twisted-pair cabling consist of copper wires that are twisted into pairs.Computer network cabling (wired Ethernet as defined by IEEE 802.3) consists of 4 pairs of copper cabling that can be utilized for both voice and data transmission. The use of two wires twisted together helps to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction. The transmission speed ranges from 2 million bits per second to 10 billion bits per second.

-Coaxial cable is widely used for cable television systems, office buildings, and other work-sites for local area networks. The cables consist of copper or aluminum wire surrounded by an insulating layer, which itself is surrounded by a conductive layer. The insulation helps minimize interference and distortion. Transmission speed ranges from 200 million bits per second to more than 500 million bits per second.

-Optical fiber is a glass fiber. It carries pulses of light that represent data. Some advantages of optical fibers over metal wires are very low transmission loss and immunity from electrical interference. Optical fibers can simultaneously carry multiple wavelengths of light, which greatly increases the rate that data can be sent, and helps enable data rates of up to trillions of bits per second. Optic fibers can be used for long runs of cable carrying very high data rates, and are used for undersea cables to interconnect continents.


Wireless technologies

-Terrestrial microwave communication uses Earth-based transmitters and receivers resembling satellite dishes. Terrestrial microwaves are in the low-gigahertz range, which limits all communications to line-of-sight. Relay stations are spaced approximately 48 km apart.

-Satellites communicate via microwave radio waves, which are not deflected by the Earth's atmosphere. The satellites are stationed in space, typically in geosynchronous orbit 35,400 km above the equator. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice, data, and TV signals.

-Cellular and PCS systems use several radio communications technologies. The systems divide the region covered into multiple geographic areas. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area.

-Radio and spread spectrum technologies – Wireless local area networks use a high-frequency radio technology similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology. Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area. IEEE 802.11 defines a common flavor of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology known as Wifi.

-Free-space optical communication uses visible or invisible light for communications. In most cases, line-of-sight propagation is used, which limits the physical positioning of communicating devices.

Network nodes[edit]

Network structure[edit]

Communication protocols[edit]

Ethernet[edit]

Internet Protocol Suite[edit]

SONET/SDH[edit]

Asynchronous Transfer Mode[edit]

Geographic scale[edit]

A network can be characterized by its physical capacity or its organizational purpose. Use of the network, including user authorization and access rights, differ accordingly.

-Personal area network
-Local area network
-Home area network
-Storage area network
-Campus area network
-Backbone network
-Metropolitan area network
-Wide area network
-Enterprise private network
-Virtual private network
-Global area network

Organizational scope[edit]

Intranets[edit]

Extranet[edit]

Internetwork[edit]

Internet[edit]

Darknet[edit]

Routing[edit]

Network service[edit]

Network performance[edit]

Security[edit]

Network security[edit]

Network surveillance[edit]

End to end encryption[edit]

Cloud Computing[edit]

How was the idea cloud created[edit]

If you talk about the the internet, the internet is often metaphorically depicted as a cloud. Programmer which design software always draw a cloud to present the internet in their handout. In many programs for network-simulation, the internet is simulated with a cloud as well. That’s the way how the term „cloud“ was developed.

History of the idea Cloud[edit]

The Cloud came into being by big companies such as Google, Amazon or Yahoo. These companies have built huge and expensive server farms, in order to serve the high number of customers at peak load times (eg the Christmas season for Amazon),

The effort and storage capacity was unnecessary and not usual for a normal day, so they started the company to be brought to the outside for rent.

What is the meaning of cloud computing[edit]

As Cloud Computing is in use, data or applications are loaded from a computer into the internet. The data will be stored on one or more servers of the current provider. From there, the customers are able to access the files and applications any time from any internet enabled device ((eg, laptop or smartphone). Also there are other authorized users who can access it.

The three product models of the Cloud[edit]

There are three different product models of the Cloud which exist:

Infrastructure (IaaS)[edit]

The infrastructure of the Cloud is rent by the provider for the whole infrastructure which referrers to all virtual servers( eg "Amazon Elastic Copute Clous (EC2)).

Platform as a Service (PaaS) [edit]

The “Platform as a Service” is basically conceived for developers. The provider does not produce a program for the end user, but a whole working environment (eg Windows Azure or the App Engine from Google). The infrastructure here is arranged by the provider himself, so the developers can concentrate on programming.

Software as a service (IaaS)[edit]

The “Software as a service” is a program, which is not purchased or has to be installed by the customers. It is only available for hire.

Examples for clouds[edit]

E-Mail[edit]

Everybody who does not write or obtain their e-mails via a program as Outlook or Thunderbird, but in online-services, uses cloud-computing.

Social Networking[edit]

Social networks like Facebook, LinkedIn or Twitter are all cloud computing services.

Online-Store[edit]

In services like Dropbox, you can upload your data into the cloud and access to it from any internet enabled device.

Pictures[edit]

There are a lot of clouds for photos. Most common are the services Flickr and Picasa Web Albums. With this program everybody can show his selected images to friends. In addition there is the opportunity to edit photos with the integrated software Picnik online.

Online-banking[edit]

Online banking has long been a cloud computing service.

Music[edit]

There do also exist many other cloud-computing services. Napster offers is music portal to listen to music and create playlists.

SoundCloud:

Spotify:

Advantages and disadvantages of cloud-computing[edit]

Advantages[edit]

- data and applications which are stored in the Cloud are able to access anytime from any internet enabled device
- even with an old computer or with a phone you can store huge data or run applications with high demands
- the founder of any companies do not need to purchase expensive infrastructure
- companies have cost advantages:

    -> there are no maintenance costs
    -> there are no electricity costs which they have to pay for current servers
    -> the software does not need to be bought, it can be rent according to    
          needs
    -> establishment costs are eliminated

- the software is always up to date
- the software only has to be set up once
- working together is more simply because every data can be opened from every colleague
- Cloud-computing is future-proof

Disadvantages[edit]

- only works with an internet connection
- fast internet is an requirement
- the companies are depending on the Cloud providers
- the application can be slower than the local computer, because the connection between the Cloud and the workstation needs more time

Gaming Technology[edit]

The Gaming Technology has been constantly improved. The first "Gaming-System" was so big, it needed a whole room to fit, just to play PONG. Compared to the Technology we have today it is nothing, but then again in a couple of decades we will most probably be able to enter the games themselfs in a virtual reality.


3D Printing[edit]

The 3D printing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file. Such objects can be shapes or geometric figures made of plastic or metal. A 3D print based on complex procedures. Frequently additive processes are used, in which successive layers of material are laid down under computer control.

Process[edit]

In order to create an three dimensional object with a 3D printer a 3D model of the object is needed. This 3D model can be created with a 3D modeling programm or by using a 3D scanner. To prepare the file of the object for printing software is needed, which diviedes the model in a lot horizontal layers. after this the printer is able to create the object by blending the different layers together.

Methods[edit]

Fused deposition modeling (FDM)[edit]

This technology uses a movable nozzel, which dispenses melted plastic or metal to form layers. The used material comes in the form of string or wire. The dispensed material solidifies immediately. The used software is able to generate supporting structures if needed. These supporting structures are made of a different material and can be removed after completing the printinge process.

Stereolithography (SLA)[edit]

This Method uses a liquid resin which can be solidified with a ultraviolet laser. Each layer is made by curing the surface of the resin with a laser beam connecting it to the previously made layer. After each layer the platform onto which the layers are made is submerged deeper into the resin to cover it with new liquid resin.

Holography[edit]

Holograms are three-dimensional images. The creation of such an images involes the use of laser, interference, diffraction, light intensity recording as well as the suitable illumination of the recording. The field of holography started in 1971 when the physicist Dennis Gabor got the Nobel Prize in Physics as he invented and developed the holographic method. As the laser developed the projection of 3D objects became possible. In the former Soviet Union by Yuri Denisyuk and in the USA by Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks. Over the time, different forms of holograms were created. One of those is the transmission hologram which can be viewed through shining lasers. Those lasers reconsturct the source. Another form of the holograms is the specular hologaphy. This form of holography allows three-dimensonal images which can be produced due to reflectively or refractively manipulating light ray bundles. Currently holograph only allows the static replication of objects but the work on moving holograms is already in progress.

The holographic display - 3D images[edit]

Holograms can touch promise researchers at the University of Tokyo with her "Airborne Ultrasound Tactile Display", which they presented at the conference Siggraph. It is three-dimensional images in free space, which give to the touch tactile feedback.

The researchers led by Takayuki Hoshi use the holographic display of Holo commission, the images projected on an LCD using a concave mirror, so that they act as if they were hovering around 30 cm in front of the display.


They combine the display with the Airborne Ultrasound Tactile Display, which they presented last year at the Siggraph already. It can project tactile feedback in space by exploiting an ultrasound phenomenon: Acoustic Radiation Pressure. In this way one can exert specific pressure on objects by means of wavelength synthesis.


The prototype used has to over 324 ultrasound transducers operating at a resonant frequency of 40 KHz. Delay and amplitude of each converter can be controlled individually and then set focus points and move in three-dimensional space. Thus, a pressure of 1.6 gf (gram-force) to be generated in a focus region of 20 mm diameter.


To determine where the user's hand is, the researchers use two Wii Remotes or rather the built-in infrared camera combined with a reflective marker on the middle finger of the hand of the user. Since the scene is illuminated by infra-red light, the position of the hand in three-dimensional space can be determined in that way and the mapping of image and tactile feedback can be adjusted accordingly.

The scientists see a range of applications for the technique in video gaming and in the area of computer-aided design (CAD). As a demonstration, they show holographic raindrops that drop down noticeably on a hand, as well as the animation of a small animal that is running across the hand.

Virtual Reality[edit]

Virtual Reality (VR) is an experience in which a person is "surrounded by a three-dimensional computer-generated representation, and is able to move around in the virtual world and see it from different angles, to reach into it, grab it, and reshape it."[1]

Virtaul Reality Group from RWTH-Aachen

http://www.itc.rwth-aachen.de/global/show_picture.asp?id=aaaaaaaaaahguav

Multi-sensory experience[edit]

While most current VR systems are mainly a visual experience, research has been done in the last years to expand the current systems into fields like sound (mostly surround sound), haptic (also know n as ForceFeedback) or more exotic fields like smell, taste etc.

The simulated environment can be very similar to the real world, like in military flight simulators, but every environment is currently limited by processing power, image resolution or communication bandwidth bottlenecks.

A very well known project, called the CAVE (CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment) - which is also present in the labs at the RWTH Aachen - has been around since 1992, using stereoscopic displays, head tracking, projection paradigms and real-time image manipulation to achieve a VR system which provides real-time viewer-centered head-tracking perspective with a large angle of view, interactive control and a binocular display.

History[edit]

  • 1968: The Sword of Damocles
    • First Head-Mounted-Display
  • 1980s : The term "virtual reality" was popularized by Jaron Lanier
    • Founder of the VPL Research
  • 1991: Sega announces the Sega VR headset for arcade games
  • 1992: Computer Gaming World predicts "Affordable VR by 1994".
  • 2007: Google introduces Street View
  • 2012: Kickstart campaign for Oculus Rift
  • 2014: Facebook purchases Oculus VR for 2$ billion

Applications of Virtual Reality[edit]

Education[edit]

  • Explore the solar system
  • Surgery simulations
  • Children could follow lessons from home

Military[edit]

  • Flight simulator
  • Simulation of a battlefield
  • Control of a drone

Engineering[edit]

  • Better view of 3D-models
  • Architects could use virtual reality to enter a house before it is build

Entertainment[edit]

  • Explore a city
  • Games
  • Movies

Outlook[edit]

Full Immersion[edit]

Technology in the future[edit]

Technology's influence in our life will rise, as it always did. This is both economical and social caused. New and improved technologies is one of the main subjects of the free market system, as well as every new generation grows up with new technologies and uses it in a 'higher level' every time. In cases like energy systems, changes in the used technology are neccessary to hold the standard after fossil fuels are used up.

Microchip Materials[edit]

Since computers have become an ever-growing part of our lives there has always been the need to get its components smaller in size. Smaller components do not occupy space that might be used otherwise and allow other features to be implemented, allow for more computing power on the same space or reduce the problem of overheating due to a lesser amount of heat emitting material.

Ever since the time when computers went into mass production chips have mostly been build on the basis of silicon crystals grown to fit the specific needs of the computer and then cut in very thin layers called “dies”. For the last years alternatives for silicon as a material and even for electrical circuits as a whole are being developed.

Alternative Microchips Materials[edit]

Next-generation computer chips can not get much faster without overheating. One possible solution for this problem is the usage of carbon nanotubes that carry the excess heat away from the microchips so processing speeds could rise even more. These nanotubes may be imagined as chimneys sitting on the microchip. After these nanotubes were able to be produced effectively in bigger amounts a major problem was to get a good foundation for the chimneys to stand on if we stay in this picture, or to be more scientific – a bridge that transports the heat from the metal of the microchip to the organic material of the nanotube was needed. It turned out that organic molecules including aminopropyl-trialkoxy-silane (APS) and cysteamine created strong bonds between the nanotubes and the metal of the microchip. Also the distance between each side of the nanotube layer was reduced by this method. The scientific basis has been achieved by this research, yet it is still a long way to go until we will have carbon nanotubes in our hands inside our smart phones.


Another postsiliconic idea is to use graphene (single layers of graphite/a crystalline allotrope of carbon) to build transistors. These are already working at very high frequencies but are lacking in intrinsic voltage gain thus far. The approach of using bilayer graphene transistors has taken the technology a large step forward but it will still take time until we see this technology on a daily basis. Molybdenum disulfide is also in the running to be an alternative to either graphene or present silicon models.


On the search for better and alternative capacitor solutions Korean researchers found out that chemically treated used cigarette filters outperform carbon, graphene and carbon nanotubes in energy storage. So yet another approach was found to possibly fulfill our upcoming technological needs.

Communication and Lifestyle[edit]

The way humans communicate has changed every age and this modification won't stop. Recognition of speech technologies was improved to a standard that is usable in the daily routine. In non-official matters written letters got replaced with e-mails and short messages affected a drop in verbal communication. The next steps will follow the same rules: Less time and efforts for communication to cause more efficiency. Efficiency in communication leads to efficiency in using and planing our time. Strictly individual appointment calendars are outdated, inefficient for team-working and socialization. Firms like Facebook already led ways for a new standard of communication and socialization and the trend is not about to fall. That means technology will follow it steps for an automatisation of communication, sharing of information, setting plans for our time and most left matters of our daily life.


Energy systems[edit]

'Worn off' technologies[edit]

How toys will shape future robots[edit]

Toys in future will shape future robots. What was it about this robot that had appealed so much to its owner? It’s a question that Tilden and other roboticists think is important – not just for toy design, but the future of robotics. For too long, robots have suffered from an image problem.

They are often perceived as mechanical, cold and threatening in our culture and it’s difficult to reverse that impression. This view of robots could be changed if they were designed to appeal to us with the same familiarity and, indeed, personality that our childhood toys once possessed.

More and more children want a toy which can speak or do something. The best example for this is Furby. Evrybody like this toy and in the past it was the most famous toy in the world. an other example was the Robosapien. He was developed to give children the feeling that robots aren't something threatening. The Robosapiens can dances, raps and a lot of more funny things. Seeing the Robosapien as a pal was far more important than seeing it as a hyperintelligent, futuristic machine.

Could other successful toys provide similar cues for robot designers? Perhaps – and it needn’t even be toy robots. The most important thing for a child is to be proud about the toy and that it surprise them. So the question for the future have to be how the devoleper of robots create it to surprise the humanity to be surprise about robots and learn to like them. Benefits from the toy development could be a good first step to reach their targets.

Long-distance virtual telepathy[edit]

Telepathy is an very interesting thema. Not for nothing this it is used in so many films which surprise their tans. An international team of neuroscientists and robotics engineers study how the viability of direct brain-to-brain communication in humans could work. The highly novel findings describe the successful transmission of information via the Internet between the intact scalps of two human subjects – located 5,000 miles apart.

One of this professors says: "We wanted to find out if one could communicate directly between two people by reading out the brain activity from one person and injecting brain activity into the second person, and do so across great physical distances by leveraging existing communication pathways," explains co-author Alvaro Pascual-Leone, PhD, Director of the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) and Professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School. "One such pathway is, of course, the Internet, so our question became, 'Could we develop an experiment that would bypass the talking or typing part of Internet and establish direct brain-to-brain communication between subjects located far away from each other in India and France?'" It turned out the answer was "=yes.="


To get an better overview about this complex thema I will give you two experiments to this study which I found on an internet page with whom I hope you could better follow what happened here:

In the neuroscientific equivalent of instant messaging, Pascual-Leone and his colleagues successfully transmitted the words "hola" and "ciao" in a computer-mediated brain-to-brain transmission, from a location in India to a location in France, using internet-linked electroencephalogram (EEG) and robot-assisted and image-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technologies.Previous studies on EEG-based brain-computer interaction (BCI) have typically made use of communication between a human brain and computer. In these studies, electrodes attached to a person's scalp record electrical currents in the brain as a person realises an action-thought, such as consciously thinking about moving the arm or leg. The computer then interprets that signal and translates it to a control output, such as a robot or wheelchair.

But, in this new study, the research team added a second human brain on the other end of the system. Four healthy participants, aged 28 to 50, participated in the study. One of the four subjects was assigned to the brain-computer interface (BCI) branch and was the sender of the words; the other three were assigned to the computer-brain interface (CBI) branch of the experiments and received the messages and had to understand them.

Using EEG, the research team first translated the greetings "hola" and "ciao" into binary code, then emailed the results from India to France. There a computer-brain interface transmitted the message to the receiver's brain through non-invasive brain stimulation. The subjects experienced this as phosphenes, flashes of light in their peripheral vision. The light appeared in numerical sequences that enabled the receiver to decode the information in the message, and while the subjects did not report feeling anything, they did correctly receive the greetings.

A second similar experiment was conducted between people in Spain and France, the end result being a total error rate of just 15 percent, 11 percent on the decoding end and five percent on the initial coding side.

"By using advanced precision neurotechnologies including wireless EEG and robotised TMS, we were able to directly and noninvasively transmit a thought from one person to another, without them having to speak or write," says Pascual-Leone. "This in itself is a remarkable step in human communication, but being able to do so across a distance of thousands of miles is a critically important proof-of-principle for the development of brain-to-brain communications. We believe these experiments represent an important first step in exploring the feasibility of complementing or bypassing traditional language-based or motor-based communication."

Brain.jpg

At the end it is to say that it needs a long time to become a good study about this thema and that it need much time to envolve a proper technology to telepathy informations. But in future it will be possible if they work in same speed like they do at this moment.



More to expand on :

1 Hardware
2 Software
3 Usage
4 Implementation
5 Concerns and challenges

Communication[edit]

• (mobile) phone

• world wide web

• networking ○ intranet ○ globalization

• knowledge ○ e-learning ○ social aspects (facebook etc.)

Digital infrastructure[edit]

Smart Grids

A smart grid is the plan of a new electrical grid which uses communications technology to improve the efficiency of the production and distribution of electricity. The behaviour of the suppliers and the consumers are gathered in an automated way and then used for dynamic adjustments of the grid.

intelligence city

military

○ IT warfare

○ inventions

Disadvantages of technology[edit]

Technology also has some negative aspects. It is very hard to protect privacy on the Internet and it's impossible to control who receives the data you entered. Big companies can draw up detailed profiles of users based on their searches of web pages. It is also possible that our ability to communicate with real persons diminishes, and there is an increasing dependence on mobile devices and social networks. Some people feel unwell if they do not have the possibility to check the latest news on facebook etc.

Increasing stress related to being available all the time: [ http://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/jan/18/modern-world-bad-for-brain-daniel-j-levitin-organized-mind-information-overload]

Notes[edit]

1. ^ Rheingold, H. Virtual Reality. Summit, New York, 1991.

Interwiki links[edit]

External links[edit]