SALIRAJA Yurt Project

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Contents

Finalgirls.jpg

[edit] Introduction

[edit] Abstract

We are a group of four Environmental Science Students who constructed a shingled yurt roof by reusing old cans that would have otherwise been thrown away or recycled. This project was done for our client CCAT(the Campus Center for Appropriate Technology) as part of our Engineering 305 class. Our goals in creating this roof were to rescue resources from the waste stream and to create a functional roof to meet CCAT's specifications.

[edit] Background

CCAT is the Campus Center for Appropriate Technology at Humboldt State University, in Arcata, CA. CCAT built it's yurt to provide a demonstration of a sustainable housing structure. Yurts were originally built by nomadic peoples, and traditionally constructed to be mobile; this is not true of the CCAT yurt. The CCAT yurt was built to be a permanent structure on campus and was originally built with redwood shingles as its roofing material. When CCAT changed locations in 2004 this roof was replaced with a "weather proof" canvas roof. Unfortunately, in Humboldt County canvas rooftops often don't hold up to the elements. When this project came to us the CCAT yurt had a dangerous, black mold infested canvas roof. Our goal was to replace it with a water resistant, structurally sound, recycled roof. Recycled materials are a great product for roofing because many materials that are thrown "away" still have the capability to be used as something functional.

[edit] Problem statement

The objective of this project is to creatively utilize recycled materials to produce a safe, durable, and aesthetically pleasing yurt roof. We want to satisfy CCAT's vision for the yurt while focusing on creative reuse in order to both educate visitors and restore the structure to a functional state.

[edit] Criteria

The following criteria will be used to determine which roofing options will be best suited for this project. The scale is from one (least important) to ten (most important).

Criteria Constraints Weight
(1-10)
Durability
Can withstand >/= 38in annual rainfall
9
Level of Maintenance
Requires less than 1 hr a week
6
Aesthetics
Must receive at least 1 compliment per day
4
Educational
Must provide recognizable visual information about green building
6
Safety
Must be safe for people to enter yurt
10
Functionality
Keeps water out of structure for >20 years
9
Environmental Friendliness
Uses at least 50% recycled or reclaimed materials
8
Budget
Must not exceed budget set by CCAT
8

[edit] Literature Review


This is a review of some of the available literature on lighting, roofing material, and health pertinent to the yurt re-roofing project at CCAT. The CCAT yurt is a freestanding structure with minimal wiring or electricity. In the past, light was emitted into the building via the white canvas roof. Since that roof was covered in black mold it was very dark and unhealthy to be inside. Because the yurt relies on the roof for light integrating a mold-resistant roof and natural lighting will be essential.

[edit] Roofing

[edit] Aluminum

Aluminum cans are light weight, highly reflective, non-toxic, non-pyrophoric, and are easily fabricated. Aluminum also has a high resistance to corrosion due to the invisible oxide skin that forms when it is exposed to the atmosphere. [1]

[edit] Water Resistance

In order for the roof to remain water resistant we used three products: recycled aluminum industrial food cans, organic roofing felt, and Rust-Oleum. Although the latter two may not have been the most environmentally friendly, by utilizing the recycled industrial food cans we have minimized the carbon footprint associated with common roofing practices. Below please find the net emissions associated with Asphalt shingles:

Components of the Combustion Net Emission Factor for Asphalt Shingles
(MTCO2E/Short Ton)
Transportation to Combustion
0.03
CO2 from Combustion
0.65
N2O from Combustion
0.04
Process Energy Emissions
0.55
Process Energy GHG Emissions
0.13
Net Landfill Emissions
0.04

[2]

[edit] Lighting

[edit] Lighting Concerns

Arcata, Ca is an area which on average has a less than 50% chance of experiencing a sunny day.[3] This means that a passive solar daylight system must be designed with this in mind. According to Helmut Köster in his book on daylight architecture, it is possible to capture enough light from the sun if the skylights and windows are placed appropriately.[4] Visual appeal is also important, both on the interior and exterior of the yurt.

[edit] Lighting Options

There are several ways to create day lighting that maximize the availability of the sun's light. Solar tubes are a very popular method of natural lighting, and can provide very strong focused light through refraction and reflection of the light via mirrors and lenses inside a tube[5]. This same (though less dramatic) effect can be created through the use of old plastic water bottles filled with water which is able to refract the sunlight as well[6][7]. Skylights do not have the same capacity to intensify the sun and capture as much of it, and rely more strongly on clear skies and proper placement, this makes them a less desirable option for the yurt project[8].

[edit] Visuals

If the plastic bottle solar tubes were to be used it would be an added benefit to enhance their visual appeal in the interior of the yurt. Susan Wasinger outlines in her eco-craft book several lamp-shade type projects highlighting creative reuse which would be appropriate, assuming the bottle-bulbs provide enough light.[9]

[edit] Health

[edit] Black Mold

Black mold, stachybotrys chartarum, is one of over 100,000 types of fungi that grow on organic materials and commonly found in homes. All types of mold produce spores that travel through the air until they collect on a damp surface and reproduce. [10] Although mold is predominant in our environment, there can be major health problems associated with inhaling large amounts of spores when indoors. There are three processes in which mold affects human health: Allergy, infection, and toxicity. [11] Black Mold produces a harmful toxin known as mycotoxins that can lead to death. [12]

[edit] Construction

How to Build a Yurt Roof out of Recycled Tin Cans
ImageStep
cans Step 1 : First we collected cans from local businesses, including; Big Louie's Pizzeria, Wildberries Market Place, and HSU cafeteria.
can opener Step 2 : Next we cleaned out all the cans and cut out the bottoms.
cans Step 3 : We used tin snips to cut the cans so they could be flattened out.
bending Step 4 : We then used pliers to bend the edges of the cans so they were less dangerous to work with.
spraying Step 5 : We sprayed the cans with rust proof paint so they wouldn't rust.
moldy Step 6 : We then had to remove the canvas covered in black mold.
measuring Step 7 : We measured each section of the yurt.
sawing Step 8 : Cut 46 sections out of the 10 plywood boards.
nails Step 9 : We used a nail gun to attach the boards to the beams.
felt Step 10 : We then applied an organic roofing felt.
shingles Step 11 : We applied the tin shingles with a staple gun and an air compressor.
final Step 12 : Here is our finished project with all the shingles attached and the litters of lights put in.

[edit] Maintenance

We wanted there to be very little need for maintenance of the yurt roof. Every seven years new water will need to be put into the bottles in the roof. The bottles slip out of the top of the flashings. If a shingle breaks off, read above process on how to construct a new one and there is paint left in the CCAT shed. Use a staple gun to attach to the roof.

[edit] Tentative Timeline

Project Started Completion
Complete trial designs February 20 March 1
Present designs to client March 5 March 5
Decide on final design March 8 March 8
Measure roof area March 8 April 1
Remove hazardous mold tarp March 15 March 15
Find cans and make 600 shingles March 8 May 1
Purchase plywood April 24 April 24
Saw plywood April 24 April 24
Rent nail gun and air compressor April 25 April 25
Install plywood April 25 April 25
Obtain and apply roofing felt April 30 April 30
Rent staple gun and air compressor May 1 May 4
Install tin shingles and liters of light May 1 May 4

[edit] Costs

Quantity Material Source Cost ($) Total ($)
10 10'X6' plywood boards Arcata Lumber 30.00 300.00
2 Rolls of organic roofing felt Arcata Lumber 30.00 60.00
600 # 10 Industrial sized food cans HSU cafeteria, Big Louie's Pizza, Wildberries, other local restaurants Donated 0.00
24 Cans of rustolium paint Arcata Lumber, Ace Hardware 4.95 118.80
16 Flashings Arcata Lumber 10.00 160.00
16 Coca cola bottles with corks CCAT Donated 0.00
3 days Rented nail gun/staple gun with air compressor Don's Rent All 65.00 per day 195.00
Total Cost $833.8

[edit] Conclusion

[edit] Testing Results

During the first steps of our project our potential roof materials included racing slicks and aluminum cans in addition to tin cans. The racing slicks were very time consuming to cut and could potentially leach with the rainwater. The roof needed to be compatible for a rainwater catchment system, therefore runoff from the roof could not be potentially contaminated. After calculating the surface area of the roof, aluminum cans were determined to be too time consuming. The prototype we built, with the first 2 tin cans we collected, were cut in half and screwed into a piece of plywood. This was or first positive result so we stuck with it and began collecting size 10 cans. We figured we were going to need a lot of them and noted it would be more efficient to cut each can once.

[edit] Discussion

In conclusion, the project was a success. The lights turned out to be very effective, while the shingles worked well for our purpose. The shingles were time consuming as well as injury causing so much care should be taken if choosing this method for future projects. Yurt roofs are typically made of canvas. Because of this, cutting and installing the plywood panels was especially tedious since all 46 panels were different dimensions. The roof is also at such a steep angle that it was quite a task to secure the roofing material to the middle and top of the roof in a safe manner. This was done with at least three people for safety reasons.

[edit] Lessons Learned

The number one lesson we can take away from the project is open communication, not only between group members but between the group and the client. Although we had asked about the client's hopes and wishes for the project, no specific ideas were suggested or required. The client had asked for more light and an appropriate roof material. Later when we were implementing our project we learned that the client hoped we had acquired redwood shingles, which it was too late for. In addition, because our client was CCAT our materials were paid for by the CCAT budget, however the initial cost of the wood was $450 and in order to pay for the wood we needed the go ahead from Associated Students (Instructionally Related Activities). This entire process took almost four weeks before we could pick up the wood and begin construction. In this case we should have begun this process earlier.

[edit] Next Steps

The future of the Yurt roof is to observe how well it withstands the Arcata weather and if the materials begin to wear, and how fast. The liter of lights must be observed as well to assess how often they should be remove and cleaned for brighter lighting within the yurt. The shingles were attached to the roof using staples, and were only attached at the top of the shingles to allow a consistent flow of runoff. It will interesting to see if the shingles do indeed allow a natural consistent runoff over the entire surface of the Yurt roof.

[edit] Video

[edit] Team SaLiRaJa

We are a group of four female Environmental Science (Energy and Climate) Majors studying at Humboldt State University. The SaLiRaJa Yurt Roof Project was a project we took on during our 2013 Spring Semester Appropriate Technology Course.

Finalgirls.jpg



Samantha Seglin
Lily Pastel
Rachael McCain
Tanja Hopmans

[edit] References

  1. Davis, J.R., Corrosion of Aluminum and aluminum Alloys.The Materials Information Society (1999).
  2. [[1]]
  3. Homefacts. "Arcata Weather Information."
  4. Köster, Helmut. Dynamic Daylight Architecture: Basics, Systems, Projects. 2004.
  5. Lee, Evelyn. "Solatube Skylights." Inhabitat
  6. GreenCupboards. "2 liter bottles of light."
  7. 9BYTZ "Plastic Bottle Skylights."
  8. Lee, Evelyn. "Solatube Skylights." Inhabitat
  9. Wasinger, Susan. Eco-craft: recycle, recraft, restyle. New York: Lark Books, 2009.
  10. [[2]]
  11. [[3]]
  12. [[4]]

[edit] Update October 2013

It has been about five months and the yurt roof still looks great! The roof with-held some rain and wind during the summer and fall months. There is no rusting or leaking that can be seen. We will have another update after the winter months when we will know how it holds up in "severe weather." (As severe as it gets in Humboldt County.) The shareholders at CCAT seem happy with the project, and they are currently using the yurt to dry their grains in. There was a man squatting in the yurt for a couple days during the summer. The main problem is that the yurt has this wonderful new roof and is ready for some good use, but isn't being utilized to its fullest. (I think Lonny should hold another class in there!) Below are some updated pictures of the CCAT yurt roof.