PV penetration level Literature review
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 Literature Search on PV Penetration
Keep alphabetized list of references with notes after in the following format: S. E. Shaheen, C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, F. Padinger, T. Fromherz, and J. C. Hummelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 841 (2001) (hyperlinked title).
See also: User:J.M.Pearce/PV+CHP
This is a list of refs for PV penetration levels (also try solar, photovoltaic, intermittent, or distributed generation penetration/percent/) - this refers to the maximum amount of solar photovoltaic electricity able to be provided reliably on the grid.
- Names, "Title", source, vol. 1, Iss. 2, pp. 888 (year). (hyperlinked title)
- P. Denholm and R. Margolis, "Very Large-Scale Deployment of Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaics in the United States: Challenges and Opportunities", U.S. Department of Energy, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), Conference Paper Preprint for Solar 2006 (2006)([])
- Figures of System Load with and without large PV systems on two summer and two spring days.
- Model to analyze the impacts of large-scale PV deployment.
- 'By increasing the system flexibility, it now becomes at least theoretically possible to provide 50% of the system's energy from PV - although this requires the ability to completely turn off all conventional generation for short periods of time without cost penalty.'
- 'We found that increasing the flexibility of the electric power system in the simulated system could increase the contribution of PV to perhaps 20%-30%. Beyond this contribution, enabling technologies such as fuel switching in "smart" appliances, dispatchable load from plug-in hybrid or other electric vehicles, or stationary energy storage would be required to enable very high levels of PV contribution to the electric power system.'
- R. Perez, S. Letendre, and C. Herig, "PV and Grid Reliability: Availability of PV Power during Capacity Shortfalls", University of Albany (2001)([])
- Figure of PV Availability during major summer 1999-2000 outages.
- 'it would take very little in terms of back-up storage or end-use load management associated with PV to provide the equivalent of firm PV capacity up to significant load penetration levels.'
- P. Denholm, R.M. Margolis, "Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems", Energy Policy, vol.35, Iss.5, pp. 2852-2861 (2007). ([])
- 'we evaluate the ability of PV to provide a large fraction (up to 50%) of a utility system’s energy by comparing hourly output of a simulated large PV system to the amount of electricity actually usable.'
- 'The limited flexibility of base load generators produces increasingly large amounts of unusable PV generation when PV provides perhaps 10–20% of a system’s energy.'
- M. Thomson and D.G. Infield, "Network Power-Flow Analysis for a High Penetration of Distributed Generation", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol.22, Iss. 3, pp.1157-1162 (2007). ([])
- This paper discusses and analyses the impact of micro-generation (in particular, PV+CHP hybrid residential systems) on the voltage rise in a test-network in the UK.
- The authors created an unbalanced load-flow engine using Matlab, which takes modelled load and generation data and saves the calculated voltages as minute-by-minute data for all nodes across the network.
- 'we considered the European Standard, EN 50160, which states that, under normal operating conditions, all ten-minute mean values shall be within the range 195.5 V to 253 V. The 50% PV and 100% CHP scenarios, already discussed, lead to voltages that exceed this range, and thus, accommodating penetrations of this order would require some adjustment or re-engineering of network voltage control systems. The next two rows of Table I (30% PV and 23% CHP, respectively) show scenarios that would be acceptable under EN 50160 without any changes to voltage control systems.' (pp.1161)