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Open source 3D printer literature review

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Review of Seminars[edit]

Source:Reece Arnett, "The RepRap Project—Open Source meets 3D printing", Dunedin, New Zealand, 2008. (Unpublished)

This presentation discusses the reasons why 3d printing can be used for, such as printing toys, prototypes, fix broken parts of technology, and build original devices that could be used for various things. Self replication is very important as it allows cost to go down to make these printers, to fix present machines and create new types of printers. It highlights why open source is important and how building a Reprap can be made easier. He continues to discuss the past, present and future of Reprap. He discusses how making Repraps has become easier with electronics being made by makerbot and other kits that have been put together. The future is to expose the masses to this technology. They have already started creating scaffolding to print things that is more then 45 angles.
talk: reprap talk
search : [1]

Extruder Design[edit]

I. Gubson, D.W. Rosen, B. Sucker, “Extrusion Based Systems”, Additive Manufacturing Technologies, Springer US, pp 143-169, 2010.

  • looks at prototyping technology that uses extrusion (layers of material) to form objects
  • how the extruder works
  • creating supports for overhangs that are not generally possible
  • Stratasys FDM machine
  • Bioextrusion makes porous scaffolds to host animal cells, or creat something to help head trauma (look into this) – Osteopore
  • hydro gels as scaffolding
  • melt extrusion for scaffolding (3D bioplotter system)

search: [1]

Balint Domolki et al, “Information Society Technology Perspectives”, Panorama, National Council for Communication and Information Technology, 2007.

  • pg 25: a field called atomic precise manufacturing may help reprap to work with other materials other then plastic (allowing full self replications)

search: [1]

Materials Information[edit]

Vik Olliver, "Construction of Rapid Prototyping Testbeds using Meccano",Diamond Ace Solutions LTD., Laingholm, Waitakers, New Zealand, 2005.

The report covers an investigation into using recycled high density polyethylene for a rapid prototyping machine. The paper examines the right deposition, temperature and speed that the plastic should be put down on a surface. The main device that was used for extrusion is a modified glue gun. No HDPE extruder.*
search: [1]

Ian Gibson, David W. Rosen, Brent Stucker, “The Use of Multiple Materials in Additive Manufacturing”, Additive Manufacturing Technologies, Springer US, pp. 423-436, 2009. (text missing page 421-423)

  • "Almost since the very beginning, experimenters have tried to use more than one material in Additive Manufacturing machines. In fact, multiple materials are a fundamental benefit to how some AM technologies work. The Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) process, for example, was one of the earliest AM technologies developed and required that sheet material (paper) be combined with a resin to bond the sheets together to form a composite object of paper and resin." (Gibson, Rosen, Stucker, 2009)
  • porous multiple material process (multiple heads/materials/colours)
  • looks at select inhibition sintering (another form of rapid prototyping using a powder)
  • powder mixtures to create materials

search: [1]

Colby Leider, Douglas Mann, Daniel Plazas, “Personalized Tools to Enhance Musical Creativity: Toward Customized Hardware for Audio Manipulation, Frost School of Music, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, United States of America.

  • “Our first controller designed under this strategy, the elBo, is based on a joystick-like shape that is customized to the user’s unique hand shape. It has been used as a controller for live sound diffusion in sound-reinforcement settings, for example in performances of electronic music in which a two-channel composition of pre-recorded music must be upmixed in real time into a large array of loudspeakers (typically eight, sixteen, or more) spaced around a concert hall.” (Leider, Mann, Plazas)
  • the elBo was prototyped on a 3d printer

search: [3]

Håkan Edeholt, Michael Johansson, Simon Niedenthal, Designer or Artisan-Design versus Craftsmanship in Digital Design”,Arts and Communtication, Malmoe University, Sweden.*

search: [3]

Branka Lozo, Maja Stanić, Sonja Jamnicki, and Sanja Mahović Poljaček, “Three-Dimentional Ink Jet Prints- Impact of Infiltrants”, Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, Volume 52, Issue 5, pp. 051004-(8), September/October, 2008.

  • ”Three-dimensional prints are usually finished by an infiltrant agent prior to the final use. Epoxy resin, cyanoacrylate, and a polyurethane-based agent are regularly used. The impact of infiltrant type on the selected mechanical properties and surface appearance of 3D ink jet prints was the focus of the study. The type of infiltrant agent used greatly contributes to the discussed final properties of the prints. As a case study, the application of 3D printing in conventional printing technology was studied. The 3D prints can be used as a negative matrix for conventional photopolymer flexographic printing plate production. It is important that the applied infiltrant does not influence the 3D print dimensions, as well as provide the optimum combination of mechanical and surface properties. “ (Lozo et al,2009)
  • looked at material properties of inkjet 3d printing
  • looking at using 3d printing to make a flexography printing plate

search: [3]

Product Possibilities[edit]

Source: B. Lenman, M. Vermeulen, T Clasessens, P. Van Ransbeeck, "Towards Cost-efficient RPM Technology for Patient Specific PIV Models", University College Ghent, Belgium, 2009.

The article discusses the uses of the Reprap from a bio mechanical view point, and how the Reprap can be used as a learning tool, for diagnostic purposes, and surgery planning. Models are done from scans of a cystic fibrosis patients lower lung and then modeled by Reprap.*
search: [1]

Ed Sells and Adrian Bowyer, "Directly Incorporating Electronics into Conventional Rapid Prototypes",Centre for Biomimetic and Natural Technology, University of Bath, Bath, England.

This paper discusses the possibilities of printing circuit boards by combining rapid prototyping and direct writing technology. The idea is to print a board made of abs plastic and to use Wood's metal as conductors for the circuit. The metal was heated and squeezed into place by a syringe. A syringe holder was printed by the reprap to keep the metal from cooling. After this was perfected, a way of inputting a chip into the system was design as well as a battery holder.*

Jacob Bayless, Mo Chen, and Bing Dai, "Wire Embedding 3D Printer",University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, 2010.

The bulk of the paper concerns the project which the authors undertook to make an extruder that allow reprap to print copper into plastic. The paper goes on to discuss the current developments of printing metal. The paper also discusses the improvements they made to Mendel.*

Till Bovermann, Risto Koiva, Thomas Herman, Helge Ritter, “TUImod-Modular Objects for Tangible User Interfaces”, pervasive, 2008.

  • “In this paper we describe the design and construction of TUImod, a modular system of physical objects with different features. TUImod supports fast prototyping of tangible user interfaces by providing a broad range of elements that can easily be assembled into a variety of objects exhibiting different features. The strength of this system lies in its modular structure, allowing a huge number of object designs.” (Bovermann et al)
  • there is one block that acts as a computer inface, others to change height, to allow interlock between the blocks or to add colour identification. One can also have a magnetic block and tracking on their specially designed desk. These all can be stacked on one another
  • rapid prototyping machine was used to create some of the blocks

search: [3] Micheal Edwards, "Pleech: A Process for Creating and Disseminating a Low-Voltage Wind-Powered Generator", Parsons the New School for Design, MFADR, 2008.

search: [1]

Evan Malone, Hod Lipson, "Multi-Material Freeform Fabrication of Active Systems" , ESDA2008-59313, Haifa, Israel, Jul 7-9, 2008. (used)

  • demonstrate that, “...(1)Solid Freeform Fabrication systems can employ many materials and multiple processes during the course of building a single object, (2) that such systems can produce complete, active, electromechanical devices, rather than only mechanical parts, and (3) that such multi-material SFF systems can be made accessible to, and are of interest to the general public.” (Malone, Lipson, 2008)
  • this technology would cause more inventiveness (to make new technology)
  • describes how fab@home works
  • created Zn-air Batteries with a solid freeform fabricator
  • created electromagnets, circuit board
  • investigated making Inonomeric Polymer-Metl Composite Actuator or other rotary electromagnetic motor
  • created free form transistors
  • investigated making electromechanical relays*

search: [1]

Juan Gonzalez-Gomez, Javier Gonzalez-Quijano, Houxiang Zhang, Mohamed Abderrahim, “Toward the sense of touch in snake modular robots for search and rescue operations”(used)

  • about the use of snakes modular robots to be used in Urban Search and Rescue
  • finds uses for the robot, such as removing gravel from in front of a trapped victim
  • suggests repraps can build parts for this machine to so it cheap

search: [1]

Matthew S. Moses�, Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Gregory S. Chirikjian, “Towards Cyclic Fabrication Systems for Modular Robotics and Rapid Manufacturing”, Whiting School of Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

  • “A cyclic fabrication system (CFS) is a network of materials, tools, and manufacturing processes that can produce all or most of its constituent components. This paper proposes an architecture for a robotic CFS based on modular components. The proposed system is intended to self-replicate via producing necessary components for replica devices. Some design challenges unique to self-replicating machines are discussed.” (Moses, Yamagushi, Chirikjian)
  • created a three dimensional manipulator that is low in metal components (like reprap but no extruder head)

search: [1]

Lawrence Sass, “Materializing Palladio's Ideal Village: Computational Reconstruction through Physical Representation of Digital Information”, Digital Design and Fabrication Group, Department of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

  • use 3d printing to render 3d models of architectural drawing
  • the CAD drawings for this specific project are posted online and can be used by schools and organizations to print their own 3d model (though perhaps a little to detailed for the reprap/Rapman, as well there would be overhangs)
  • used FDM to print and zcorp (printed in plaster)

search: [3]

Ricardo F. M. Garcia, Jonathan D. Hiller, Hod Lipson, “A Vacuum-Based Bonding Mechanism for Modular Robots”, Modular Robots: State of the Art, IEEE 2010 International Conference on Robotics and Automation Workshop, pg. 63-68, May, 2010.

  • “We present our progress on the design and implementation of Vacuubes, a set of robotic modules that exploit vacuum as adhesive force to form and hold structures. We use a first prototype to perform basic experiments that demonstrate the vacuum sealing capabilities of the modules, as well as the proper actuation of a valve designed to propagate vacuum between two of these modules.” (Garcia, Hiller, Lipson, 2010)
  • used 3d printer to make this

Kathryn Port D’Epagnier, “A Computational Tool for the Rapid Design and Prototyping of Propellers for Underwater Vehicles”, Masters of Science paper, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2007.

  • “An open source, MATLAB™-based propeller design code MPVL was improved to include rapid prototyping capabilities as well as other upgrades as part of this effort. The resulting code, OpenPVL is described in this thesis. In addition, results from the development code BasicPVL are presented. An intermediate code, BasicPVL, was created by the author while OpenPVL was under development, and it provides guidance for initial propeller designs and propeller efficiency analysis. OpenPVL is part of the open source software suite of propeller design codes, OpenProp. OpenPVL is in the form of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) which features both a parametric design technique and a single propeller geometry generator. This code combines a user-friendly interface with a highly modifiable platform for advanced users. This tool offers graphical propeller design feedback while recording propeller input, output, geometry, and performance. OpenPVL features the ability to translate the propeller design geometry into a file readable by a Computer Aided Design (CAD) program and converted into a 3D-printable file.” (D’Epagnier, 2007)
  • “The focus of this study is based on the need of propeller users to have an open source computer-based engineering tool for the rapid design of propellers suited to a wide range of underwater vehicles.” (D’Epagnier, 2007)
  • a program that allows information to be put in to design a propeller that can be transferred into CAD and then printed by a 3d printer
  • used FDM printer


Eric Schweikardt, “Designing Modular Robots”, Thesis Proposal for PhD in Computational Design, School of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University, 2008.

  • “This thesis is about heterogeneous modular reconfigurable robotics: a class of physical

systems made up of a number of simpler, computational components that include sensing and actuation. Although this is a new type of system and not in widespread use for any purpose, the current research interest and potential benefits of future effective systems suggest that it will be soon. I aim to make two contributions related to the design of these systems. In an attempt to inform robot designers, this thesis will analyze the properties and parameters of roBlocks, an instance of this class of systems. Design issues related to mechanics, data flow, power, etc. will be addressed, and I will use a notation based on the process calculi for describing and working with concurrent robotic processes.” (Schweikardt, 2008)

  • the bodies of the blocks are made by a 3d printer

search: [3]

Any Sun, “Field Fabrication of Solar-Thermal Power Stream Turbines for Generation of Mechanical Power”, Master of Science in Media Arts and Sciences Thesis, School of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts School of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, 2006.

  • designs a “...field producible, small-scale turbine that uses solar thermal energy to provide mechanical energy. I investigated solar thermal steam-driven turbine system and build and evaluate several versions in field fabrication lab locations around the world. I consider the efficacy of deployment in rural developing areas.” (Sun, 2006)
  • use the 3d printer to print out parts for the turbine (used z-corp)

search: [3]

Fabienne Abadie, Iannis Mahiros, Corina Pascu, “European Perspectives on the Information Society: Annual Monitoring Synthesis and Emerging Trend”, JRC Scientific and Technical Reports, 2008.

  • mentions scanning for hearing aids and custom shoes *

search: [3]


A Tan, T Nixon, "Rapid Prototype Manufacturing System", The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

The paper discusses a rapid prototyping machine that was made at the university based on fab@home Model 1. It discusses that as a rapid prototyper has finally become cheap enough for an average person to afford, people can now design and make their own objects. It discusses the possibility of printing circuit boards to build at home robots. The paper highlights the various other ways rapid prototyping has been developed and the various materials that can be used for this. It continues on to say how the fab@home model was created. The fab@home model uses a piston to extrude rather have plastic pushed at a constant rate, melted and extruded. They tested different materials to see which would be the best for extrusion. A new extrusion tool was designed that would allow small balls of plastic to be used as filament.*
search: [1]

J.P.G. Bona, A.I. Bullas, A.G.R. Impey, D. Krumpel, A.W. Pattinson, H. Scott-Dempster, Fab@Home at Newcastle University, Newcastle Universiy, United Kingdom, 2008. (used)

  • about: " successfully build and commission the Fab@Home desktop rapid prototyping machine, to test and evaluate new materials for implementation in the system and finally to identify and evaluate potential applications for the system." (Bona, Bullas, Impey, Krumpel, Pattinson, Scott-Dempster, 2008)
  • discussed limitations of fab@home, but probably have changed by now
  • attempted surface finishing in metal, but to expensive and time consuming (material is not very strong)
  • materials discussion on best materials for fab@home and possible fillers for the materials (rates them)
  • discuss printing wax molds that can be covered in ceramics and used as molds
  • ideas for production: ear inserts (for noise blockage), hand grips for bikes, shoes lasts (made from a scan of ones foot to fin you properly), replacement parts for household appliances, car parts, and personal designs *

search: [1]

Robin Havener, John Boyea, Evan Malone, Daniel Bernards, John DeFranco, George Malliaras, Hod Lipson, “Freeform Fabrication of Organic Electrochemical Transistors” (used)

  • “Solution-processable organic semiconductors can be used to print transistors under ambient conditions which are

robust enough to function on flexible substrates, and are useful for inexpensive, disposable, and/or flexible applications. Specifically, organic electrochemical transistors (ECT) function at low voltages and with large feature sizes, making them good candidates for freeform fabricated devices. Here we report the first functional ECTs produced via freeform fabrication on glass substrates.” (Havener et al)
search: [5]

Daniel Periard, Evan Malone, Hod Lipson, “Printing Embedded Circuits”. (used)

  • “Automated manufacturing technologies such as freeform fabrication can greatly reduce the cost and complexity of infrastructure required to manufacture unique devices or invent new technologies. Multi-material freeform fabrication processes under development have the potential to automatically build complete functional devices including electronics. Making this technology available to creative individuals will revolutionize art and invention, but requires extensive simplification and cost reduction of what is still a laboratory technology. The combination of a Fab@Home Model 1

personal fabrication system and commercially available materials allows the demonstration of simple and inexpensive freeform fabrication of functional embedded electrical circuits, and useful devices. Using this approach, we have been able to demonstrate an LED flashlight, functional printed circuit boards in 2-dimensions and 3-dimensions that are actually entirely printed, and a child’s toy with embedded circuitry. These results, and the materials and methods involved in producing them will be presented in detail.” (Periard, Malone, Lipson)
search: [5]

Leslie Gordon, “Fab it Now”, Machine Design, 2008.

  • contains materials used
  • wants to build another robot with this device, just not another fab@home

search: [5]

Wayne M. Johnson, Cameron W. Coates, Patrick Hager, and Nyrell Stevens, “Employing Rapid Prototyping in a First Year Engineering Graphics Course”, Armstrong Atlantic State University.

  • Discusses how teaching rapid prototyping in schools would be useful

search: [5]

Adaleena Mookerjee, Daniel L. Cohen, David H. Peng, Lawrence J. Bonassar, Hod Lipson, “A Study of Variable Stiffness Alginate Printing for Medical Applications”.

  • “Technologies for multi-material 3D-printing of anatomical shapes are useful both for fabrication of heterogeneous cell-seeded implants as well as for fabrication of synthetic models for surgical planning and training. For both these applications, it would be desirable to print directly with biological materials to best emulate the target’s properties. Using a novel material platform, we describe a series of experiments attempting to print variable-stiffness hydrogels. We vary compliances by alternating 2% alginate hydrogel and a Dextran-infused calcium chloride post-crosslinker. Stiffness throughout the construct ranged from 4 kPa to 20 kPa as a function of post-crosslinker concentration, which was spatially specified by the user.” (Mookerjee et al)

search: [5]

Irene Posch, Hideaki Ogawa, Christopher Lindinger, Roland Haring, Horst Hortner, “Introducing the FabLab as Interactive Exhibition Space”, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, 254-257, 2010.

  • “This paper introduces an approach to include a fab lab into an interactive exhibition space of a museum. Fab labs, as coined by Neil Gershenfeld, have established a great point of view for educational access to modern means of invention and technological empowerment. However realizations so far have been mainly focused on technical equipment and peer- to-peer project based training. Given the context of a museum, we focused on providing an open and easy for every visitor accessible design and fabrication space focusing on identified key elements like creative prototyping and shared creativity within the range of the realized integrative system. We describe our findings based on the work for the FabLab at the Ars Electronica Center (AEC) in Linz, Austria.” (Posch et al, 2010)

search: [5]

John Boyea, Evan Malone, Hod Lipson, “Electrochemical Transistors on Printed Substrates Patterned with Ink-Jet Printing”. (used)

  • “By using solution processable materials (a conjugated polymer) and other printable materials (in an additive patterning method), an electrochemical transistor device is produced. Films are patterned on epoxy and polyvinyl phenol. Gating the device causes modulation in current.” (Boyea, Malone, Lipson)
  • printing electromagnetic relay with a Fab@home and Hewlett-Packard 51604A thermal ink-jet printer head

search: [5]

Ayeeshik Kole, Bao Nguyen, Jeffery R. Enders, Todd R. Graham, P. Anthony Weil, Kevin T. Seale,, John A. McLean, John P. Wikswo, “Monitoring of real-time protein concentrations in cellular yeast secretomes”.

  • printing yeast for an experiment, don't have enough biology background to truly understand

search: [5]

L. Hao, S. Mellor, O. Seaman, J. Henderson, N. Sewell, M. Sloan, “Material Characterization and Process Development for Chocolate Additive Layer Manufacturing” Virtual and Physical Prototyping, Volume 5, Issue 2, 57-64, June 2010.

  • How to print in chocolate

search: [5]

Y. Ariadi, A.E.W Rennie, “Templates for Consumer Use in Designing Customized Products”, Lancaster Product Development Unit, Engineering Department, Lancaster, United Kingdom, 2008.

  • “This research proposes a new design system for consumers who would use the product to run an easy-to-operate design and selection tool by themselves instead of conventional Computer Aided Design (CAD). In terms of manufacturing the product, several studies focus on involving the consumer as much and as early as possible. However, recent developments of Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) technologies have led to a renewed interest in allowing the consumers to develop customized products. As a result, manufacturing is being brought closer to consumers. This paper would simplify the CAD

stages by utilizing design templates for consumer use in customising additive layer manufactured products.” (Ariadi, Rennie, 2008)
search: [5]

Hod Lipson, “Printable 3D Models for Customized Hands-on Education”, Sibely School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA

  • “Physical models are an important form of hands-on active learning that is increasingly being replaced by virtual simulations. In this paper I propose that rapid prototyping technology has the potential to reverse this trend, and reap the educational benefits while eliminating many of the logistic difficulties that have lead to it. Moreover, the use of rapid prototyping can offer new opportunities to enhance accessibility to physical teaching models and customize them for specific personal learning needs, thereby opening new educational possibilities. To accelerate this opportunity, we have established a repository of 3D-Printables models for education at .” (Lipson)

search: [5]

Evan Malone, Hod Lipson, “Freeform Fabrication of a Complete Electromagnetic Relay”, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA. (used)

  • “We seek to produce electromechanical relays entirely via freeform fabrication as part of a larger effort to freeform fabricate complete electromechanical devices. Relays which can switch using an input current of less than 100 microamperes, gain greater than 10, and an open/closed resistance ratio of greater than 103 will make feasible the control of freeform fabricated actuators by printable organic polymer transistor circuits, opening up a design space of completely freeform fabricated electromechanical actuation systems.” (Malone, Lipson)

search: [5]

Dan Periard, Noy Schaal, Maor Schaal, Evan Malone, Hod Lipson, “Printing Food”,

  • “This paper examines the possible applications of food as a raw material in freeform fabrication, and provides several demonstrations of edible three-dimensional objects. The use of edible materials offers several advantages: First, it opens the door to the application of SFF technology in custom food industry, such as manufacturing of complex confections with

specialized geometries and intricate material compositions. For pedagogical purposes, edible materials provide an easily accessible, nontoxic and low cost way to experiment with rapid prototyping techniquesusing educational systems such as Fab@Home. For more traditional SFF technologies, food materials with appropriate rheological properties can serve as sacrificial, bio-degradable, bio-compatible or recyclable materialsfor structural support and draft-printing. We have used the Fab@Home personal fabrication system to produce multi-material edible 3D objects with cake frosting, chocolate, processed cheese, and peanut butter. These are just indicative of the range of potential edible materials and applications.” (Periard et al)
search: [5]

Micro Scale Printing and Biological Applications[edit]

A. Pasko, T. Vilbrandt, O. Fryazinov, V. Adzhiev, “Procedural function-based spatial microstructures”, Technical Report. Bournemouth University, Poole, Dorset, United Kingdom 2009.

  • “We propose a new approach to modelling heterogeneous objects containing internal spatial geometric structures with size of details orders of magnitude smaller than the overall size of the object. The proposed function-based procedural representation provides a compact, precise, and arbitrarily parameterized model allowing for modelling coherent microstructures, which can undergo blending, offsetting, deformations, and other geometric operations, and can be directly rendered and fabricated without generating any auxiliary representations. In particular, modelling of regular lattices and porous media is discussed and illustrated. Examples of microstructure models rendering and fabrication using a variety of digital fabrication machines and materials are presented.” (Pasko et al, 2009)
  • used special machines to create their micro-structures, though in future they are looking at using reprap

search: [1]

Alexandre Gillet, Micheal Sanner, Daniel Stoffler, David Goodsell, Arthur Olson, “Augmented Reality with Tangible Auto-Fabricated Models for Molecular Biology Applications”, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, United States of America, 2004. (used)

  • “The evolving technology of computer auto-fabrication ("3-D printing") now makes it possible to produce physical models for complex biological molecules and assemblies. We report on an application that demonstrates the use of auto-fabricated tangible models and augmented reality for research and education in molecular biology, and for enhancing the scientific environment for collaboration and exploration.” (Gillet et Al, 2004)
  • producing models to understand how things work in molecular biology and to come up with theories on how things work (use 3d printing for this, though not reprap but zcorp printer)
  • discusses modeling of molecular systems they wish to produce
  • good for high school education

search: [3]

F. Murgia, Gabriella Pusceddu, Gregorio Franzoni, Piero Pili, Massimiliano Tuveri, “Anatomical Shape Reconstruction and Manufacturing: Solving Topological Changes of Lumen Vessel through Geometric Approach.”, CRS4 TR 03/78, Nov 2003. (used)

  • “RP makes it possible, in vascular surgery, to produce accurate anatomic replicas of patient vessels. These replicas can help the customization of surgical invasive interventions such as in situ stent-graft insertion in carotid region. The main goal of this work is to obtain high quality in lumen reconstruction and manufacturing replicas by RP technique. This goal is achieved through the complete control of each phase of the generating process.” (Murgia et al, 2003)
  • used FDM Technique for printing

search: [3]

Daniel J. Kelley, Mohammed Farhoud, M. Elizabeth Meyerand, David L. Nelson, Lincoln F. Ramirez, Robert J. Dempsey, Alan J. Wolf, Andrew L. Alexander, Richard J. Davidson, “Creating Physical 3D Stereolithograph Models of Brain and Skull”, PLoS ONE., 2(10): e1119, 2007. (used)

  • “However, medical images are often two dimensional (2D) and provide incomplete visualization of structural morphology. To overcome this loss in dimension, we developed and validated a freely available, semi-automated pathway to build 3D virtual reality (VR) and handheld, stereolithograph models.” (Kelley et al, 2007)
  • this helps with education, diagnosis and surgical planning
  • modelled brain and produced a streolithograph model
  • thingyverse:

search: [3]

Martins Kalejs, Ludwig Karl von Segesser, “Rapid Prototyping of Complant Human Aortic Roots for Assessment of Valved Stents”, Interact CardioVasc Thorac Surg, 8:182-186, 2008. (used)

(work in progress report, experimental)

  • “Adequate in-vitro training in valved stents deployment as well as testing of the latter devices requires compliant real-size models of the human aortic root. The casting methods utilized up to now are multi-step, time consuming and complicated. We pursued a goal of building a flexible 3D model in a single-step procedure. We created a precise 3D CAD model of a human aortic root using previously published anatomical and geometrical data and printed it using a novel rapid prototyping system developed by the Fab@Home project. As a material for 3D fabrication we used common house-hold silicone and afterwards dip-coated several models with dispersion silicone one or two times. To assess the production precision we compared the size of the final product with the CAD model.” (Kalejs, von Segesser, 2008)
  • modeling is used for: It is used, “..routinely not just for diagnostic purposes but also for intervention planning and guidance in fields of radiology, neurosurgery and cranio-facial surgery...”(Kalejs, von Segesser, 2008)
  • also used by cadiologists and cardiovascular surgeons
  • used fab@home as it can print in the material they use (silicon)


John Konieczny, “Investigating the Process of Converting Microscopy Data sets for Use with Additive Manufacturing”,. (similar to another paper)

  • “The objective of this research is to explore the use of advanced imaging technology for utilization with additive manufacturing (AM) to produce detailed and accurate three-dimensional biological models at the cellular level for use in biological instruction and laboratory study. At this time, three-dimensional models in a virtual computer environment and two-dimensional analyses of microscopy images are the primary methods employed allowing researchers the capacity to observe specimens being investigated. Instructional aides for specimens on this scale

consist of inaccurate renditions of what is actually taking place, making them unusable for research investigations due to the inherent inaccuracies they possess. This work illustrates the development of a methodology to produce more accurate three-dimensional, tactile cellular models allowing for a new way to view the biological structures and processes captured through microscopy. It is anticipated that this new capability will assist researchers in their study of biological specimens and events, as well as help students at all levels to gain a better understanding of structures and events taking place under the microscopes lens.” (Konieczny)

  • Talks about how microscopy is used for additive manufacturing
  • uses: Z Corporation’s Spectrum Z™ 510

search: [3]

Didier A. Rajon, Frank J. Bova, R. Rick Bhasin, William A. Friedman, “An Investigation of the Potential of Rapid Prototyping Technology for Image-Guided Surgery”, Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, Volume 7, Number 4, 2006.

  • “Image-guided surgery can be broken down into two broad categories: frame-based guidance and frameless guidance. In order to reduce both the invasive nature of stereotactic guidance and the cost in equipment and time, we have developed a new guidance technique based on rapid prototyping (RP) technology. This new system first builds a computer model of the patient anatomy and then fabricates a physical reference frame that provides a precise and unique fit to the patient anatomy. This frame incorporates a means of guiding the surgeon along a preplanned surgical trajectory. This process involves (1) obtaining a high-resolution CT or MR scan, (2) building a computer model of the region of interest, (3) developing a surgical plan and physical guide, (4) designing a frame with a unique fit to the patient's anatomy with a physical linkage to the surgical guide, and (5) fabricating the frame using an RP unit.” (Rajon et al, 2006)
  • used Zcorp

search: [3]

D. L. Cohen , E. Malone E, H. Lipson, L. J. Bonassar. “Direct Free Form Fabrication of Seeded Hydrogels in Arbitrary Geometries”, Tissue Eng, Volume 12, Number 5, 2006. (used)

  • “A major challenge in tissue engineering is the generation of cell-seeded implants with structures that mimic native tissue, both in anatomic geometries and intratissue cell distributions. By combining the strengths of injection molding tissue engineering with those of solid freeform fabrication (SFF), three-dimensional (3-D) pre-seeded implants were fabricated without custom-tooling, enabling efficient production of patient-specific implants. The incorporation of SFF technology also enabled the fabrication of geometrically complex, multiple-material implants with spatially heterogeneous properties that would otherwise be challenging to produce. Utilizing a custom-built robotic SFF platform and gel deposition tools, alginate hydrogel was used with calcium sulfate as a crosslinking agent to produce pre-seeded living implants of arbitrary geometries. The process was determined to be sterile and viable at 94 � 5%. The GAG and hydroxyproline production was found to be similar to that of other implants fabricated using the same materials with different shaping methods. The geometric fidelity of the process was quantified by using the printing platform as a computerized measurement machine (CMM); the RMS surface roughness of printed samples in the z-dimension was found to be 0.16 � 0.02 mm.” (Cohen et al, 2006)
  • “Three-dimensional (3-D) tissues with complex geometries have been fabricated through seeding of cells onto molded scaffolds13 or injection molding of cell-seeded hydrogels.”(Cohen et al, 2006)
  • used printer similar to fab@home

Aleksander Skardal, Jianxing Zhang, Glenn D. Prestwich “Bioprinting vessel-like constructs using hyaluronan hydrogels crosslinked with tetrahedral polyethylene glycol tetracrylates”, Biomaterials 31, 6173-6181, 2010.

  • “ Third,the Tetra Pacs ECMs were employed in a proof-of-concept experiment by encapsulation of NIH3T3 cells in sausage-like hydrogel macrofilaments. These macro- filaments were then printed into tubular tissue constructs by layer-by-layer deposition using the Fab@Home printing system. LIVE/DEAD viability/ cytotoxicity-stainedcross-sectional images showed the bio printed cell structures to be viable in culture for up to 4 weeks with little evidence of cell death. Thus, biofabrication of cell suspensions in TetraPAcsECMs demonstrates the feasibility of building bioartificial blood vessel-like constructs for research and potentially clinical uses.” (Skardal, Zhang, Prestwich, 2010)
  • “Tissue engineered vascular grafts are a potential alternative source to blood vessel autografts, allografts, and xenografts.”(Skardal, Zhang, Prestwich, 2010)
  • “Bio printing is an approach to tissue engineering that is described as “layer-by-layer additive robotic bio fabrication of three-dimensional (3-D) functional living macro tissues and organ constructs.”[14]. A 3-D printing device is used to deposit “bioink” (cells) and “biopaper” (scaffoldmaterials) by layers into predesigned 3-D organizations [15,16]. The efficacy of this approach has been shown in work where cell aggregates were deposited into hydrogels and then fused together, creating seamless tissues [17e19]. However,success of bio printing so far has been limited by apaucity of biomaterials that are compatible with printing devices. (Skardal, Zhang, Prestwich, 2010)
  • “...we further illustrate the efficacy and versatility of this simple system for tissue engineering applications by demonstrating its use in printing tubular tissue structures.” (Skardal, Zhang, Prestwich, 2010)

A. Muller, K. Krishnan, G. Kartik, E. Uhl, G. Mast, “The Application of Rapid Prototyping Techniques in Cranial Reconstruction and Preoperative Planning in Neurosurgery”, Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 14, 899-914, 2003.

  • can not get entire document, only abstract:
  • “The planning of approaches to uncommon and complex skull base tumors (group III) was significantly influenced by the stereolithographic models. The esthetic outcome was pleasing. The indications for the manufacture of individual three-dimensional models could be cases of craniofacial dysmorphism that require meticulous preoperative planning and skull base surgery with difficult anatomical and reconstructive problems. The stereolithographic models provide 1) better understanding of the anatomy, 2) presurgical simulation, 3) intraoperative accuracy in localization of lesions, 4) accurate fabrication of implants, and 5) improved education of trainees.

Stereolithography and laser sintering are rapid prototyping techniques that are widely applied in the manufacturing industry for the development of tools and spare parts. These parts, which are created using geometrical data, are initially designed on the computer screen. The stereolithographic and laser sintering devices are comparable to a printer that produces three-dimensional models on a slice-by-slice basis. This idea is incorporated in medicine, combining computed tomography (CT) and stereolithography, where CT produces sliced data on the region of interest of the body and the stereolithography device reconstructs the slices into three-dimensional models. Using the cranial CT data of the patient as the axial data set, three-dimensional models of the skull of a patient could be stereolithographically produced and used for planning neurosurgical procedures. Stereolithography was used until recently for manufacturing implants in dentistry, in the preoperative planning of craniomaxillofacial surgery, in otorhinolaryngology, and in documentation of coronary arteries. 1-4,5 Stereolithographic models are also used in reconstruction of fossil remnants in anthropomorphological research. 6,7 The traditional planning of skull base procedures involves familiarization with the anatomy using cadaver skulls, which may not always correspond to the anatomy of individual patients. By reproducing the skull of the individual patient, which also includes the pathological tissue to be removed, the planning is more precise. In reconstructing bony skull defects, the exactness of modeling the missing part depends largely on the sculpting skills of the surgeon. Using stereolithography, negative blocks can be produced that are used to model the missing bony part precisely using fast-solidifying mixtures like liquid polymethlmetacrylate solution (Palacos® Biomed Merck GmbH, Altdorf, Switzerland) in a simple manner and thus producing results that are not based solely on the skills of the surgeon.” (Muller et al, 2003)

G. M. Kacl, M. Zanetti, Amgwerd, O. Trentz, B. Seifert, H. Stucki, J. Hodler, “Rapid Prototyping (stereolithography) in the Management of Intra-Articular Calcaneal Fractures”, European Radiology, 7, 187-191, 1997.

  • “A total of 30 intra-articular calcaneal fractures were examined using standard radiographs, coronal

CT scans, and 2D and 3D reformations. The CT data were transferred to an outside institution, and stereolithograms were produced from photopolymer resin employing a laser beam system. 3D reformations and stereolithograms were analyzed in a blinded fashion by two staff radiologists.” (Kacl et al, 1997)

  • “Based on our results stereolithograms did not prove to be statistically superior to workstation-based 3D reformations. Stereolithograms may still be useful for teaching purposes and for surgical planning at a thinking-efficacy level.” (Kacl et al, 1997) – in the end it is the best for training new surgeons
  • “The purpose of this investigation was to compare the diagnostic performance of stereolithography and workstation-

based 3D reformations in intra-articular calcaneal fractures.” (Kacl et al, 1997)

Y. Tie, R. Ma, M. Ye, D. Wang, C. Wang, “Rapid prototyping fabrication and finite element evaluation of the three-dimensional medical pelvic model”, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 28, 302-306, 2005.

  • “This paper presents a non-uniform, periodic closed B-spline approximation algorithm for the fabrication of a medical pelvic model, based on rapid prototyping, and also gives the finite element evaluation of the pelvic model.” (Tie et al, 2005)
  • “Finally, the model of the pelvis was evaluated with the finite element method. Results suggest that a high similarity has been achieved in terms of shape, size and biomechanical properties of the pelvic model and the normal one, which validates our argument that rapid prototyping with non-uniform, periodic closed B-spline algorithm is suitable for the fabrication of a pelvic model, which will prove to be significant in the design of pelvic prostheses.” (Tie et al, 2005)
  • “The pelvis replacement substitutes individual pelvic prosthesis for the abnormal pelvis, which can save the lower limbs of the patient. Pelvic prostheses can be customized based on the rapid prototyping, and therefore can completely meet the surgical requirements of shape and precision.”(Tie et al, 2005)
  • “The RP model of a pelvis can provide the visual and tactual information for diagnosis and therapy, and can assist a surgeon in setting down the surgical plan rapidly. Moreover, the three-dimensional model can be implanted into human body.” (Tie et al, 2005)
  • laminated object manufacturing was used for this specific printing

Open Source Software[edit]

Erik Rubow,"Open Source Hardware",2008. 2009.

This paper discusses the ways in which hardware can become open source as well as some successful open source technologies.

Christine Raasch, Cornelius Herstatt and Kerstin Balka,"On the Open Design of Tangible Goods", R&D Management, Vol 39, Issue 4, pp. 382-393, September 2009.

  • This paper is a study of open source software.
  • talks about the differences between open source software and software supplied by companies
  • the paper is generally a case study on how open source communities work (including reprap)
  • discuss limitations on open sourcing

search: [1]

Alex Ball, Colin Neilson, "Scarp Case Study No. 7: DCC Scarp Interim Case Study Report", Digital Curation Center, 2010.

  • "This case study examines approaches to data deposit, sharing an reuse in engineering research fields within the Uk Higher Education Sector." (Ball, Neilson, 2010)
  • gives suggestions on how to improve research systems including sharing between schools and disciplines in engineering
  • small mention of reprap in cohesion with skienforge


Bin Huang, “Development of Software procedure for Curved layered Fused Deposition Modelling”, Auckland University of Tchnology, Auckland University, Auckland, New Zealand, 2009.

(masters thesis)

  • ”The project involves the construction of an FDM (fused deposition modelling) system and then development of mathematical models for curved slicing. The numerical data generated from curved slicing algorithms is integrated with the hardware system for the practical implementation of CLFDM(curved layered fused layer deposition modelling).” (Haung, 2009)
  • discusses stair-step effect of depositing layers on top of one another (part of rapid prototyping process) and how it is more obvious in curved parts
  • discusses how layering technique leads to lower tensile strength
  • See papers on Fused Deposition of Ceramics, Direct Metal Deposition, Multinozzle biopolymer deposition system, and orientation of deposition head investigation (16-21 in the references)
  • main point of project, “...the development of curved layered slicing algorithms, building a suitable FDM platform and practical implementation of CLFDM ...” (Haung, 2009)

search: [1]

Nizar Abdelkafi, Thorsten Blecker, Christina Raasch, “From Open Source in the Digital to the Physical World: A smooth Transfer?”, Management Decision Vol. 47 No. 10, pp. 1610-1632, 2009.

  • “The purpose of this paper is to investigate the transferability of the open source principles of product development from the realm of software to the realm of physical products.” (Abdelkafi, Blecker, Raasch, 2009)
  • discusses open source software

search: [1]

Prototyped Parts[edit]

Jessica Kottke “An Investigation of Quantifying and Monitoring Stone Surface Deterioration Using Three Dimensional Laser Scanning”, Graduate Program in Historic Preservation Theses, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, 2009.

  • printed 3d models

search: [3]

Young Sang Choi, “A Study of Human-Robot Interaction with an Assistive Robot to Help People with Severe Motor Impairments”, Doctorate of Philosophy Thesis, H. Milton Stewart School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America, 2009.

  • used 3d printer for prototyping

search: [3]


Paul Wallich, "Self-Made Machine",Foster vol.46 iss.1 pg.24, 2009.

A basic article describing Reprap and its community.

William J. Turkel, Devon Elliott, "Rapid Prototyping to Support Experimental History", University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, 2010.

(says not to cite or circulate this paper)

This paper discusses society and its new want to build, tweak and change existing hardware and other products to fit their needs/wants. The paper looks at how personal fabrication will change our world from a historical context. it continues to talk about the uses of a rapid prototyper to teach specifically about history.
search: [1]

S. Bradshaw, A. Bowyer and P. Haufe, "The Intellectual Property Implications of Low-Cost 3D Printing", 7:1 SCRIPTed 5, 2010.

This paper describes reprap and other machines it has spawned as well as the objects that could be made such as spare parts, hobby items and unique designs. The bulk of the paper is about the legal implications of rapid prototyping anything that might be under copyright.

Jonathan Corney, "The Next and Last Industrial Revolution?",Viewpoint From: Assembly Automation, Volume 25, Issue 4.

Good basics on Reprap.*

Evan Malone, Hod Lipson, "Fab@Home: the Personal Desktop FabricaterKit", Rapid Prototyping Journal, Volume 13, Number 4, pg. 245-255, 2007.

This article starts off by comparing the unknown public importance of rapid prototyping to the early beliefs about the computer. Most of the paper discusses the Fablab project going on at Cornell. It talks about the importance of a user community that can build on each other and create a better product.
search: [1]

T. Vilbrandt, E. Malone, H. Lipson, and A. Pasko, "Universal Desktop Fabrication", Heterogeneous Objects Modelling and Applications, Volume 4889/2008, Springer Berlin, 2008.

  • This article discusses the meaning of a rapid prototyping machine in terms of the world and how it will change it. The article goes on to talk about other prototyping methods and how rapid prototyping and learn from them. It also describes the problems with the current rapid prototyping systems such as accessibility, accuracy and complexity. The article outlines the fab@home program and hyperfun, a programming language that allows people to define a geometric object and how the two should be bridged and their work to do so.
  • “We are proposing a new paradigm for manufacturing, which we call Universal Desktop Fabrication (UDF), and a framework for its development. UDF will be a coherent system of volumetric digital design software able to handle infinite complexity at any spatial resolution and compact, automated, multi-material digital fabrication hardware. This system aims to be inexpensive, simple, safe and intuitive to operate, open to user modification and experimentation, and capable of rapidly manufacturing almost any arbitrary, complete, high-quality, functional object. Through the broad accessibility and generality of digital technology, UDF will enable vastly more individuals to become

innovators of technology, and will catalyze a shift from specialized mass production and global transportation of products to personal customization and point-of-use manufacturing.” (Vilbrandt, Malone, Lipson, Pasko,2008)


Paul Wallich, "A Self made Machine", Leee Spectrum 1.09.

  • Magazine article briefly explaining reprap

search: [1]

Richard J Bateman, Kai Cheng, "Rapid Manufacturing as a tool for agile manufacturing: application and implementation perspectives", Journal of Agile Manufacturing, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 39-55, 2007.

  • pros of additive procedure that rapid prototypes use to build
  • looks at all the different additive systems
  • companies are replacing current manufacturing technologies with rapid prototyping technology (looking at benifits)
  • allows companies to easily make new things
  • Nasa*

search: [1]

Scott C. Chase, “Virtual worlds as collaborative environments for design and manufacturing: from idea to product”, 2nd International Workshop on Virtual Manufacturing, 5th INTUITION International Conference proceedings, Turin, Italy, 6-8 October 2008.

  • “This paper describes their use for product design and manufacturing, with examples from the virtual world Second Life for idea generation, collaborative design, and virtual manufacturing.” (Chase, 2008)
  • second life is a 3d virtual software (free)

search: [1]

Gregory S. Chrikjian, Kiju Lee, Matt Moses, “Robotic Self-Replication in Structured Environments: Physical Demonstrations and Complexity Measures”, International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol 27, No. 3-4, pp. 287-401, 2008.

  • “In this paper we define a complexity ratio that measures the degree to which a robot is self-replicating based on the number and complexity of subsystems that it can assemble to form a functional replica.” (Chrikjian, Lee, Moses, 2008)
  • looking at robots that can assemble themselves
  • look at the math behind the complexity

search: [4]

A. M. Hoover, S. Avadhanula, R. Groff, Ronald S. Fearing, “A rapidly Prototyped 2-Axis Positioning Stage for Microassembly using Large Displacement Compliant Mechanisms” University of California, Berkely, CA, United States of America, 2006.

  • proposing something like reprap, but only was designed to move in two dimentions

search: [3]

Hao-Yun Haung, Qize Le, and Jitesh H. Panchal, “Analysis of the Structure and Evolution of an Open Source Community”, Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2010.

  • “In order to successfully adapt open-source processes to product realization there is a need to understand how open-source communities self-organize and how that impacts the development of the products. Towards the direction of fulfilling this need, we present an analysis of an existing open-source community involved in developing a web-based content-management platform, Drupal.” (Huang, Le, Panchal, 2010)

search: [3]

Ilan Ellison Moyer, “Rapid Prototyping of Rapid Prototyping Machines”, Bachelor of Science Thesis, Massachusetts Insittute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, 2008.

  • “Rapid prototyping tools empower individuals to create almost anything. Unfortunately, these tools are still far too expensive for personal ownership. The do-it-yourself community has responded with a slew of home-made rapid prototyping machines, but development times are slow because of the complexity of the necessary control system and the need to design the mechanical elements from scratch. This thesis seeks to address both of these issues. A control system is developed which treats the machine as a distributed Internet Zero network controlled by a software virtual machine with the benefits of simplified configuration and greater flexibility. A low cost circuit board milling machine, built as the test bed for this distributed controller, is described in detail. Finally, a parametrically designed XY table is introduced as a prototype for a universal machine axis and a first step towards the creation of reusable machine designs. These contributions will hopefully aid in accelerating the development of new rapid prototyping machines.” (Moyer, 2008)
  • wants to help people build/design their own rapid prototyper without having an engineering degree
  • makes up his own rapid prototype along with the programming to go with it

search: [3]

David Celento, “Innovate or Perish; New technologies and Architecture’s Future”, Harvard Design Magazine, number 27, Spring/Summer, 2007.

  • mentions using 3d printing for architectural prototypes

search: [3]

Not Pertinent[edit]

G. J. Van Niekerk, "A model for transparent data exchange in layered manufacturing", Academy of Information Technology, University of Johannesburg, August 13, 2008.

  • PHD thesis to "to provide a platform and format-neutral exchange mechanism for Layered Manufacturing (LM) and Telemanufacturing" (G.J. Van Niekerk, 2008)
  • Briefly mentions reprap in connection to this project

search: [1]

Marek Bereza, "Rise of the Replicator: The Evolution of Media into the Tangible", Royal College of Art, 2007.

  • talks about various types of information communication (print,telegraph, internet ect.)

search: [1]

David Koepsell, “Let’s Get Small: An Introduction to Transitional Issues in Nanotech and Intellectual Property”, Nanoethics, 3:157–166, 2009.
search: [1]

David Wheeler, “Fully Countering Trusting Trust through Diverse Double-Compiling”, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, United States, 2009.

S. Arumuganathar, S. N. Jayainghe, “Aerodynamically Assisted Jet Fabrication and Deposition of Composite Scaffolds via Concentric Needles”, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Research Letters in Materials Science, Volume 2007, Article ID 60438, 2007.

  • “In this letter, we elucidate a novel and versatile scaffold process fabrication methodology with a concentric jetting process that shows tremendous possibilities for forming stable composite scaffolds. Our studies combine a specially formulated medical grade PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) medium together with this concentric jetting process demonstrating significant possibilities for controlled composite scaffold formation and deposition.” (Arumuganathar, Jayainghe, 2007)
  • looking at something that creates a much smaller scale extrusion then reprap (not for home printing, but to be used for the life sciences

search: [1]

Leonardo Bonanni, Amanda Parkes, Hiroshi Ishii, “Future Craft: How Digital Media is Transforming Product Design”, CHI 2008 Proceedings, Florence, Italy, April 5-10, 2008.

  • “This paper introduces Future Craft, a design methodology which applies emerging digital tools and processes to product design toward new objects that are socially and environmentally sustainable.” (Bonanni, Parkes, Ishii, 2008)
  • public design (via internet sharing vs. design by people who are far away from their consumers vs. local design (niche) vs. personal design

search: [1]

Ian Gibson, David W. Rosen, Brent Stucker, “Development of Additive Manufacturing Technologies”, Additive Manufacturing Technologies, Springer US, pp. 17-39, 2009.

  • “This chapter highlights some of the key moments that catalogue the development of Additive Manufacturing technology. It will describe how the different technologies converged to a state where they could be integrated into AM machines. It will also discuss milestone AM (additive manufacturing) technologies. Furthermore, we will discuss how the application of Additive Manufacturing has evolved to include greater functionality and embrace a wider range of applications beyond the initial intention of just prototyping.” (Gidbson, Rosen, Stucker, 2009)
  • discusses CAD and how it changed things
  • discusses various additive manufacturing techniques based on material they work with

search: [1]

Andrew J. Kornecki, Thomas B. Hilburn, Wojciech Grega, Miroslav Sveda, Jean-Marc Thiriet, “Ilert – International Learnign Environment for Real-Time Software-Intensive”, Journal of Automation, Mobile Robotics & Intelligent Systems, vol 3, N°1, pg 66-75, 2009.

  • “The study discussed in this paper is focused on the creation of international

curriculum framework centred on RSIC (real-time software-intesive control systems) – this important aspect of computer-system-control-software engineering education. The study explores the mechanism for involving students from multilingual, geographically separated institutions in a coordinated educational experience.” (Kornecki et al, 2009)
search: [1]

Matt Mason, “The Pirate's Delemma: How Youth Culture is Reinventing Capitalism”, Free Press, Simon & Schuster, New York, 2008.
search: [1]

Hala I. Chaoui, Claus G. Sørensen, “Review of Technological Advances and Technological Needs Ecological Agriculture (organic farming)”, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan, 2008.
search: [1]

Kieran Delaney and Jian Liang, “Co-Design: From Electronic Substrates to Smart Objects”, Ambient Intelligence with Microsystems , Microsystems, Springer US, pg 285-296.

search: [1]

Torben Steeg, “Makers, Hackers, and Fabbers: What is the Future for D&T, Norman, E.W.L. and Spendlove, D. (eds.). The Design and Technology Association International Research Conference, [Loughborough University, 2-4 July]. Wellesbourne : The Design and Technology Association, pp. 65-73, 2008.

search: [1]

Andrew Rice, Simon Hay, “Decomposing Power Measurements for Mobile Devices” Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

search: [1]

Eric von Hippel, Jeroen P.J. De Jong,Open, “Distribution and User-Centered: Towards a Paradigm Shift in Innovation Policy”, EIM Research Reports, Zoetermeet, The Netherlands, 2010.

search: [1]

Diane Pfeiffer, “Digital Tools, Distributed Making and Design”, Virginia Polytechnic, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States, 2009.

search: [1]

Kieran Delaney, Simon Dobson, “Augmenting Materials to build Cooperating Objects”, Ambient Intelligence with Microsystems, Microsystems, Springer US, pp. 19-46, 2008.

Petra Gruber, “The Signs of Life in Architecture”, Bioinspiration & Biomemetics, Volume 3, Number 2, June, 2008.

search: [1]

Sam Vaknin, “TrendSiters Digital Content and Web Technologies”, Lidija Rangelovska, Republic of Macedonia, 2009.

search: [1]

Victor de Lorenzo, Antoine Danchin, “Synthetic Biology: Discovering New Worlds and New Words”, EMBO reports 9, pp. 822-827, 2008.

search: [3]

Sabrina Haskell, Andrew Hosmer, Eugenia Leu, “An Extensible Platform for Interactive, Entertaining Social Experience with an Animatronic Character”, ACM International Conference Proceedings Series, Vol. 265, pg. 141-148, 2005.

search: [3]

Jared Bendis, SWAG me, baby!, ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, Volume 40, Issue 3, November, 2006.

search: [3]

Phil Anderson, Cherie Ann Sherman, [ “A Discussion of the New Business Models for 3D Printing”], International Journal of Technology Marketing, Volume 2, Number 3, pg. 280-294, 2007.

search: [3]

Craig Loftus, “Freeing Information in Engineering Design”, Bath University, Bath, England.

Search: [3]

Aaron Weiss, “Open Source Hardware: freedom you can hold?”, netWorker, Volume 12, Issue 3, pg. 26-33, September, 2008.

search: [3]

Stefan Zedlacher, Michael Stadler, “Mediated Situationism”,EVA Lodon Conference, 2009.

search: [3]

Advait Jain, Charles C. Kemp, “Pulling Open Doors and Drawers Coordinating an Omni Directional Base and a Compliant Arm with Equilibrium Point Control”.

search: [3]

Pablo Figueroa, Mauricoa Coral, Pierre Boulanger et al, “Multi—modal Exploration of Small Artifacts: an Exhibition at the Gold Museum in Bogota”, Proceedings of the 16th Anual ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, Session: Haptics & Multi-Modality, pg. 67-74, 2009.

search: [3]

Pravin Sathe, [ “Suspended on a Road from Here to There”], Master of Professional Studies paper, Telecommunications Program, Tisch Scool of the Arts, New York University, New York, New York, United States of America, 2003.

search: [3]

Melanie Swan, “Economics of the Future: Plus ça Change”, MS Futures Group, Palo Alto, California, United States of America.

search: [3]

Roderich Groß, Stéphane Magnenat, Lorenz Küchler, Vasili Massaras, Michael Bonani, and Francesco Mondada, “Towards an Autonomous Evolution of Non-Biological Physical Organisms”, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2009.

search: [3]

Conor Slater, John Cleary, Christina McGraw, William Yerazunis, King Tong Lau, “Autonomous Feild-deployable Device for the measurement of Phosphate in Natural Water”, Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories, 2007.

search: [3]

Joshua E. Auerbach, Josh C. Bongard, “Dynamic Resolution in the Co-Evolution of Morphology and Control”, Morphology, Evolution and Cognition Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America, 2010.

search: [3]

Joshua E. Auerbach, Josh C. Bongard, “Evolving CPPNs to Grow Three-Dimentional Physical Structures”, Morphology, Evolution and Cognition Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America, 2010.

search: [3]

Saul Griffith, “Mechanical Morphogensis: Programmable Assembly of Self-Replicating Machines”, Doctor of Philosophy Thesis Proposal, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

search: [3]

Stuart Tosten Tett, “A Scripting Interface for Doubly Linked Face List Based Polygonal Meshes”, Masters of Science Thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America, 2007.

search: [3]

Mathew Turk et al, “Creative Collaborative Exploration in Multiple Environments”, University of California, Santa Barbra, California, United States of America.

search: [3]

Adam Kumpf, “Tackmate: Large-Scale Accessibility of Tangible User Interfaces”, Master of Science paper, Program in Media Arts and Sciences, School of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, 2009.

search: [3]

David Bouchard, “Embodied Emergence Distributed Computing Manipulative”, Master of Science in Media Arts and Science Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, 2007.

search: [3]

Andrew Marchese, Hubbard Hoyt, “Force Sensing and Haptic Feedback for Robotic Telesurgery”, Bachelor of Science Thesis, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worchester, Massachusetts, United States of America, 2010.

search: [3]

Mohamed R. Rahayem, Johan A. P. Kjellander, “Quadric Segmentation and Fitting of Data Captured by a Laser Profile Scanner Mounted on an Industrial Robot”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Springer London, 2010.

search: [3]

John James Marshall “An exploration of hybrid art and design practice using computer-based design and fabrication tools”, Doctorate of Philosophy Thesis, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, 2008.

search: [3]

David powers, Richard Leibbrandt, Martin Luerssen, Trent Lewis, Wike Lawson, “PETA: a Pedagogical Embodied Teaching Agent”, PETRA, Volume 282, Number 60, 2008.

search: [3]

Beau Webber, “APLX Version 4 – from the Viewpoint of a Experimental Physicist”, Vector, Journal of the British APL Association, 23 (3). pg. 39-45, 2008.

search: [3]

Joshua M. Lobel, “Building Information: Means and Methods of Communication in Design and Construction”, Masters of Science in Architecture Studies Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, 2008.

search: [3]

Colin Smith, “Using RFID to Remember”, Bachelors of Computer Science Thesis, UCD School of Computer Science and Information, Collage of Engineering Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland, 2008.

search: [3]

Ryan C. C. Chin, “Product Grammar: Constructing and Mapping Solution Spaces, Masters of Science in Media Arts and Sciences Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, 1997.

search: [3]

Viktor Braun, Cornelius Herstatt, “User Innovation: Barriers to Democratization and IP Licensing”, Routledge, 2009.

search: [3]

K. Naemura, H. Saito “Effect of the Needle Tip Shape on Fall of Force after Puncture in Epidural Anesthesia”, Springer Berlin, Volume 1, Supplement 1, pg. 487-515, June, 2006.

search: [3]

Need to Contact to get Paper[edit]

Ed Sells, Zack Smith, Sebastien Bailard, Adrian Bowyer, and Vik Olliver, RepRap: The Replicating Rapid Prototyper: Maximizing Customizability by Breeding the Means of Production. HANDBOOK OF RESEARCH IN MASS CUSTOMIZATION AND PERSONALIZATION, Forthcoming., University of Bath, Bath, England,2010.

search: [1]

Wilson Eldho, A Sajeev, "Replicating Rapid-Prototyper", Sree Narayana Gurukulam College of Engineering, 2009.

search: [1]

Modular Robots for Self-constructing Building Systems

search: [1]

Bowyer, A., 2007. The Self-replicating Rapid Prototyper - Manufacturing for the Masses. In: 8th National Conference on Rapid Design, Prototyping & Manufacturing, Jun 2007, High Wycombe. Centre for Rapid Design and Manufacture.

search: [1]

Neil Gershenfeld, “Fab: The Coming Revolution on your Desktop-- from Personal Computers to personal Fabrication”, Bsic Books New York, New York, United States of America, 2005.

  • looking at fabbing/3d printing

search: [3]

Things to get if needed[edit]

M. E. Rettmann, D. R. Holmes III, B. M. Cameron, R.A. Robb, “An Event-Driven Distributed Processing Architecture for Image-Guided Caridac Ablation Therapy”, Volume 95, Issue 2, pg. 95-104, August, 2009.

  • “Medical imaging data is becoming increasing valuable in interventional medicine, not only for preoperative planning, but also for real-time guidance during clinical procedures. Three key components necessary for image-guided intervention are real-time tracking of the surgical instrument, aligning the real-world patient space with image-space, and creating a meaningful display that integrates the tracked instrument and patient data. Issues to consider when developing image-guided intervention systems include the communication scheme, the ability to distribute CPU intensive tasks, and flexibility to allow for new technologies. In this work, we have designed a communication architecture for use in image-guided catheter ablation therapy. Communication between the system components is through a database which contains an event queue and auxiliary data tables. The communication scheme is unique in that each system component is responsible for querying and responding to relevant events from the centralized database queue. An advantage of the architecture is the flexibility to add new system components without affecting existing software code.” (Rettman et al, 2009)

Things to Look At[edit]

  • Ice Printer
  • various printer in 3d blog
  • candyfab - sugar printer
  • leBigrep


1) Denkena, B. and S. Scherger, A Concept for Shoe Last Manufacturing in Mass Customisation. CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, 2005. 54(1): p. 341-344.

  • shoe fabrication

2) Evan Malone, Hod Lipson, "Fab@Home: the Personal Desktop FabricaterKit", Rapid Prototyping Journal, Volume 13, Number 4, pg. 245-255, 2007. Retrieved June 18, 2010

3) Barnett, E., Angeles, J., Pasini, D. and Sijpkes, P., “Robot-assisted rapid prototyping for ice structures,” to be presented at IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Kobe, Japan, May 2009.

4) Dave, White, “Rapman and Open Source Projects.” Retrieved June 18, 2010, from (*)

5) Fab@home (*)

6) J.P.G. Bona, A.I. Bullas, A.G.R. Impey, D. Krumpel, A.W. Pattinson, H. Scott-Dempster, Fab@Home at Newcastle University, Newcastle Universiy, United Kingdom, 2008.

7) A Tan, T Nixon, "Rapid Prototype Manufacturing System", The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

8) Kraftmark (*)

9) Evan Malone, Hod Lipson, "Multi-Material Freeform Fabrication of Active Systems" , ESDA2008-59313, Haifa, Israel, Jul 7-9, 2008.

10) Cohen et al, “Improved Qualit of 3D-Printed Tissue Constructs Through Enhanced Mixing of Alginate Hydrogels”,

11) Aleksander Skardal, Jianxing Zhang, Lindsi McCoard, Xiaoyu Xu, Siam Oottamasathien, Glenn D. Prestwich. Tissue Engineering Part A. -Not available-, ahead of print. doi:10.1089/ten.tea.2009.0798.

12) Chung et al, “Abject Augmentation for the Visually Impaired Using RP”,

13) Lawrence Sass, “Materializing Palladio's Ideal Village: Computational Reconstruction through Physical Representation of Digital Information”, Digital Design and Fabrication Group, Department of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

14) Thingyverse, (*)

15) Abdel-Sayed P, Kalejs M, von Segesser L K. A new training set-up for trans- apical aortic valve replacement. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2009; 8: 599e601.

16) Kalejs M, von Segesser L K . Rapid prototyping of compliant human aortic roots for assessment of valved stents. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2009; 8: 182e6.

17) Alexandre Gillet, Micheal Sanner, Daniel Stoffler, David Goodsell, Arthur Olson, “Augmented Reality with Tangible Auto-Fabricated Models for Molecular Biology Applications”, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, United States of America, 2004.

18) F. Murgia, Gabriella Pusceddu, Gregorio Franzoni, Piero Pili, Massimiliano Tuveri, “Anatomical Shape Reconstruction and Manufacturing: Solving Topological Changes of Lumen Vessel through Geometric Approach.”, CRS4 TR 03/78, Nov 2003.

19) Daniel J. Kelley, Mohammed Farhoud, M. Elizabeth Meyerand, David L. Nelson, Lincoln F. Ramirez, Robert J. Dempsey, Alan J. Wolf, Andrew L. Alexander, Richard J. Davidson, “Creating Physical 3D Stereolithograph Models of Brain and Skull”, PLoS ONE., 2(10): e1119, 2007.

20) Juan Gonzalez-Gomez, Javier Gonzalez-Quijano, Houxiang Zhang, Mohamed Abderrahim, “Toward the sense of touch in snake modular robots for search and rescue operations”


For materials recycling and tools