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Fuente Nueva waste project

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This is a research project in partnership between Engr308 Technology and the Environment and the Fuente Nueva charter school, during Fall 2013. The project includes analyzing the waste profile and impacts of trash from the Fuente Nueva campus in Arcata, Humboldt County, California, as well as devising an implementable plan to ameliorate the impacts.

The worm bin at Fuente Nueva.

Findings[edit]

The class completed a physical waste audit as well as an life cycle analysis of all of the components in the waste. Finally the class also offered suggestions for future improvements. The findings are compiled into a final video and a final report.

Data collected from 11/14/2013 Fuente Nueva waste analysis PDF version. [1] Data collected from 11/14/2013 Fuente Nueva waste analysis Excel version. [2]

Physical Infrastructure[edit]

The objective is to design a feasible plan for site infrastructure that reduces waste and waste impacts. The plan will include bins, bin placement, waste flows, and actual signage.

Physical Infrastructure Research[edit]

Research relating to existing physical infrastructure such as bins and signage at schools in general; best waste practices in K-6 (or K-8) schools; costs and styles of waste bins that could be used; etc.

Creating effective signage [3] [4] Focusing on social norms is the most effective way to see results from posted sign such as, saying “join your classmates in recycling!” Focusing on the "do's" instead of "don'ts" is more effective to see results. Using phrases like "do this for the environment" or "do this to save resources" is one of the least effective ways to make a sign work.

Why is recycling important?

“Beyond reducing materials use, the energy savings from recycling are huge. Steel made from recycled scrap takes only 26 per-cent as much energy as that from iron ore. For aluminum, the figure is just 4 percent. Recycled plastic uses only 20 percent as much energy. Recycled paper uses 64 percent as much—and with far fewer chemicals during processing.” In the United States, 29% of garbage is recycled, if we could raise this percentage, we would be able to conserve our resources further and save much more energy. [5]

(Also, here's some case studies of effective school recycling programs:) [6]


Reuse is just as important as recycle

[7] [8] Looking at value and adding resourcefulness and creativity is what is needed in our future. Why because we are by nature wasteful beings, but that doesn't have to reflect how we always will be. Reusing is just as important as recycling. Changing the culture of waste is not something that will go smoothly or soundly but if we start at the smallest roots, meaning our children. Then our future looks a whole lot brighter than before. Reusing newspapers as coloring sheets and decorations or wrapping paper was ideas that grew from this article. Looking at the value of the material and adding creativity is what will spark a change. Its all about being resourceful and efficient at the same time[9]

Incorporating everyone positively together to recycle will strengthen the system [10] A positive and committed community atmosphere centered around the recycling system is needed for it to achieve full potential: If there is a positive reinforcement to commitment of recycling than it is more likely to occur. In Nairobi, Kenya being involved in the community recycling system means more opportunities and a chance at a better more comfortable life. These are values that should be preached to the children through our bins and signage. These signs must positively reinforce the need and commitment to recycle.

Allowing everyone to get involved makes it second nature that it occurs, like a routine.; Creating a recycling club or a recycling system that is centralized with the school. Appropriate positive energy levels and traffic patterns incorporated will make it easy for the children to develop muscle memory when conducting the tasks of recycling and reusing when using the bins and reading the signage Allowing everyone to get involved will help form a sense of belonging. Since we are not educational but infrastructure I took this as what if every child was able to help decorate and build the system. This could spawns a sense of pride in recycling and its pride in the accomplishment of building the system.

Reusing of organic materials is just as important as recycling inorganic products: A composting system that is easy to access is something that could greatly impact the success of the recycling. It allows the children to step outside the norm of recycling bottles and newspapers and lets the children see recycling grow and mold over into something very useful and helpful. Seeing a compost system incorporated into this project should be a high priority of ours. We could incorporate it into the cafeteria recycling signs[11]

Signage must be simple, noticeable, and effective. Interview: Brittany Peishel, Humboldt State University Child Development Major. When asked about what is the most effective way to get these images across to third, fourth, and fifth graders; Brittany responded with an easy answer, Simple but flashy. She said that at that age most children are aware of what signs are around them as in advertising, rule and regulations, technology. She suggested that we look into what captures their eyes like sports, art, cartoons, etc. and use that to help design the signs that will help direct the children to the bins. She also said the less words the better, citing that children want the fast and easy thing not the stand their and absorb it product.

Implementing a school recycling program. A Guide for Implementing a School Recycling Program. [12] Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle are the key components to a comprehensive school waste reduction program. This guide focuses on recycling, but does not discount the importance of reduction and reuse.

How to increase participation in a recycling program.[13]

Public perception of selected strategies for increasing participation in city recycling programs was assessed. These strategies included increasing the level of knowledge about recycling, using effective channels to inform the community about recycling,increasing the convenience of recycling by placing recycling containers in accessible locations, and getting input from the public regarding changes that would induce full participation in recycling programs.

How to recycle in your own household.[14] Answers all of your recycling questions with a complete A-Z listing of everyday household items and how to recycle them. From old cell phones and E-waste to expired medicines and motor oil this little guide shows you where you can send your unwanted items and how you might make a bit of money while you're at it. Also includes great ideas for reducing consumption and your volume of trash--ideal for businesses and consumers alike!

How to increase pro-recycling sentiment.[15] Data from surveys conducted by six separate recycling education programs funded under the Clean Michigan Fund are compared. The findings indicate that a strong pro-recycling attitude exists among the populations sampled with a significant percentage of respondents planning to increase their level of recycling in the future. To aid this increase in participation these data suggest that education efforts should focus on helping people become more familiar with the details of how to recycle. And finally, these data support the idea that efforts to promote waste reduction and recycling behavior should focus on non-monetary motives.

Making recycling a priority in communities.[16] Conserving resources and reducing the volume of garbage that must be incinerated or stored in landfills through recycling has become a major priority for many communities. Educational campaigns are often used to inform the public and induce recycling behavior. However, research evaluating the success of these campaigns has focused primarily on recycling behavior and not on cognitive factors such as awareness or motivation which may precede or accompany the behavior. This study evaluated the effects of a recycling education campaign on residents’ knowledge of recycling issues, motives to recycle, and recycling behavior. Residents of a Midwestern community were surveyed before and after implementation of a three‐year recycling education program. A comparison of pre‐ and post‐program survey results indicated that residents’ knowledge of recycling issues was more accurate, their motives reflected greater concern for the environment, and their recycling behavior increased after the education campaign.

How to engage students in waste reduction.[17] This is a 34-page PDF, a how-to guide for engaging students in resource conservation and waste reduction. This guide was developed to provide advice, ideas, and inspiration to teachers, school administrators and others for planning a hands-on environmental day at school.

What type/how many containers are needed?[18] [19]

You will also need to determine the number and location of waste and recycling bins. Again, you should have recycling containers wherever you have trash containers and good, clear signage is extremely important. There is a wide variety of recycling bins and you should choose ones that fit your campus. It is important to be consistent – same type and color across the campus makes education of students and staff easier.

What is recyclable?[20] [21] Paper: Office Paper, Newspaper, Brown Paper Bags, Magazines, Junk mail, and Phone books. Plastic: Plastic Bottles and Containers (1-7) 1 PET: Soda Bottles, Oven Ready meal trays, Water Bottles 2 HDPE: Milk Bottles, Detergent Bottles, and Spray Bottles 3 PVC: Loose Leaf Binders, Plastic Pipes 4 LDPE: Dry cleaning bags, produce bags, squeezable bottles 5 PP: Medicine bottles, drinking straws, food containers: ketchup bottles 6 PS: Compact disk jackets and plastic tableware 7 Other: Reusable water bottles, Tupperware Aluminum: Aluminum Cans, foil, pie tins, steel cans

How to manage waste intelligently.[22]

Any system, or any community, must have a method for dealing with waste with an intelligence and complexity that mirrors the diversity of its wastes. If this is not that case—if a community cant sort and deal wit its waste intelligently—then their waste truly becomes waste, because they cant close the loop back to a usable substance. This is what has occurred to municipal waste management systems in the industrial nations and though they’re effective at moving extremely large quantities of waste out of sight and mind of urban dwellers, they’re not effective at sorting or processing it. As a result, countries like the United States now dispose of more than two-thirds of their household waste into landfills and incinerators. The reason these disposal methods now predominate is simple: they require no sorting, and they displace the ultimate responsibility to dealing with waste to other paces and to future generations.

What types of waste are children generating?[23] [24] Plate waste was determined in fifty-eight elementary and high schools in the USDA Western, Midwestern, and Southwestern Regions. By weighing sample trays and edible waste, the percentage of food served that was consumed was measured for 23,000 lunches. Highest consumption was recorded for milk, with 88 and 94 per cent consumed in the fifth and tenth grades respectively. Most entrées and starches were well consumed; vegetables and salads showed much less acceptability. Regional differences in food acceptability were minor, and high school students consistently wasted less food in all categories than did elementary pupils.

What are some case studies of successful recycling programs?[25] Overall the book goes over many different aspects of recycling. From waste to recycling and even getting people more involved. The book showed a case study in Switzerland, and how effective their own recycling practices are. Glass has an extremely high recycle rate of 90%. Some of the main contributors to such a high recycle rate is that they have recycling centers all over Switzerland, they teach children at a young age and the people get a sense of pride in recycling.

How to influence recycling in a work environment?[26]

We investigated the effects of prompts on the recycling behavior of approximately 217 faculty, staff, and graduate students in two academic departments of a large university. During the intervention, two signs were posted in each department. One sign prompted recycling (posted above the recycling receptacle), and the other sign prompted proper disposal of trash (posted above the trash receptacle). Results of a multiple baseline design across the two departments indicated that the sign prompt increased recycling behavior. Installation of the sign prompts in close proximity to receptacles in Department A resulted in a 54% improvement over baseline. Posting of sign prompts over containers 4 m apart in Department B resulted in a 17% improvement, whereas positioning the signs and receptacles in close proximity resulted in a 29% improvement over baseline.

How to have signs connect with your audience?[27] Matt Herota, waste reduction and recycling coordinator at UC Merced conducted an experiment to see what the most effective signs of recycling at the school were. The school plans to become zero waste by 2020. He found that pictures on the signs matching the trash people had helped increase recycling and compost. He researched even further to see what pictures were the most effective. The best way to get people to recycle is for them to agree with the message and add their own thoughts to why they should recycle. With effective messages as so people will continue to recycle even after the sign is taken down.

How much waste comes from the school system?[28] According to the EPA, twenty to thirty- five percent of US waste comes from the school system. Knowledge of the environmental issues behind waste can is effective in promoting recycling. Students will think twice about not recycling if they knew where their trash was going. Engaging the students instead of talking down on them to recycle makes children want to recycle. Convenience of location of bins and what exactly to recycle are also important in promoting recycling. Children often seek acceptance into a group so recycling promoted by a group leader such as a heroic role model would be successful. Incentives for recycling would also be good, like prizes.[29] What truly influences a person to recycle and overall care for the environment are personal values over the environment. Social values do not cause people to recycle. To encourage a society to recycle, incentives are needed. People recycle to make money and because it is convenient. If proper recycling policies are implemented, people will recycle because it is easy to. Convenience and money are good motivators.[30] This book covers all the embedded resources and energy into making a product. A typical American consumes 120 pounds every day in natural resources extracted from farms, forests, and mines. This vast amount of consumption is possible because of chains of production all over the world. Every day the average American throws away about four pounds of trash. People do not think twice about all the embedded energy in their every day stuff because it is all out of sight. People think stuff comes from stores and is taken away by garbage trucks. If people knew where their stuff came from and where it goes to after it's discarded, they would think twice about what they consume.

What are some tools to reduce waste in schools?[31]Gives key points on how to reduce waste in schools by focusing on departments. This allows the overall recycling become more effective.

Funding for recycling programs?[32] Different types of funding can be helpful in starting a successful recycling program. This document tackles every monetary aspect related to recycling programs.

Education[edit]

The objective of our group is to research and implement an educational plan for zero waste at Fuente Nueva. We plan to develop lesson plans on waste reduction, recycling, and composting. We plan to work with the children of Fuente Nueva directly, interacting and teaching them about waste. We also plan to develop educational videos for the children and adults, as well as a video that documents the Fall '13 Engr 308 class working on the Fuente Nueva Waste Project.

Education Research[edit]

Research relating to existing waste curriculum for schools; existing waste education videos for school; information on how K-5 students learn; etc.

Interview with children about waste & recycling:

Q: What do you know about recycling?

A1: I don’t know anything about it.

A2: I know that when you recycle something, it can be used again in another item but different from what it originally was.

Q: Where do you think waste goes after you throw it out?

A1: It goes to the dump but I don’t know about places like that.

A2: I think waste used to go to the ocean, but now since we have garbage trucks it now goes to the dump and somebody goes through it and the useless stuff gets burned up.[33]

Recycling, for the future: it's everybody's business

Bellevue, WA enjoyed one of the highest single family recycling rates at 61% in 1997, and perhaps the highest multi-family recycling rate as well. In 1998, multi-family housing residents recycled 21.7 pounds of recyclables per month per household. Bellevue’s Neighbors for Recycling volunteer program trains residents to educate the community about recycling. More than 500 residents have participated in Bellevue’s personalized outreach activities and today, 97% of multi-family buildings in Bellevue participate in recycling.[34]

Launching Zero Waste Schools:
Several elementary schools in Illinois initiated zero waste programs making students leaders to educate and take charge of the waste at the school. "Students selected as Waste Ambassadors have designed posters to educate other students, teachers, parents and visitors about their zero waste efforts. The learning process for the 4th grade Holmes Waste Ambassadors has included field trips to the Educycle Recycling Center (a materials recovery facility); Chicago's Green City Farmers' Market to learn about the role of composting on farms; a local landfill; Whole Foods to learn about packaging through a scavenger hunt; and the Working Bikes Cooperative to understand reuse strategies. [35]
[36]
The EPA put together a collection of resources containing information on a "variety of solid waste topics such as source reduction, recycling, reuse, household hazardous waste, and composting." They suggest BIll Nye the Science Guy: Garbage where "the participants explain how all living things produce waste, but that the amount and the type of waste that humans produce pose a threat to other organisms. Nye distinguishes between biodegradable and nonbiodegradable waste and advises viewers on how to reduce, reuse, and recycle before filling more landfill space.[37]


Importance of Education on Waste in Formal Education

  • "Education, including formal education, public awareness and training should be recognized as a process by which human beings and societies can reach their fullest potential. Education is critical for promoting sustainable development and improving the capacity of the people to address environment and development issues. Therefore, educating institutions must play a key role in setting quality standards in education for sustainable development."[38]

Examples of School Waste Composition
[39]

Impact of Electronic Media on Education

  • Electronic media can serve as a useful tool in catalyzing involvement in environmental issues. "Due to the overwhemling importance of television in much of the world, video products are extremely effective information tools." "Electronic media raise public awareness of conservation issues."[40]

Food Scrap Management

  • When considering food diversion in schools it is important to consider waste prevention & reducing food waste;example include "offer versus serve" and zero-waste lunches. It is also important to consider donations of surplus, recycling, and composting. [41]

Waste & K-5 Learners

  • Interview with Ivan Soto, an environmental technician, who works as an educator with K-12[42]

Q: What challenges have you face with teaching K-5 about waste; what causes some lessons or programs to be ineffective with children of this age?
A: I think any lesson for younger students have to be fun. There has to be a hands-on activity that ties into the lesson or the message. If you can make something fun then you make something memorable. Younger students, from my experience, are able to retain information if they can have fun while they are learning.

Q: What seems to be an effective way to teach about waste? What is the best teaching method for learners of this age?
A: Leading by example is the most effective. Almost every situation is an opportunity to teach about waste reduction. For example, a lunch break can be used to get kids to start thinking about small choices and how they affect the environment. I like to pack a healthy no-waste lunch during school field trips. Instead of taking my lunch break away from the school group - I sit in and eat alongside them. This allows them to see what I'm eating and they usually (always) ask what I packed. I go on to explain that the container is reusable so I don't have to throw anything in the trashcan. Everything in my lunch container is edible or reusable and so I don't have to contribute to the landfill during our lunch break together. That conversation can then include asking them how much trash do they think their classroom makes in one day, year, etc. It gets fun. Anything is a learning opportunity.

Q: Have you come across adults or teachers who also need this education and how important is the teacher's & staff's understanding of waste management to the education of students?
A: Yes, definitely. There is always at least one teacher in the group who says that they'd like to make an adjustment to their lifestyle. Some teachers in our district are actually very excited about a green lifestyle and so they promote it in their classroom year round.


Existing School Program Video examples:

  • EP Foster Elementary School Recycling Programs[43]
  • Green Grades: NYC Schools Recycle [44]


Let's Reduce and Recycle: Curriculum for Solid Waste Awareness

Curricula addressing many issues about waste, including "What is waste, how do we manage waste, how does waste affect our resources, how we can produce less waste, and what we can do about the waste we prodouce" can prove to be effective in creating a generation of environmentally conscious citizens. Americans produce more trash than any other country in the world, and introducing the "Garbage Gremlin" to kids at an early age with a solid waste curriculum helps them to realize that each of use shares responsibility for 'protecting and maintaining our planet, and that each of us can make a different through being aware of our lifestyle choices and behaviors.' The US produces 180 million tons of municipal solid waste per year and is growing. This is enough to fill a convoy of garbage trucks half way to the moon! [45]


Interview with childcare associate at local resort

Q: Do you feel that children know about recycling?

Answer: Based on my experiences I’ve seen the children I work with throw out everything from plastic bottles to plastic forks an knives.

Q: Where do you think waste goes after you throw it out?

Answer 2: Yes, The children respond to direction very well. We did a lesson on washing hands and now each child washed their hands without being told to.

Peer Review Article: Social movements, field frames and industry emergence: a cultural–political perspective on USrecycling

This article examines how social movements contribute to institutional change and the creation of new industries. We build on current efforts to bridge institutional and social movement perspectives in sociology and develop the concept of field frame to study how industries are shaped by social structures of meanings and resources that underpin and stabilize practices and social organization. Drawing on the case of how non-profit recyclers and the recycling social movement enabled the rise of a for-profit recycling industry, we show that movements can help to transform extant socio-economic practices and enable new kinds of industry development by engaging in efforts that lead to the de-institutionalization of field frames. (Social movements, field frames and industry emergence: a cultural–political perspective on USrecycling) [46]

Book: Recycling : How to Reuse Wastes in Home, Industry, and Society

This article depicts the fundamentals of reusing waste in the home, which is beneficial to the youth. This book depicts a various techniques in way in which you can reuse materials (Recycling, for the future: it's everybody's business) [47]


lesson plans/activities concerning where materials come from and ways to minimize waste

Project Learning Tree Activity Guide K-6

"Why Wooden Pencils" is an activity that teaches children about what different resources materials use as well as which resources are renewable and non renewable and which materials are reusable and recyclable. The activity involves group work, independent identification of which materials come which resources, and a class room discussion about which materials are reusable and which are recyclable [48]

An Interview with Mary Robinson, a director of a child care facility

In order for me to get a better understanding of how to create effective lesson plans and activities for grade school children I contacted Mary Robinson, director of Hastings Community Child Care Center, and asked her a few questions [49]

Planning[edit]

Our objective is to provide a framework of phases which will be incorporated throughout the project from start to finish. One member will collaborate, onsite at the school, to document each phase and then implement a visual aid. Another member will do research on grants and act as a technical writer which will then provide analysis with team Meta. The last objective is to provide a methodology which will be utilized for research and scholarly purposes,this will then be used as a base line, for cost and benefit analysis, for future approaches.

Plan Research[edit]

Research relating to creating a waste plan; waste auditing; existing grants for waste or waste in grade schools or environmental education in grade schools.

On average 25% of lunch food is wasted [50]


Waste Education

Australian Waste Wise Schools Program is successful waste education program that has been ongoing since 1996. The program is cited to have been success because of the following factors [51] • The school administration are committed and supportive • The community is involved in the planning and implementation • Students are encouraged to take ownership of the project • The program is planned in committees or teams with audits, policies, targets, action plans and curriculum plans • Dynamic curriculum that changes with the current conditions • Good systems that are well maintained • the school community strives for change but understand change takes time • The project is continuously improving • At least some of the projects are enjoyable and there are times for celebration

Here in Arcata, our trash leaves our curb and goes to the Humboldt Waste Management Authority's Hawthourne Street Facility. It gets loaded onto trailers and in batches of 22 to 23 tons gets hauled to landfills in Anderson Ca, or White City OR. (Anderson is approx. 150 miles away, White City is approx. 190 miles away)

Experts warn that by 2018 the UK will have run out of space to bury its waste. We will be plagued with toxic wastes that we cant get rid of or process inside of our bodies. Landfill sites are responsible for creating 700 million tons of CO2 into the air. Everyday resources that we take for granted will run out very quickly.


A solid waste audit and directions for waste reduction at the University of British Columbia, Canada

A novel design for a solid waste audit was developed and applied to the University of British Columbia, Canada, in 1998. This audit was designed to determine the characteristics of the residual solid waste generated by the campus and provide directions for waste reduction. The methodology was constructed to address complications in solid waste sampling, including spatial and temporal variation in waste, extrapolation from the study area, and study validation. Several options were proposed to address waste minimization goals. These included: enhancing the current recycling program, source reduction of plastic materials, and/or diverting organic material to composting. The audit methodology designed is most appropriate for facilities/regions that have a separate collection system for seasonal wastes and have a means for tracking user flow.[52]

Power for Change: An Energy Curriculum for Grades K-12

In a world of rapidly-accelerating changes, from climate change to resource-driven social and economic change, it is critical we do everything within our power to minimize our energy and resource use to sustainable levels. Combining action with education, we’re working to provide students and teachers with the knowledge and tools necessary to prepare the next generation for the energy challenges they will face in our changing world. This new 220-page curriculum features: 18 interactive, inquiry-based lesson plans, more than 50 student hand-outs, extensive background information on lesson concepts for teachers, and access to material kits on loan from NorthWoods for lessons requiring special materials. [53]

A study of litter and waste management policies at (primary) eco-schools in Istanbul

Systematic applications of sustainable waste management in elementary education buildings provides positive contribution to the education of future generations. Although this research uses a quasi-quantitative experimental design, it was found that school policy can drastically change inter/intra-generational actions on waste management at a school setting. A resulting program brought upon by waste management produces systemic results not only at schools but throughout the community - what some would call a network effect. What is most compelling, given public policy and institutional policy dynamics, is that this article renders information on how another developed country uses waste management research from an exploratory or ground level approach. [54]

A School Waste Reduction, Reuse, Recycling,Composting & Buy Recycled Resource Book

This eBook is a resource guide for elementary schools, which was created by New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Bureau of Waste Reduction & Recycling. It covers multilevel dimensions of waste management procedures to include: Recycling, Reuse Tips, Materials to Recycle, Collection of Recyclables, Event Recycling, How to conduct Green Meetings, Education & Outreach, and Composting. Numerous appendixes are utilized with the books closing; however, it is not the general knowledge that sheds light to what our team is studying. This book's main resource value attributes the notion of a loop process and understanding local agencies who are supposed to act as auxiliaries to public schools such as looking at the quality of waste management, how to utilize municipal agencies for support, and evaluating purchasing habits of an organization, in our case, schools. [55]


References[edit]

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  41. http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/Publications/Documents/Organics/44203018.pdf
  42. Soto, Ivan. Personal interview. 13 Nov. 2013.
  43. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PQ_nGE5aJ88
  44. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ZwUOL8orpc
  45. http://books.google.com/books?id=yPPeL376t2AC&printsec=frontcover&dq=waste+curriculum&hl=en&sa=X&ei=4XGCUpO5EcmzigKNuoGoCg&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=waste%20curriculum&f=false
  46. http://ser.oxfordjournals.org/content/1/1/71.short
  47. http://books.google.com/books/about/Recycling.html?id=6HabQNMc2_wC
  48. Project Learning Tree Activity Guide K-6.1st edition.The American Forest Council.1992.pg89
  49. file: Interview with a director of a child care facility.pdf, http://www.appropedia.org/File:Interview_with_a_director_of_a_child_care_facility.pdf
  50. http://ezproxy.humboldt.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.humboldt.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=85014133&site=ehost-live
  51. http://ezproxy.humboldt.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.humboldt.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=48859660&site=ehost-live
  52. http://wmr.sagepub.com/content/19/4/354.full.pdf+html
  53. http://www.northwoodscenter.org/wordpress/power-for-change-an-energy-curriculum-for-grades-k-12/
  54. http://wmr.sagepub.com.ezproxy.humboldt.edu/content/30/1/80
  55. http://www.dec.ny.gov/docs/materials_minerals_pdf/schoolhb.pdf