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Water source selection
- Suspended solidsW - Fine particles of dirt and clay found in water. These particles are detrimental to the treatment process because their presence limits the efficacy of chlorine.
- Biochemical oxygen demandW - a measure of the organic pollution in the water.
When choosing a water source, quantity and quality should be evaluated. For instance, surface waters are frequently and easily accessible but are also more prone to containing pathogens and suspended solids. It is also important to keep in mind that a larger quantity of acceptable water is preferable to a tiny quantity of pure water.
Some sources of water are as follows:
- Rainwater--harvesting requires an appropriate method of storage, especially in areas with significant dry seasons.
- Tube wellsW--may be relatively expensive, but often provides high quality water requiring little to no additional treatment, and typically more proximate than surface water sources.
Any source of water must be properly tested. Simple initial tests such as those described in [Water Quality Field Testing] can be used in emergencies, but proper lab analysis should be done as soon as possible.
Wells should be elevated and located 100m from latrines, septic tanks, showers, and farm animals whenever possible. Choosing a water source close to the point of usage and at a higher elevation will minimize expenses associated with pumps and pipes.
- hand pump - a tried and true method of water pumping.
- rope pump - cheaper and more efficient than a standard hand pump.
- treadle pumpW - resembles a stair-stepper, and is more efficient than a hand pump.
- hydraulic ram pump - uses the kinetic energy in a stream to pump a small percentage of the water to a higher level.
- roundabout play pumpW - uses the kinetic energy of children to pump water.
- solar-powered pumpW - typically cost prohibitive, water is simply pumped whenever the sun shines.
- wind pump
Points to Keep in Mind
- Extraction rights
- Proximity to use
- Piping materials available
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