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Native marine organisms by region

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Why native organisms ?[edit]

Native organisms can be expected to fit the ecology of the region, and be able to grow in the climate and soil of the region. They can also play an important role in reducing the distance food needs to travel. However, native organisms may not always be as productive as the more popular domesticated counterparts or attain equally high prices. The latter is often a result of being not well known (and thus disliked) by the population (at least at first).

Native organisms should always be considered in aquaculture as they are generally hardier and thus safer organisms in terms of providing food (especially today, with global warming affecting the environment). They are however not the most appropriate choice in some situations. Especially where unwanted propagation, and contact to the outside environment can be reduced/eliminated (ie use in water tanks, ponds entirely secluded from the sea, ...), non-indigenous organisms may be a suitable option.

Note that although the amount of marine organisms is much greater than what is mentioned in the list, we only specify species here that are usable for aquaculture. Most types of organisms can not be kept in captivity (ie they may have very specific needs, are very susceptible to stress, sea lice, oxygen fluctuations in the water, water quality, ..)

Also note that on the map below, the amount of plankton per region is marked. Although many organisms grown in aquaculture do not/can not consume plankton, it is often still possible to use the locally available plankton to feed the organisms we grow. This, by also growing another organism (that can be fed on plankton) and use this as food for the organisms we grow. We can btw also process waste (ie feces) of organisms we grow and use this to grow halofytes as food for other organisms. These methods allow far more cost-efficient production, and also decrease pressure on the environment. See Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture.

Types of native organisms by region[edit]

File:Indigenous marine organisms.png
Indigenous fish, shellfish and halofytes map.

Type of organisms indicated in this article[edit]

Fish: abbreviation F_ followed by a number to indicate the region. Also includes fish grown for roe
Shellfish: abbreviation SF_ followed by a number to indicate the region. Shellfish includes crustaceans and molluscs; echinoderms are also included in this category
Halofytes: abbreviation H_ followed by a number to indicate the region. These crops are either coastal crops (so growing on land, but capable of being flooded or sprayed with salt water, ie Salicornia W ), floating plants (which live in deeper water yet which head their flower heads come above water and also still have their roots in the ground, ie Nuphar lutea W), submerged (rooted) plants (which are entirely submerged yet are rooted in soil, ...; ie coral, most seaweed), or submerged (not-rooted) plants (which are entirely submerged and are not rooted in soil, ... ; ie most algae)

Regions[edit]

For a map showing the location of the oceans and seas, see here Note that some fish mentioned may be anadromous

Region 1: Arctic ocean (from North Sea to Beaufort sea[1])
Region 2: North Atlantic Ocean (from Caribbean Sea to Aral Sea [2])
Region 3: South Atlantic Ocean (from the coast of Uruguay over to the western coast of South Africa to the coast of Liberia and the coast of French Guyana)
Region 4: Indian Ocean (from west coast of South Africa to Coral Sea[3])
Region 5: North Pacific Ocean (from Phillipine Sea to Gulf of Alaska/Gulf of California[4]
Region 6: South Pacific Ocean (from northern coast of New Zealand to the southern coast of Peru) and Southern Ocean (from Scotia Sea over the Tasman Sea and to the southern coast of Chili[5])

Names of the native organisms[edit]

F_1: atlantic salmon[6], coho salmon[7], Chinook salmon[8], pink salmon[9], chum salmon[10], sockeye salmon [11], Atlantic cod[12], brook trout[13]
SF_1: green sea urchin[14]
H_1: badderlocks[15], bladderwrack[16], false Irish moss[17], channelled wrack[18], dulse[19], gutweed[20], Porphyra laciniata[21], Fucus spiralis[22], thongweed[23], oarweed[24], Saccharina latissima[25], Irish moss[26]
F_2: bigeye tuna[27], European seabass[28], black sea bass[29]
SF_2: Paracentrotus lividus[30]
H_2: gutweed[31], Gelidiella acerosa[32], Porphyra umbilicalis[33], Fucus spiralis[34], thongweed[35], Saccharina latissima[36], Irish moss[37]
F_3: bigeye tuna[38]
SF_3: [39]
H_3: gutweed[40]
F_4: bigeye tuna[41]
SF_4: giant tiger prawn [42], Holothuria scabra[43][44], Acaudina molpadioides[45][46], Actinopyga mauritiana[47], Thelenota ananas[48]
H_4: gutweed[49], Gelidiella acerosa[50], Sargassum echinocarpum[51], Caulerpa lentillifera[52], Sargassum swartzii[53]
F_5: steelhead trout[54], coho salmon[55], Chinook salmon[56], pink salmon[57], chum salmon[58], sockeye salmon [59], bigeye tuna[60], Pacific cod[61]
SF_5: whiteleg shrimp[62], giant tiger prawn [63], Holothuria scabra[64][65], Acaudina molpadioides[66][67], Stichopus japonicus[68], Isostichopus fuscus[69], giant California sea cucumber[70], red sea urchin[71]
H_5: arame[72], Eucheuma spinosum[73], Kappaphycus alvarezii[74], gutweed[75], Gelidiella acerosa[76], Gracilaria edulis[77], hijiki[78], kombu[79], mozuku[80], Porphyra yezoensis[81], Porphyra tenera[82], wakame[83], Sargassum echinocarpum[84], Sargassum cinetum[85], Sargassum swartzii[86]
F_6: southern bluefin tuna[87]
SF_6: kina[88]
H_6: carola[89], cochayuyo[90], gutweed[91]

References[edit]

  1. Hence also includes Baltic Sea, Norwegian Sea, Greenland Sea, Barents Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea, Labrador Sea
  2. Hence also includes Celtic Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Azov Sea, Caspian Sea
  3. Hence also includes Mozambique Channel, Arabian Sea, Andaman Sea, South China Sea, Celebes Sea, Java Sea, Timor Sea, Banda Sea, Arafura Sea
  4. Hence also includes East China Sea, Yellow Sea, Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea
  5. Hence also includes Wedell Sea
  6. Salmo salar native to the northern Atlantic Ocean; found mainly in the waters off Greenland to the northern eastern and western Atlantic coasts
  7. Oncorhynchus kisutch native to both sides of the North Pacific Ocean, from Hokkaidō, Japan and eastern Russian, around the Bering Sea to mainland Alaska, and south to Monterey Bay, California
  8. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha native to the north Pacific Ocean and the river systems of western North America from California to Alaska. They are also native to Asian rivers ranging from northern Japan to the Palyavaam River in the Siberian far east.
  9. Oncorhynchus gorbuscha native to Pacific and Arctic coastal waters from the Sacramento River in northern California to the Mackenzie River in Canada; and in the west from the Lena River in Siberia to Korea. Populations in Asia occur to as far south as Hondo Island in Japan
  10. Oncorhynchus keta native from the Yukon River, Mackenzie River to the Amur River basin in Asia. They are found in the waters of Korea, Japan, Okhotsk and Bering seas, Laptev Sea, Beaufort Sea to California in the United States
  11. Oncorhynchus nerkanative from the Columbia River in the eastern Pacific to northern Hokkaidō Island in Japan in the western Pacific, and as far north as Bathurst Inlet in the Canadian Arctic in the east and the Anadyr River in Siberia in the west
  12. Gadus morhua native to the area between the Bay of Biscay north to the Arctic Ocean, including the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, Sea of the Hebrides areas around Iceland and the Barents Sea. It is also found in Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and around both coasts of Greenland
  13. Salvelinus fontinalis native to a wide area of eastern North America (Georgia, Canada)
  14. Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis native to the northern waters all around the world including both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans to a northerly latitude of 81 degrees and as far south as the Puget Sound (Washington State) and England.
  15. Alaria esculenta native to the vicinity of the United Kingdom
  16. Fucus vesiculosus native to the vicinity of the United Kingdom
  17. [http://www.marlin.ac.uk/speciesinformation.php?speciesID=3773 Mastocarpus stellatus native to the vicinity of the United Kingdom (mostly on the western side)
  18. Pelvetia canaliculata native to the region Iceland-Norway-UK-Netherlands
  19. Palmaria palmata native to the region Iceland-UK
  20. Enteromorpha intestinalis native to UK, North America, Carribean, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Fiji, Antarctica
  21. Porphyra laciniata native to Ireland, France
  22. Fucus spiralis native to UK, north America and coasts of western Europe
  23. Himanthalia elongata native to North Sea, Baltic Sea south to Portugal
  24. Laminaria digitata native to region from UK to France
  25. Saccharina latissima native from UK and Barents Sea to Spain
  26. Chondrus crispus native from UK and Iceland to Baltic Sea and southern Spain
  27. Thunnus obesus native to the open waters of all tropical and temperate oceans, but not the Mediterranean Sea
  28. Dicentrarchus labrax native to the waters in and around Europe, including the eastern Atlantic Ocean (from Norway to Senegal), the Mediterranean Sea, and the Black Sea
  29. Centropristis striata native to eastern USA, from Maine to NE Florida and the eastern Gulf of Mexico
  30. Paracentrotus lividus native to the Mediterranean Sea and eastern Atlantic Ocean
  31. Enteromorpha intestinalis native to UK, North America, Carribean, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Fiji, Antarctica
  32. [http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=1865 Gelidiella acerosa native to Azores, Cape Verde, Caribbean, Gabon, Mozambique, islands in Indian ocean, Asia, Japan
  33. Porphyra umbilicalis native to France, Italy, Egypt
  34. Fucus spiralis native to UK, north America and coasts of western Europe
  35. Himanthalia elongata native to North Sea, Baltic Sea south to Portugal
  36. Saccharina latissima native from UK and Barents Sea to Spain
  37. Chondrus crispus native from UK and Iceland to Baltic Sea and southern Spain
  38. Thunnus obesus native to the open waters of all tropical and temperate oceans, but not the Mediterranean Sea
  39. (Latin name) native to ?
  40. Enteromorpha intestinalis native to UK, North America, Carribean, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Fiji, Antarctica
  41. Thunnus obesus native to the open waters of all tropical and temperate oceans, but not the Mediterranean Sea
  42. Penaeus monodon native to Indo-West-Pacific, from the eastern coast of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, as far as Southeast Asia, the Sea of Japan and northern Australia.
  43. Holothuria scabra native to the Indian ocean and north pacific ocean
  44. Holothuria fuscogilva native to the Indian ocean and north pacific ocean
  45. Acaudina molpadioides native to the Indian ocean and north pacific ocean]
  46. Holothuria fuscogilva native to the Indian ocean and north pacific ocean
  47. Actinopyga mauritiana native to the Indian ocean
  48. Thelenota ananas native to Indian ocean
  49. Enteromorpha intestinalis native to UK, North America, Carribean, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Fiji, Antarctica
  50. [http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=1865 Gelidiella acerosa native to Azores, Cape Verde, Caribbean, Gabon, Mozambique, islands in Indian ocean, Asia, Japan
  51. Sargassum echinocarpum native to Indian ocean to Hawaii
  52. Caulerpa lentillifera native to Indian and North Pacific ocean
  53. Sargassum swartzii native to India, to Philippines, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, ...
  54. Oncorhynchus mykiss native to tributaries of northwestern Mexico to North America and eastern Russia
  55. Oncorhynchus kisutch native to both sides of the North Pacific Ocean, from Hokkaidō, Japan and eastern Russian, around the Bering Sea to mainland Alaska, and south to Monterey Bay, California.
  56. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha native to the north Pacific Ocean and the river systems of western North America from California to Alaska. They are also native to Asian rivers ranging from northern Japan to the Palyavaam River in the Siberian far east.
  57. Oncorhynchus gorbuscha native to Pacific and Arctic coastal waters from the Sacramento River in northern California to the Mackenzie River in Canada; and in the west from the Lena River in Siberia to Korea. Populations in Asia occur to as far south as Hondo Island in Japan
  58. Oncorhynchus keta native from the Yukon River, Mackenzie River to the Amur River basin in Asia. They are found in the waters of Korea, Japan, Okhotsk and Bering seas, Laptev Sea, Beaufort Sea to California in the United States
  59. Oncorhynchus nerkanative from the Columbia River in the eastern Pacific to northern Hokkaidō Island in Japan in the western Pacific, and as far north as Bathurst Inlet in the Canadian Arctic in the east and the Anadyr River in Siberia in the west
  60. Thunnus obesus native to the open waters of all tropical and temperate oceans, but not the Mediterranean Sea
  61. Gadus macrocephalus native to the area from the Yellow Sea to the Bering Strait, along the Aleutian Islands, and south to about Los Angeles
  62. Litopenaeus vannamei native to eastern Pacific Ocean, from the Mexican state of Sonora as far south as northern Peru.
  63. Penaeus monodon native to Indo-West-Pacific, from the eastern coast of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, as far as Southeast Asia, the Sea of Japan and northern Australia.
  64. Holothuria scabra native to the Indian ocean and north pacific ocean
  65. Holothuria fuscogilva native to the Indian ocean and north pacific ocean
  66. Acaudina molpadioides native to the Indian ocean and north pacific ocean]
  67. Holothuria fuscogilva native to the Indian ocean and north pacific ocean
  68. Stichopus japonicus native to the Pacific coastal waters of Japan, northeastern China, the Korean peninsula, Sakhalin, Kuril Islands and Alaska
  69. Isostichopus fuscus native to western coast of the Americas, from northern Peru to Baja California, Mexico
  70. Parastichopus californicus native to the region between the Gulf of Alaska to Southern California
  71. Strongylocentrotus franciscanus native to the Pacific Ocean from Alaska to Baja California
  72. Eisenia bicyclis native to the vicinity of Japan
  73. [http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~legneref/botany/medicine.htm Eucheuma spinosum native to region east of Asia (ie Phillipines, ...)
  74. Kappaphycus alvarezii native from Phillipines/Indonesia to FS Micronesia and Mariana Islands
  75. Enteromorpha intestinalis native to UK, North America, Carribean, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Fiji, Antarctica
  76. [http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=1865 Gelidiella acerosa native to Azores, Cape Verde, Caribbean, Gabon, Mozambique, islands in Indian ocean, Asia, Japan
  77. Gracilaria edulis native to Indonesia
  78. Sargassum fusiforme native to China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea
  79. Saccharina japonica native to Russia, Japan, Korea
  80. Cladosiphon okamuranus native to Japan
  81. Porphyra yezoensis native to Japan, China, Korea
  82. Porphyra tenera native to Japan
  83. Undaria pinnatifida native to Japan, Korea and China
  84. Sargassum echinocarpum native to Indian ocean to Hawaii
  85. Sargassum cinetum native to Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia
  86. Sargassum swartzii native to India, to Philippines, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, ...
  87. Thunnus maccoyii native to the open southern hemisphere waters of all the world's oceans mainly between 30°S and 50°S, to nearly 60°S
  88. Evechinus chloroticus native to vicinity of New Zealand
  89. Callophyllis variegata native to region New Zealand - Antartica- Argentina
  90. Durvillaea antarctica native to region southern New Zealand - Chili
  91. Enteromorpha intestinalis native to UK, North America, Carribean, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Fiji, Antarctica

Notes[edit]

  • Marine eels (such as whitespotted conger, ...) have not been included as they are not yet bred in captivity, and as a result are now in danger of becoming extinct. They can be included later-on, once the breeding issue has been resolved.
  • Certain submerged plants can also provide extra oxygen to the water, allowing (certain) fish to survive if planted in the area, even if the water had low amounts of in oxygen; see Treatment_ponds.
  • In certain situations, it is possible to place seaweed and/or other marine farms in such a way that it obstructs areas behind the farm, preventing fishing at that location. This method could allow the creation of places where (the still young) fish can hide, a bit similar to mangroves. Off course, fishing should then also not be exerciced by the owner of the marine farm.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]