Government PV Manufacturing Policy Lit Review

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[edit] Government PV Manufacturing Policy Literature Review

[edit] Searches

Google Scholar:
1) government funded PV manufacturing facility policy
2) PV disassembly policy
3) PV recycling policy
4) photovoltaic manufacturing subsidies
5) PV recycling legislation
6) PV disassembly legislation
7) PV/photovoltaic take-back legislation/programs/policy

Queen's University Library:
1) PV manufacturing policy
2) PV/photovoltaic recycling policy/legislation
3) PV/photovoltaic disassembly policy/legislation

Alta Vista Search:
1) PV/photovoltaic recycling policy/legislation
2) EU PV recycling
3) PV manufacturing subsidies
4) PV/photovoltaic disassembly policy/legislation
5) PV/photovoltaic take-back programs

1) Photovoltaic manufacturing
2) PV manufacturing subsidy(ies)
3) PV/photovoltaic disassembly policy/legislation
4) PV/photovoltaic take-back programs
5) PV/photovoltaic recycling policy/legislation

1) photovoltaic manufacturing
2) photovoltaic manufacturing plant subsidies
3) photovoltaic manufacturing in Germany
4) photovoltaic manufacturing subsidies
5) PV/photovoltaic recycling policy/legislation
6) PV/photovoltaic disassembly policy/legislation
7) PV/photovoltaic take-back legislation/policy

[edit] Search Results

[edit] PV Manufacturing Policy Results

Thomas Surek, "PROGRESS IN U.S. PHOTOVOLTAICS: LOOKING BACK 30 YEARS AND LOOKING AHEAD 20", E-learning, 90(80), 70-76, 2002

- discusses the MW PV plants that were created in the US
- discusses the trends of PV manufacturing in the US

[ "ARISE Technologies Says Ontario’s FIT Program Will Launch Surge of Clean-Energy Projects"], ARISE Technologies Media Release, September 24, 2009

- ARISE is the leading photovoltaic manufacturer in Canada. The media release discusses the new FIT in Ontario and how this will affect ARISE.


- This paper draws lessons on how to effectively design policies to stimulate energy technology innovation, with a focus on the role of policy in the commercialization phase.
- Examines the role of the U.S. government in the development of four electricity generating technologies: gas turbines, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed boilers, solar photovoltaics and wind turbines.
- Examines the role of US policies in the development of each of the four technologies.
- Concludes with a comparison of the similarities and differences that government policy played in the development of each of the four technologies.

Raymond Dracker, "PROGRESS COMMERCIALIZING SOLAR-ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS", Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 21(1), 371-403, 1996

- This paper touches on three main points that are relevant to my research: solar photovoltaic power, commercialization pathways, and long-term deployment strategies
- There is a basic explanation of the manufacturing process of wafer cells and thin-film cells
- Discusses the company Enron/Amoco
- Discusses barriers, a fundamental one being the absence on long-term policy commitment
- Discusses the environmental benefits of solar - no gas, liquid, or solid waste emissions

"Environmental Responsibility". 2009. First Solar Inc.

- First Solar is a well recognized American photovoltaic manufacturer in the United States.
- They have now expanded to parts of Europe. They not only focus on the manufacturing of photovoltaics, but have also recently undertaken recycling initiatives for their solar panels.
- Browsing their website provides a breadth of information on their policies and initiatives.

C. Edwin Witt, Richard L. Mitchell, Holly P. Thomas, Martha I. Symko, "MANUFACTURING IMPROVEMENTS IN THE PHOTOVOLTAIC MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY (PVMAT) PROJECT", 2nd World Conference and Exhibition on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, Vienna, Austria (1998)

- The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Project (PVMaT) is a government/industry research and development (R&D) partnership between the U.S. federal government and members of the U.S. PV industry.
- The goals of PVMaT are to help the U.S. PV industry improve module manufacturing
processes and equipment; accelerate manufacturing cost reductions for PV modules, balance-of-systems components, and integrated systems; increase commercial product performance and reliability; and enhance the investment opportunities for substantial scale-ups of U.S.-based PV manufacturing plant capacities.
- The PVMaT is broken up into 5 phases, Phase 1, 2, 3, 4A/B and 5A.
- This paper discusses companies that have benefited in phases 4A and 5A - and explains the types of funding they were granted and for what purpose.

Joel Stronberg and Virinder Singh, "GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT TO EXPAND PV MARKETS", Technical Report, Renewable Energy Policy Project, Washington, D.C., 1998.

- Focuses on the government purchasing PV energy rather than purchasing PV manufacturing facilities - not of very much use for this pproject
- Discusses the bias of the US Government toward the purchase of energy from fossil fuels, rather than PV and revewable sources
- Focuses on the fact that it is not enough for government to focus on the development of new technologies—government must also support the technologies’ commercial application.
- Defends the benefits of PV and other renewable energy

"Deutsche Solar AG Recycling. 2009. Deutsche Solar AG Inc.

- Deutsche Solar AG is a manufacturing company based out of Germany, however it has expanded to other parts of Europe as well.
- The company has created a spin-off company, SolarMaterial, which focuses on recycling used solar cells.
- It does not limit the recycling to modules created by Deutsche Solar AG, but rather provides anyone with a means of returning a module for recycling.
- The website has a lot of information on the recycling program and well as other useful resources.

Michael T. Eckhart, "Financing Solar Energy in the U.S.", Technical Report; Renewable Energy Policy Project: Washington, DC, 1999.

Eckhart, M. T. Financing Solar Energy in the U.S.; Technical Report; Renewable Energy Policy Project: Washington, DC, 1999.

- This paper is somewhat bias because it is written by the Renewable Energy Policy Project which is in favour of promoting renewable energy in the US.
- It discusses the many aspects involved in solar energy policy in the US. Some of these points include:
- whether the money will be repaid
- Confusion over technical quality, utility interconnection, safety, economic viability, and insurability

Staffan Jacobsson and Volkmar Lauber, "The politics and policy of energy system transformation—explaining the German diffusion of renewable energy technology", Energy Policy, 34 (3), 256-276, 2006

- This paper discusses the growing solar industry in Germany, reasons for its growth and methods that Germany has used to achieve such successful growth.
- Different policy strategies employed in Germany are also discussed.
- Describes the policy that help the wind industry grow from 1988-1998, as well as the growth in solar from 1998-2003 - in Germany
- Different forms of financial support for renewable energy are discussed - feed-in-law, subsidies, etc.

Joshua M. Pearce, "Industrial symbiosis of very large-scale photovoltaic manufacturing", Renewable Energy, 33 (5), 1101-1108, 2008

- This paper describes the benefits of creating large scale PV manufacturing plants
- Discusses the concept of government investment in PV manufacturing plants, and the returns that they will see, financially and socially
- Discusses the number of jobs created in PV compared to other conventional energy

Peat Marwick, "Analysis of commercial activity in photovoltaics", Peat Marwick Consulting Group, 1989

- Discusses the different players in the PV industry, both in Canada and the rest of the world
- The key players described are within all the stages of PV - nmanufacturing, distribution, installation, R&D
- This paper discusses the trends in public policy relating to PV.
- There is a potentially relevant survey explained in the paper

Peat Marwick, "The Emerging photovoltaic industry : an analysis of literature on international markets and trends", Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, 1989

- This book may be useful to explain historical trends in PV in the US (since the book was written in 1989, any information may be irrelevant since there have been immense upgrades to PV technology
- The trends in the book include market developments, public policy relating to PV and the international PV market.

Michael Pfeiffer, "The Photovoltaic Industry in Germany – The World’s Strongest PV Cluster", Germany Trade and Invest, 2009

- This report touches on many relevant points for my research.
- The report discusses the Joint Task initiative in Germany which was created by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology to help subsidize and fund PV manufacturing facilities in Germany.
- The main goals of the Joint Task Initiative are "to improve the overall structure of economically weak regions" and "to create and secure competitive, skilled permanent jobs".

"Advanced Energy Manufacturing Tax Credit", US department of Energy, 2009

- This paper is very relevant to my research
- Discusses the details of the new tax credit for renewable energy manufacturers in the US - currently applications are being received and will soon be processed.
- The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009 (ARRA) authorizes the Department of Treasury to award $2.3 billion in tax credits for qualified investments in advanced energy projects, to support new, expanded, or re-equipped domestic manufacturing facilities.

W J Baumol, "Environmental Industries with Substantial Start-Up Costs as Contributors to Trade Competitiveness", Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 20, 71-81, 1995

- Suggests that if subsidies are used they only be used for a certain set time, after which they will be stopped because the industry should be able to continue to grow and thrive once they have the first push
- Develops the notion that solar subsidies are beneficial not only because they help the solar industry but because they support a technology that will benefit the environment and ultimately the public
- Discusses the impact of government policy on determining "winning technologies". The policy to support a certain technology but not another will lead to more growth in the first.

Daniel Richa and J. David Roessnerb, "Tax credits and US solar commercialization policy", Energy Policy, 18(2), 186-198, 1990

- The main focus of this article is to develop the idea of tax credits in the US to promote solar commercialization.
- One key point that the paper touches on is that no matter the incentives, tax credits, etc...if a technology is not well researched or developed it will not succeed in the market. This will be important to consider in my research - any PV industry that is new to Canada must be sustained by the resources available in Canada.
- Discusses the potential for suppliers to inflate initial costs because of subsidies - this will be something to ensure when creating subsidy policy in Canada

Andrea Sarzynski, "STATE POLICY EXPERIMENTATION WITH FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR SOLAR ENERGY", George Washington Institute of Public Policy, 2009

- Very useful paper - Many tables and information involving exact numbers for subsidies and other types of financial PV assistance
- Appendix 2 lists subsidies, grants, loan programs by state in the US - specific ones of importance are those in Virginia, Massachusetts
- Complete section describing manufacturing incentives such as Income Tax (or Equivalent) Incentives, Cash Incentives, Property Tax Incentives, Financing Incentives
- There is a comprehensive list of states which provide incentives for R&D, manufacturing and production
- This paper will provide a good foundation to build incentive/subsidy policy in Ontario

Dianne Rahm, "US public policy and emerging technologies : The case of solar energy", Energy Policy, 21(4), 374-384, 1993

- Not a very relevant source for this research
- This article explores the how public policy in the US has affected the rate at which solar technology has developed in the US.
- It also discusses some of the policies in the US for R&D and manufacturing.

M. Oliver and T. Jackson, "The market for solar photovoltaics", Energy Policy, 27(7), 371-385, 1999

- Relationship between subsidies, investment, large scale markets and cost reductions - full cycle
- Three major solar companies: Siemens, Sanyo, Amoco/Enron
- Good pie chart from 1994 showing the use of the different solar cells: cadmium telluride, amorphous silicon, ribbon, crystalline silicon
- List of the kinds of subsidies: tax incentives, low interest loans, buyback rates, green pricing

Frank Kreith, Barbara Foster and Matthew Brown, "Incentives for renewable energy generation in the United States", Renewable Energy, 9(1-4), 1081-1085, 1996

- Point about the amount of subsidies in the US for developers and users of renewable energy
- VERY good break down of subsidies by state in the US - included are: Arizona, Connecticut, Minnesota, Alaska, Virginia, North Dakota, Arkansas
- List of the kinds of financial assistance: tax relief, grants/bonds/loans, incentive payments, rates/rents/return on investment gain, regulation exemptions, set asides, payments in lieu of taxes, encouragement, consultation planning

Björn A. Sandén, "The economic and institutional rationale of PV subsidies", Solar Energy, 78(2), 137-146 , 2005

- Draws the relationship that subsidies increase the number and size of manufacturing plants. The great the size, the better the production. Greater production causes decreased cost and drives down the cost of subsidies
- Explains that solar is in a catch-22: it is not widely used because of the high cost, and the high cost is due to the low level of adoption.

Claus-Ulrich Mai, "Meeting the gigawatt challenge", Renewable Energy Focus, 9(1), 38-40, 2008

- This article discusses different methods that we can create Gigawatt Manufacturing Facilities
- Discusses the possibility of a lack of silicon, which would affect the silicon cell industry
- Silicon based cells comprise of about 90% of worldwide cell demand
- It also briefly discusses thin-film technology

Mischa Bechbergera, and Danyel Reiche, "Renewable energy policy in Germany: pioneering and exemplary regulations", Energy for Sustainable Development, 8(1), 47-57, 2004

- Germany has the second largest instralled photovoltaic capacity in the world - nearly 350 MW at the end of Sept 2003
- German laws discussed: feed-in-laws of 1991, Act on Supplying Electricity from Renewables, Renewable Energy Sources Act, 100,000 roofs photovoltaic programme, Market Incentive Programme
- Germany uses four different types of subsidies: direct investment subsidies, soft loans, tax allowances, and subsidies for the operational costs/feed-in-tariffs
- Market Incentive Programme (MAP) - support through direct investment subsidies and soft loans, the latter up to 100% of the investment costs

Janet Wood, "Solar energy in Germany: A Market Review", Refocus, 7(3), 24-30, 2006

- Discusses EEG and feed-in-tariff
- Manufacturing companies - Sunways, Sputnik Engineering
- Discusses the major cell materials and the emergence of new kinds of cells (thin-film cells)

"RoHS Compliance FAQ", RoHS Guide, 2009

- A basic explanation of RoHS in Europe as well as a basic explanation of the directive WEEE.
- This website also explains how the two are related.


- Includes a "quick list" of facts about the solar industry in Japan.
- Ex. "The most important federal program initiated was the Residential PV System Dissemination Program. Between Fiscal Year 1994 and Fiscal Year 2005, it funded for total installations of over 930 MW, comprised of over 250,000 residential PV systems, and successfully reduced the buy-down rebate from ¥900,000/kW in Fiscal Year 1994 to mere ¥20,000/kW in Fiscal Year 2005."

Masafumi Yamaguchi, "Present status and prospects of photovoltaic technologies in Japan", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 5(2), 113-135, 2001

- There is a section in this paper that focuses on the solar manufacturing market in Japan
- "This remarkable increase in solar cell module production is mainly due to initiation of the government subsidy program for private PV houses" (page 127)
- Has some very detailed and useful tables/graphs/charts of solar cell use in the world and in Japan - Describes the different kinds of solar cells

Ian H. Rowlands, "Envisaging feed-in tariffs for solar photovoltaic electricity: European lessons for Canada", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 9(1), 1-68, 2005

- This article mainly focuses on the feed-in-tariffs in Europe
- The article draws on the European models for possible Canadian policy, additionally it develops a mock up of a possible feed-in-tariff in Canada
- Some policies/groups that may be relevant from the paper are International Energy Agency, Renewable energy policies and measures in IEA countries, Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expenses, Market Incentive Program
- Good explanation of renewable portfolio standards - and how these can be applied in Canada

"What is the Feed-in Tariff Program?", Ontario Power Authority, 2009

- Description of the new Feed-in-Tarriffs in Ontario
- Energy sources that are included in the FIT program are biomass, biogas, landfill gas, on-shore and off-shore wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), waterpower.
- Link to a very detailed report of the FIT program announced in Ontario - unfortunately there is no specific section in this report relation to photovoltaics

"Federal Government Incentives", Canadian Solar Industries Association, 2009

- This website provides a comprehensive list of the solar incentives across Canada
- The incentives are broken down by province - however there doesn't seem to be any focused on the manufacturing of the PV cells, but rather the implementation and use of such systems
- Ontario incentives that are relevant include:

  • Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program: This is a type of Feed in Tariff program which pays solar energy producers a rate of 42 cents/kilowatt hour for grid tied solar power over a contract life of 20 years for projects under 10 megawatts.
  • OPA Electricity Retrofit Incentive Program (Commercial): The Ontario Power Authority (OPA) through the Every Kilowatt Counts initiative has developed a commercial incentive program. Retrofitting an existing facility with newer equipment is natural business practise. Commercial building owners/tenants can retrofit their building with solar hot water heaters and other electricity saving equipment and receive a rebate from the OPA. - could use this in the buildings

Caldwell, James H.,Jr.,"Photovoltaic Technology and Markets", Contemporary Economic Policy, 12(2), 97-111, 1994

- Detailed description of photovoltaics, as well as challenges in the industry -including: resources, aesthetics, nighttime, sensitivity to transients, etc...
- Detailed breakdown of the different kinds of PV markets out there: remote market, rural market, suburban market, motive power, consumer package goods, geographic distribution
- Very useful breakdown of the manufacturing process of PV cells, and the cost associated with each step
- Discusses what the costs must be for the manufacturing process in order to make PV competitive with other energy sources (coal, oil)

[edit] PV Recycling/Disassembly Policy

Vasilis M. Fthenakis, "End-of-life management and recycling of PV modules", Energy Policy, 28(14), 1051-1058, 2000

- VERY USEFUL PAPER!!! - Begins with an introduction to photovoltaic cells and the environmental benefits of the technology
- Explains policy and methods of electronic device recycling and how this can be applied to PV
- Discusses the possibility for collecting, recycling and the feasibility of this process.
- Has a great flow chart of a possible recycling process for PV

Tim Jackson and Mark Oliver, "The viability of solar photovoltaics", Energy Policy, 28(14), 983-988, 2000

- Discusses some of the key factors which would push PVs closer to convergence with mainstream grid-connected electricity (increased demand, expanded manufacturing facilities, improved performance, falling costs, etc)
- Discusses various aspects of PV greenhouse has emissions for different types of cells- the emissions include those from production, use, and end-use
- Compares the emissions of PV to those of nuclear, coal, and wind power

Karsten Wambach, Sylke Schlenker, Ingo Röver, Anja Müller, "Recycling Of Solar Cells and Photovoltaic Modules", 9th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Paris, France, 2004

- Discusses the advantages of PV recycling and how it can be done as well as the sources that the recycling will focus on (ie end-of-use, broken, defective)
- Also mentions some policy surrounding PV recyclability.
- Gives a break down of the materials in the different types of solar cells: thin film, CdTe, and CIS/CIGS
- Provides a comprehensive table with future assumptions of waste produced by PV, and breaks it down by components of the PV: panes, cells, EVA, Backsheet Foil, etc
- Discusses the concept of a voluntary take back system
- Useful table showing the results of recycling certain parts of a cell (page 26)
- Interesting fact - in some cases recycling wafers will prove to be more efficient the second time around

K. Wambach1, S. Schlenker1, A. Jäger-Waldau, "A VOLUNTARY TAKE BACK SYSTEM FOR PV MODULES IN EUROPE", 20th European Photovoltaic Sol ar Energy Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 2005

- VERY USEFUL ARTICLE!!! - Discusses RoHS and WEEE
- Discusses the end-of-life cost of PV panels
- Develops the idea of reuse and recycling of solar panels
- Explains policy in Europe relating to take-back costs and recycling

M.J. de Wild-Scholten, K. Wambach, E.A. Alsema, and A. Jäger-Waldau, "IMPLICATIONS OF EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS", 20th European Photovoltaic Sol ar Energy Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 2005

- This paper describes the different policies that exist in Europe with regards to hazardous substances - relates these policies to the impact they would have on PV were PV considered part of the policy
- The two main policies, which are detailed in the paper, are the ROHS (Restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances) and the WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment): these two policies will be of consideration in any decision regarding the materials used for producing solar cells in the propose large-scale facilities
- The paper also outlines other means of controlling hazardous substances including: take back systems and design-for-recycling - countries that already use these programs are mentioned in the paper
- This paper also details the different kinds of substances that are mentioned in the ROHS and that are found in photovoltaics, such as lead, cadmium, bromine, F-gases, etc - discusses how it will affect PV if these materials are banned from the production, as well as alternative materials that could be used

David Appleyard, "Light Cycle: Recycling PV Materials", Renewable Energy World Magazine. 2009.

- This article discusses the growing PV market in Europe, especially in Germany and the waste created by end-of-use cells
- Discusses the different types of PV modules and the recycling process for each.
- It also discusses ways that Germany and other parts of Europe plan to reduce the waste associated with PV through recycling and disassembly.

"Foundation PV CYCLE – European photovoltaic industry initiative for solar module take back and recycling", Photovoltaics, Solar Energy and Energy Policy, 2009. Gunther Portfolio.

- This article discusses the PV CYCLE program in Europe.
- Also discusses an initiative by First Solar which estimated future costs of reclaiming and recycling their modules at their end of life

Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition, "Toward a Just and Sustainable Solar Energy Industry", 2009

- Discusses the expanding sector of PV technology
- Talks about the potential waste of PV technology at the end-of-life
- Discusses possible ways to deal with the end-of-life waste of PV technology
- Gives a detailed list and explanation of hazardous materials used in PV production and found at the end-of-life
- The section about recommendations to make PV more sustainable will be very beneficial when developing the type of manufacturing facility and process we would like to use in Ontario

Siân Harris, "German legislation generates photovoltaic leadership", Solar & Alternative Energy, 2007

- First Solar's Sohn says that his company was able to source more than half of its equipment from suppliers within Germany. - First Solar also has helped a Canadian company invest in a new processing facility in Brandenburg that will operate part of First Solar's collection and recycling process. - This program means that that every module made in First Solar's Frankfurt (Oder) factory can be recycled.

Kari Larsen, "End-of-life PV: then what?", Renewable Energy Focus, 10(4), 48-53, 2009

- Paper discusses the responsibility of PV manufacturing companies with regards to recycling and creating technology with the end-of-life in mind
- PV Cycle is introduced - a voluntary take back system for PV cells in Europe
- Provides a good table of waste quantities from end-of-life PV cells
- Explains the recycling process of SolarWorld which re-uses and recycles silicon panels

"Canadian Solar joins ranks of PV Cycle", Renewable Energy Focus - Photovoltaic (PV) News, 2009

- Brief article announcing that a company in Canada has joined PV Cycle, which is a voluntary take back system in Europe. There is a brief history of PV cycle, see below:
PV CYCLE was founded in 2007 with the specific purpose of implementing the photovoltaic industry's commitment to set up a voluntary take-back and recycling program for end-of-life waste PV modules. To produce green and renewable energy, end-of-life modules need to be recovered and recycled. This will minimise waste and allow the re-use of valuable raw materials to produce new modules. The members of PV CYCLE are in the final stages of developing the scheme and aim to present it to the European Commission by spring 2009 for formal acknowledgement. By closing the life cycle of photovoltaic modules, industry players take their responsibility and are "Making the photovoltaic industry Double Green."

Eberspacher, C. Gay, C.F. and Moskowitz, P.D., "Strategies for recycling CdTe photovoltaic modules", Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, 1, 962-965, 1994

- Very detailed explanation of CdTe recycling processes
- One drawback to this type of cell, as described in the paper are the high costs of collection and recycling
- Describes the law in the US regarding recycling of hazardous waste at the time of the paper - and how this affects Cd which is considered in many countries as a hazardous waste and falls under stricter recycling and waste laws

Anja Muller, Karsten Wambach and Erik Alsema, "Life Cycle Analysis of a Solar Module Recycling Process", 20th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 2005

- Discusses the process of recycling a solar module in detail
- The paper touches on the concept of Energy Pay-Back Time - which may turn out to be very relevant in defending government subsidies for large scale PV manufacturing plants
- Discusses possible alternatives recycling processes that would pre-treat hazardous materials in the PV cells
- Basic flow chart of the recycling process of a PV cell

Parikhit Sinha, a, , Christopher J. Kriegnera, William A. Schewa, Swiatoslav W. Kaczmara, Matthew Traistera and David J. Wilsona, "Regulatory policy governing cadmium-telluride photovoltaics: A case study contrasting life cycle management with the precautionary principle", Energy Policy, 36(1), 381-387, 2008

- Very in-depth explanation of Cadmium-telluride cells
- Discusses the benefits and disadvantages of this type of PV cell
- Describes policy which exists that does not allow certain levels of cadmium to be introduced into the market (ex is in China)
- Discusses the human health risks of working and manufacturing CdTe cells
- Discusses the end of product life risks of CdTe cells

R.W. Miles, , K.M. Hynes and I. Forbes, "Photovoltaic solar cells: An overview of state-of-the-art cell development and environmental issues", Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, 51(1-3), 1-42, 2005

- This article provides a detailed description of the different types of PV cells. These include: monocrystalline silicon, multicrystalline silicon, silicon ribbon, amorphous silicon, microcrystalline silicon, HIT solar cell, other thin film silicon concepts, CdTe cells
- There is a very comprehensive section on environmental issues of PV, which include the external costs, life cycle analysis of different types of PV cells, environmental assessments, and recycling
- Within the recycling section there is a number of recycling processes that companies have either planned, piloted or created within their business. Some of these will be good cases to base Ontario policy after
- the recycling process for crystalline silicon, thin film modules (CdTe & CIS), and other silicon cells are mentioned

Ken Zweibel , "PV Module Recycling in the US", U.S. Department of Energy - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2004

- Describes the current PV recycling in the US, or the lack thereof, and the reasons for this - can use these reasons and solve them for a Canadian model
- Looks at two key aspects of the recycling process: collection infrastructure and technical feasibility. In doing so it evaluates similar recycling processes in the US such as electronics recycling
- Other aspects of the recycling process which are developed are the cost and exposure to harmful materials in the cells.

V. M. Fthenakis, C. Eberspacher and P. D. Moskowitz, "Recycling strategies to enhance the commercial viability of CIS photovoltaics", PROGRESS IN PHOTOVOLTAICS: RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS, 4(6), 447-456, 1996

- This paper discusses the economic, regulatory and technical issues which impact the feasibility of recycling CIS solar cells

  • impact of cost, materials resources and supples
  • impact of environmental regulations
  • logistics and economics of recycling and disposing of end-of-life modules

- Recycling might help reduce competition among industries vying for the same materials, ex. the CIS PV industry may compete with the flat-panel industry for indium
- Discusses the different regulations in the US regarding hazardous waste: RCRA, HWCL, STLC, TTLC -- comprehensive table outlining the RCRA regulations and how they relate to CIS PV
- Discusses the importance of concentration for the recycling process, regarding geographical concentration, functional concentration and content concentration

Vasilis M. Fthenakis, Hyung Chul Kim and Erik Alsema, "Emissions from Photovoltaic Life Cycles", Environmental Science Technology, 42(6), 2168-2174, 2008

- This is a key article to understand the emissions that are created from photovoltaics. Often PV is regarded as a non-emitting technology, however this paper discusses the emissions of the manufacturing, mining and recycling process in PV
- There are some good comparative statistics of PV emissions to coal and other energy industry emissions
- The paper also provides a number of very comprehensive graphs of emissions by types of chemicals released from PV cells (ex. GHG, NOx, SOx, Cd, Ni, etc. - In addition there is a good chart showing the amount of emissions from different types of energy (ex. CdTe, ribbon-Si, mc-Si, mono-Si, Hard coal, lignite, natural gas, oil, nuclear, hydro, etc)

Miquel A. Aguado-Monsonet, "The environmental impact of photovoltaic technology", Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, 1998

- Useful paper to get an idea of the life cycle emissions of different kinds of PV cells
- Has a section on PV recycling and disassembly
- Discusses what a life cycle assessment measures - exhaustion of material, energy needed, global warming, acidification, and waste
- Has a very basic but useful flow chart of the life cycle of a photovoltaic panel - Breaks down the environmental impact of a solar cell made from silicon wafers - the process covers all the stages of the PV system, including material extraction, construction, manufacturing emissions, etc
- This paper has a number of very useful tables comparing the CO2 emissions of PV cells using different types of materials - this may help in deciding what kind of cells government subsidized plants will make

Maiya Shibasaki, Niels Warburg, Johann Springer, and Simona Lombardelli, [ "RECYCLING OF THIN-FILM SOLAR MODULES LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT CASE STUDY"], 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden, Germany, 2006

- Detailed explanation of the recycling process of CIGS thin-film PV modules

Bohland, J. Anisimov, I. and Dapkus, T. , "Economic recycling of CdTe photovoltaic modules", Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 355-358, 1997

- Describes the recycling process for CdTe PV modules
- Provides a cost analysis of the recycling process

L. Frisson, K. Lieten, T. Bruton, K. Declercq, J. Szlufcik, H. De Moor, M. Goris, A. Benali, and O. Aceves, "Recent Improvments in Industrial PV Module Recycling", 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Glaskow, UK, 2000

- Description of the recycling process of monocrystalline PV modules
- Uses flow charts, tables and other data analysis to explain the recycling process

[edit] Other Relevant Literature Reviews

Past literature review pertaining to this subject can be found below.