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Ein gentechnisch veränderter Organismus ist ein Organismus dessen gentechnisches Material durch eine gentechnische manipulierung geändert ist. Genmanipulation verwickelt die Aufnahme der Gene aus einer anderen Art in das Wirtsgenom. Gene aus Tiere und Bakterien können in ein Pflanzegenom einsetzt werden um eine transgen funktionelle Pflanze zu erschaffen. Transgene Züchtung ist etwas ganz anderes als traditionele Züchtung und deshalb haben die Produkte der funktionellen Gene aus den gentechnisch veränderten Organismen vieleicht ziemlich viele umwelt Effekte.

Mehrere Antikörper und Arzneimittel wurden schon kommerziell produziert durch gentechnische manipulierung. Zum Beispiel Insulin der Säugetiere ist durch rekombinante DNS in Bakterien produziert. Diese Technik ist viel billiger als natürlicher Insulin aus konventioneller Biosynthese. Aber wenn gentechnische manipulierung angewendet wird, gibt es viele Ungewissheiten und Gefahren.

A. Unexpected mortality of non-target Lepidoptera from pollen from Bt crop:
1. Losey, J.E., L.S. Rayor and M.E. Carter 1999. Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae. Nature 399: 214.
2. Hansen, L and J Obrycki 2000. Field deposition of Bt transgenic corn pollen: lethal effects on the monarch butterfly. Oecologia DOI 10.1007/s004420000502, published online: 19 August 2000.
3. Zangerl, A R, McKenna, D, Wraight, C L, Carroll, M, Ficarello, P, Warner, R and M R Berenbaum 2001. Effects of exposure to event 176 Bacillus thuringiensis corn pollen on monarch and black swallowtail caterpillars under field conditions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 11908-11912.
4. Stanley-Horn, G. P. Dively, R. L. Hellmich, H. R. Mattila, M. K. Sears, R. Rose, L. C. H. Jesse, J. E. Losey, J. J. Obrycki and L. C. Lewis 2001. Assessing the impact of Cry1Ab-expressing corn pollen on monarch butterfly larvae in field studies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 11931–11936.
5. Anderson, P. L., R. L. Hellmich, M. K. Sears, D. V. Sumerford, and L. C. Lewis 2004. Effects of Cry1Ab-Expressing Corn Anthers on Monarch Butterfly Larvae. Environmental Entomology 33: 1109-1115.
6. Dively, G. P., R. Rose, M.K. Sears, R.L. Hellmich, D.E. Stanley-Horn, J.M. Russo, D.D. Calvin and P.L. Anderson 2004. Effects on monarch butterfly larvae (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) after continuous exposure to Cry1Ab-expressing corn during anthesis. Environmental Entomology 33: 1116–1125 (2004).

B. Unexpected high mortality of lacewings and silkworm from Bt crop:
7. Hilbeck, A., M Baumgartner, P M Fried and F Bigler 1998. Effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn-fed prey on mortality and development time of immature Chrysoperla carnea. Environmental Entomology 276: 480-487.
8. Wang, Z-H, Shu Q-Y, Cui H-R, Xu M-K, Xie X-B & Y-W Xia 2002. The effect of Bt transgenic rice flour on the development of silkworm larvae and the sub-micro-structure of its midgut. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 35: 714-718.
9. Hilbeck, A and Schmidt 2006. Another view on Bt proteins. Biopesticides International 2 (1): 1-50.

C. Effect of Bt toxin on hoppers and dragonflies
10. Bernal, C C, Aguda, R M and M B Cohen 2002. Effect of rice lines transformed with Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes on the brown planthopper and its predator Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Entomological Exp. Appl. 102: 21–28.
11. Ponsard, Sergine, Andrew P. Gutierrez and Nicholas J. Mills 2002. Effect of Bt-toxin (Cry1Ac) in transgenic cotton on the adult longevity of four Heteropteran predators. Environmental Entomology 31: 1197-1205.

D. Additonal mortality of honeybees from Bt crops:
12. Brodsgaard, H F, Brodsgaard C J, Hansen H & Lovei G L 2003. Environmental risk assessment of transgene products using honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae. Apidologie 34: 139-145.

E. Bt-induced resistance in pest insects:
13. Huang, F., L. Buschman and R Higgins 1999. Inheritance of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Dipel ES) in the European corn borer. Science 284: 965-966.

F. Elimination of pollinators and birds from GM crops:
14. Watkinson, A R, R P Freckleton, R A Robinson and W J Sutherland 2000. Predictions of biodiversity response to genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. Science 289: 1554-1557.

G. Impact on soil organisms.
15. Saxena, D, S Flores and G Stozsky 1999. Insecticidal toxin in root exudates from Bt corn. Nature 402: 480.

16. Tapp, H and G Stozsky 1998. Persistence of the insecticidal toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp kurstaki in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 30: 471-476.

H. Horizontal gene transfer from GM crop to non-GM varieties.
17. Wheeler, CC, D Gealy and D O TeBeest 2001. Bar gene transfer from transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) to red rice (Oryza sativa). Rice Research: AAES Research Series 485: 33-37.
18. Greene, A E and R F Allison 1994. Recombination between viral RNA and transgenic plant transcripts. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 15: 127-135.
19. Serratos-Hernández, J.-A., J.-L. Gómez-Olivares, N. Salinas-Arreortua, E. Buendía-Rodríguez, F. Islas-Gutiérrez and A. de-Ita 2007. Transgenic proteins in maize in the Soil Conservation area of Federal District, Mexico. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5: 247-252.
20. P.-N, A, J. Van Heerwaarden, H. R. Perales, J. A. Serratos-Hernandez, A. Rangel, M. B. Hufford, P. Gepts, A. Garay-Arroyo, R. Rivera-Bustamante and E. R. Álvarez-Buylla 2009. Transgenes in Mexican maize: molecular evidence and methodological considerations for GMO detection in landrace populations. Molecular Ecology 18:4: 569-571.
21. A. Snow 2009. Unwanted transgenes re-discovered in Oaxacan maize. Molecular Ecology 18: 569-571.

I. Gene silencing in GM crops:
22. Kumpatla, S.P., W. Teng, W.G. Buchholz and T.C. Hall 1998. Gene silencing and reactivation in transgenic rice. Rice Genetics Newsletter 14: 155-159.

J. Persistence of Bt toxin in soil:
23. Stotzky, G. 2004. Persistence and biological activity in soil of the insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis, especially from transgenic plants. Plant and Soil 266: 77-89.
24. Sun, X, L. J. Chen, Z. J. Wu, L. K. Zhou and H. Shimizu 2006. Soil persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin from transgenic Bt cotton tissues and its effect on soil enzyme activities. Biology and Fertility of Soils 43: 617-620.

K. Toxic root leachate from Bt crop affecting soil insects and microbial activity:
25. Sun, C. Wu, Z., Zhang, Y. & Zhang, L. 2003. Effect of transgenic Bt rice planting on soil enzyme activities. Ying Yong Sgeng Tai Xue Bao 14: 2261-2264.

26. Saxena, D, Stewart, C N, Altosaar, I, Shu, Q & Stotzky, G 2004. Larvicidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis are released in root exudates of transgenic B. thuringiensis corn, potato, and rice but not of B. thuringiensis canola, cotton, and tobacco. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 42: 383–387.
27. Wu, W-X., Ye, Q-F, Hang, M, Duan, X-J & Jin, W-M. 2004. Bt-transgenic rice straw affects the culturable microbiota and dehydrogenas and phosphatase activities in a flooded paddy soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 36: 289-295.
28. Wu, W-X., Ye, Q-F. & Min, H. 2004. Effect of straws from Bt-transgenic rice on selected biological activities in waterflooded soil. European Journal of Soil Biology 40: 15-22.

L. Toxin released from Bt crops fatal to aquatic organisms:
29. Rosi-Marshall, E.J., J.L. Tank, T.V. Royer, M.R. Whiles, M. Evans-White, C. Chambers, N.A. Griffiths, J. Pokelsek & M.L. Stephen 2007. Toxins in transgenic crop byproducts may affect headwater stream ecosystems. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104: 16204–16208.

M. Pathological effects of Bt toxin on rat hematopoetic system, spleen, heart and adrenal glands.
30. de Vendômois, J. S, F. Roullier, D. Cellier, Gilles-Eric Séralini 2009. A Comparison of the Effects of Three GM Corn Varieties on Mammalian Health. Int. Jour. Biol Sci. 5: 706-726. http://www.biolsci.org/v05p0706.htm

As a reviewer commented, “From the accumulating evidence it is clear that the large-scale introduction of GE crops containing entirely novel gene products in new combinations at high frequencies with their associated complex of non-target organisms will have unknown impacts on future agricultural and, ultimately, natural ecosystems” (Velkov et al. 2005).


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See also

External links

Translated by: Heather Žibrat