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A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. The media may be separated by a solid wall, so that they never mix, or they may be in direct contact. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treatment. One common example of a heat exchanger is the radiator in a car, in which the heat source, being a hot engine-cooling fluid, water, transfers heat to air flowing through the radiator (i.e. the heat transfer medium).
Energy recovery ventilators (ERVs) are closely related, however ERVs also transfer the humidity level of the exhaust air to the intake air.
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Plate heat exchanger
Plate fin heat exchanger
Ground-coupled heat exchanger
Dynamic scraped surface heat exchanger
Waste Heat Recovery Unit
Micro heat exchanger
Moving bed heat exchanger
There are a number of heat exchangers used in Heat recovery ventilation-HRV devices, as diagrammed to the right :
cross flow heat exchanger up to 60% efficient (passive)
countercurrent heat exchanger up to 99% efficient (passive)
rotary heat exchanger (requires motor to turn wheel)
thin multiple heat wires (Fine wire heat exchanger)
The air coming into the heat exchanger should be at least 0°C. Otherwise humidity in the outgoing air may condense, freeze and block the heat exchanger.
A high enough incoming air temperature can also be achieved by
recirculating some of the exhaust air (causing loss of air quality) when required,
by using a very small (1 kW) heat pump to warm the inlet air above freezing before it enters the HRV. (The 'cold' side of this heatpump is situated in the warm air outlet.)
using a heating "battery" supplied by heat from a heat source eg hot water circuit from a wood fired boiler, etc.
Earth-to-air heat exchanger
Heat recovery ventilation, often with an earth-to-air heat exchanger, is essential to achieve German Passivhaus standards.
Main article: Ground-coupled heat exchanger
Air conditioning - Health implications
The plastic bags was for the heat exchanger - thesis found here:
See also: Sterling Engine
Funding Opportunities for Engineers
See also: Grants
- A list of funding opportunities, mostly in the United States, can be found here.
- The National Science Foundation (of the USA) is offering an environmental sustainability program that supports research in the area of Engineering for sustainable development.
- Canadian homeowners and small business owners can apply for grants and financial initiatives from Natural Resources Canada for improving energy efficiency.
- The School of Engineering Learn, Lead and Serve (LLS) Fund is a program at the Catholic University of Dayton in Ohio that offers $1,000 to $2,000 grants to individuals and groups for engineering research and community service. Grants and scholarships of this type are likely offered to students at other universities and colleges around the world.
- The Bank of America offers funds to organizations and students through the Neighborhood Excellence Initiative. The initiative supports community work in the areas of education, neighborhood preservation, arts and culture, and health and human services.
- The Energy Innovations Small Grant Program provides grants for "small businesses, non-profits, individuals and academic institutions to conduct research that establishes the feasibility of new, innovative energy concepts".
- Banks like the [http://www.sbcreditunion.com/solarloans.htm Santa Barbara County Federal Credit Union offer loans for installing solar power systems.
See also: Journals
Work to be Done
Stubs that need to be expanded:
See also: Suggested projects
Heat Exchanger Development
- Engineering for Sustainable Development is an Appropedia page with external links to education programs and courses.
- Service learning is a great way to accomplish education while providing a useful service. Engineers learn well through practically applying their skills. See Service learning in engineering for more information.
- The Engineering Subject Centre in the UK offers resources for Education for Sustainable Development.
- The Applied Sustainability Research Group within the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada led by J.M.Pearce provides the opportunity for research and education on engineering for sustainable development.
- The Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education lists education programs in the United States.
- The Open source engineering software page has many links to various open source software programs used in engineering.
- Thingiverse is a website where people can share digital designs. It also provides a way to upload non-compliant files to be shared on Appropedia pages.
Companies involved in creating heat exchangers