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Difference between revisions of "Portal:Heat exchangers"

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| headline = Household uses for heat exchangers
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| page=Solar hot water
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| image=Solarboiler.jpg
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| summary=A heat exchanger is used to transfer energy to the potable water from the fluid being heated in the solar collector}}
  
THIS SITE IS UNDERDEVELOPMENT: PLEASE DO NOT EDIT UNIT THIS TAG IS REMOVED. SHOULD BE COMPLETED BY FEBRUARY 1, 2011 - Thanks!
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A '''heat exchanger''' is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. The media may be separated by a solid wall, so that they never mix, or they may be in direct contact <ref>Kakaç S., Liu H., (2002). Heat Exchangers: Selection, Rating and Thermal Design (2nd ed.) CRC Press. ISBN 0849309026. 311-317.</ref>. They are widely used in [[space heating]], [[refrigeration]], [[air conditioning]], power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treatment. One common example of a heat exchanger is the radiator in a car, in which the heat source, being a hot engine-cooling fluid, water, transfers heat to air flowing through the radiator (i.e. the heat transfer medium).
  
 
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<br>  
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<br>  
 
<br>  
  
<br>
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== '''Types of Heat Exchangers:'''  ==
  
{| align="right" border="1" style="background:#ABCDEF;"
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_source_heat_pumps Air source heat pumps]&nbsp;<br>  
|-
 
| '''&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Highlighted Heat exchanger'''
 
|-
 
| <br>
 
|- style="background:white;"
 
| An idea of how to make your home or business more<br>energy efficient.
 
|}
 
  
<br>
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shell_and_tube_heat_exchanger Baffle]
  
Heat Exchangers
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shell_and_tube_heat_exchanger Concentric tube heat exchanger<br>]
  
A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. The media may be separated by a solid wall, so that they never mix, or they may be in direct contact. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treatment. One common example of a heat exchanger is the radiator in a car, in which the heat source, being a hot engine-cooling fluid, water, transfers heat to air flowing through the radiator (i.e. the heat transfer medium).  
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Countercurrent_exchange Countercurrent exchange]
  
<br>
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_water_source_cooling Deep water cooling]
  
<br>  
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shell_and_tube_heat_exchanger Downhole heat exchanger]<br>  
  
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_exchanger
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_scraped_surface_heat_exchanger Dynamic scraped surface heat exchanger]
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drain_water_heat_recovery
 
 
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_recovery_ventilation
 
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
Energy recovery ventilators (ERVs) are closely related, however ERVs also transfer the humidity level of the exhaust air to the intake air.<br><u>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_recovery_ventilation</u>
 
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
Shell and tube heat exchanger
 
 
 
Plate heat exchanger<br>Plate fin heat exchanger<br>Ground-coupled heat exchanger<br>Dynamic scraped surface heat exchanger<br>Waste Heat Recovery Unit<br>Micro heat exchanger<br>Moving bed heat exchanger
 
 
 
<br>There are a number of heat exchangers used in Heat recovery ventilation-HRV devices, as diagrammed to the right&nbsp;:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; cross flow heat exchanger up to 60% efficient (passive)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; countercurrent heat exchanger up to 99% efficient (passive)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; rotary heat exchanger (requires motor to turn wheel)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; heat pipes<br>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; thin multiple heat wires (Fine wire heat exchanger)<br>
 
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
Incoming air<br>The air coming into the heat exchanger should be at least 0°C. Otherwise humidity in the outgoing air may condense, freeze and block the heat exchanger.<br>A high enough incoming air temperature can also be achieved by<br>recirculating some of the exhaust air (causing loss of air quality) when required,<br>by using a very small (1 kW) heat pump to warm the inlet air above freezing before it enters the HRV. (The 'cold' side of this heatpump is situated in the warm air outlet.)<br>using a heating "battery" supplied by heat from a heat source eg hot water circuit from a wood fired boiler, etc.<br>
 
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
Earth-to-air heat exchanger
 
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
Heat recovery ventilation, often with an earth-to-air heat exchanger, is essential to achieve German Passivhaus standards.<br>Main article: Ground-coupled heat exchanger
 
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
See also....
 
 
 
Air conditioning - Health implications<br>HVAC....................&nbsp;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HVAC
 
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
<br>
 
 
 
<br>
 
  
Types:  
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drain_water_heat_recovery Drain water heat recovery]<br>
  
http://images.wikia.com/solarcooking/images/2/2e/Granada06_david_denkenberger.pdf
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_recovery_ventilation Energy recovery ventilators]
  
The plastic bags was for the heat exchanger - thesis found here:<br>http://gradworks.umi.com/34/19/3419453.html
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grate_heater Grate heater]<br>
  
<br>  
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[[Ground source heat exchanger]]<br>  
  
<br>
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser_propulsion#Heat_Exchanger_.28HX.29_Thruster Heat exchanger thruster]
  
http://www.appropedia.org/Ground_source_heat_pumps
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_recovery_ventilation Heat recovery ventilators]<br>
  
http://www.appropedia.org/Solar_hot_water
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moving_bed_heat_exchanger Moving bed heat exchanger]
  
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_air_heat
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pillowplate Pillow plate]<br>
  
http://www.appropedia.org/Measures_to_stop_global_warming
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plate_fin_heat_exchanger Plate fin heat exchanger]
  
http://www.appropedia.org/Original:Solar_thermal_energy
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiator_(heating) Radiator]
  
solar wall
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recuperator Recuperator]
  
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geothermal_heat_pump<br>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_exchange_geothermal_heat_pump<br>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_water_source_cooling<br>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_thermal_energy<br>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trombe_wall<br>http://www.appropedia.org/Appropriate_technology
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regenerative_heat_exchanger Regenerative heat exchanger]
  
<br>
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shell_and_tube_heat_exchanger Shell and tube heat exchanger]
  
<br>
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_air_heat Solar air heater]
  
See also: Sterling Engine
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[http://www.appropedia.org/Solar_hot_water Solar hot water heater]
  
<br>
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trombe_wall Solar wall]
  
<br>  
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_Wheel Thermal wheel]<br>  
  
<br>  
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste_heat_recovery_unit Waste Heat Recovery Unit]<br>  
  
 
<br>  
 
<br>  
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|- valign="top"
 
|- valign="top"
 
| width="33.3%" | '''<big>Category tree</big>'''  
 
| width="33.3%" | '''<big>Category tree</big>'''  
<categorytree>Sustainability</categorytree> <categorytree>Design</categorytree> <categorytree>Engineering</categorytree> <!-- MIDDLE COLUMN: Lists selected pages of interest. -->  
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<categorytree>Energy</categorytree> <categorytree>Water</categorytree> <categorytree>International development</categorytree> <!-- MIDDLE COLUMN: Lists selected pages of interest. -->  
  
 
| width="33.3%" | '''<big>Sample pages</big>'''  
 
| width="33.3%" | '''<big>Sample pages</big>'''  
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''Water''  
 
''Water''  
  
*[http://www.appropedia.org/Solar_hot_water Solar hot water]''<br>''
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*[[Solar hot water]]''<br>''
  
 
<br> ''Heat''  
 
<br> ''Heat''  
  
*''[http://www.appropedia.org/Ground_source_heat_pumps Ground source heat pumps]''
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*[[Ground source heat pumps]]
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*[[Expanded microchannel heat exchanger]]
  
<br> ''Energy Savings''  
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<br> ''Low cost''  
  
*<br>
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*[https://www.kaltra.de/microchannel-coils Microchannel heat exchangers]
  
 
''<br>Energy Systems'''<br>'''''  
 
''<br>Energy Systems'''<br>'''''  
  
*Sterling Engine
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combined_heat_and_power Cogeneration]
  
<br>'''Formal Education'''  
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<br>'''Education'''  
  
 
*[http://catalog.asme.org/Education/ShortCourse/Heat_Exchanger_Design.cfm Heat Exchanger Design and Operation]  
 
*[http://catalog.asme.org/Education/ShortCourse/Heat_Exchanger_Design.cfm Heat Exchanger Design and Operation]  
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'''General''':  
 
'''General''':  
  
*[[Www.heatexchangers.org/|Heat Exchangers Information and Resources]]<br>  
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*[http://www.heatexchangers.org/ Heat Exchangers Information and Resources]<br>  
*[http://www.ewb-international.org/ Engineers Without Borders]<br>
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*[http://www.ewb-international.org/ Engineers Without Borders]<br>  
 
*[http://www.eswusa.org/ Engineers for a Sustainable World]<br>
 
*[http://www.eswusa.org/ Engineers for a Sustainable World]<br>
  
'''<br>'''
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'''<br>'''  
  
''<span class="Apple-style-span" style="font-style: normal; ">''Standards''</span>''
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''Standards''  
  
*''<span class="Apple-style-span" style="font-style: normal; "</span>''[http://www.heatexchange.org/ Heat Exchange Institute]
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*[http://www.heatexchange.org/ Heat Exchange Institute]
  
 +
<br>
  
 +
''Calculations''
  
''<span class="Apple-style-span" style="font-style: normal; "</span>Calculations''
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*[http://www.cheresources.com/hteffzz.shtml Heat Exchanger Effectiveness]
 +
*[http://www.exergyllc.com/calculator.php Heat Exchanger Calculator]<br>
  
*[http://www.cheresources.com/hteffzz.shtml Heat Exchanger Effectiveness]
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<br>'''<br>'''  
*''[http://www.exergyllc.com/calculator.php Heat Exchanger Calculator]''<br>
 
 
 
<br>'''<br>'''
 
  
 
<br>  
 
<br>  
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*The National Science Foundation (of the USA) is offering an [http://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=501027 environmental sustainability program] that supports research in the area of [[Engineering for sustainable development]].  
 
*The National Science Foundation (of the USA) is offering an [http://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=501027 environmental sustainability program] that supports research in the area of [[Engineering for sustainable development]].  
 
*Canadian homeowners and small business owners can [http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/corporate/incentives.cfm?attr=0 apply for grants and financial initiatives] from Natural Resources Canada for improving energy efficiency.  
 
*Canadian homeowners and small business owners can [http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/corporate/incentives.cfm?attr=0 apply for grants and financial initiatives] from Natural Resources Canada for improving energy efficiency.  
*The [http://www.udayton.edu/engineering/opportunities_and_activities.php School of Engineering Learn, Lead and Serve (LLS) Fund] is a program at the Catholic University of Dayton in Ohio that offers $1,000 to $2,000 grants to individuals and groups for engineering research and community service. Grants and scholarships of this type are likely offered to students at other universities and colleges around the world.  
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*The [http://www.udayton.edu/engineering/opportunities_and_activities.php School of Engineering Learn, Lead and Serve (LLS) Fund] is a program at the Catholic University of Dayton in Ohio that offers $1,000 to $2,000 grants to individuals and groups for engineering research and community service. Grants and scholarships of this type are likely offered to students at other universities and colleges around the world.<br>
*The Bank of America offers funds to organizations and students through the [http://www.bankofamerica.com/foundation/index.cfm?template=fd_neighborexcell Neighborhood Excellence Initiative]. The initiative supports community work in the areas of education, neighborhood preservation, arts and culture, and health and human services.
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*The [http://www.energy.ca.gov/research/innovations/index.html Energy Innovations Small Grant Program] provides grants for "small businesses, non-profits, individuals and academic institutions to conduct research that establishes the feasibility of new, innovative energy concepts".
*The [http://www.energy.ca.gov/research/innovations/index.html Energy Innovations Small Grant Program] provides grants for "small businesses, non-profits, individuals and academic institutions to conduct research that establishes the feasibility of new, innovative energy concepts".  
 
*Banks like the [http://www.sbcreditunion.com/solarloans.htm Santa Barbara County Federal Credit Union offer loans for installing solar power systems.
 
*<br>
 
  
 
<br>  
 
<br>  
  
= Job Opportunities =
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= Journals =
  
See also: [[Jobs]]  
+
See also: [[Journals]]  
  
*http://www.enwave.com/<br>
+
*[http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30414/authorinstructions Energy Policy]<br>  
 +
*[http://www.academicjournals.org/INGOJ/Instruction.htm International NGO Journal]
 +
*[http://www.collegepublishing.us/journal.htm Journal of Green Building]
 +
*[http://journalofsustainability.com/lifetype/ Journal of Sustainability]
 +
*[http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jsd/ Journal of Sustainable Development]
 +
*[http://www.asmedl.org/Solar Journal of Solar Energy Engineering]<br>
 +
*[http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/969/description#description Renewable Energy]
  
 
<br>  
 
<br>  
  
= Journals =
+
= Books =
  
See also: [[Journals]]  
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See also: [[Books|Books]]<br>
  
*<br>
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*[http://www.amazon.com/Compact-Heat-Exchangers-W-Kays/dp/1575240602 Compact Heat Exchangers]
 +
*[http://www.amazon.com/Fundamentals-Heat-Transfer-Frank-Incropera/dp/0471457280/ref=pd_sim_b_2 Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer]
 +
*[http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0471321710/ref=pd_lpo_k2_dp_sr_3?pf_rd_p=1278548962&pf_rd_s=lpo-top-stripe-1&pf_rd_t=201&pf_rd_i=1575240602&pf_rd_m=ATVPDKIKX0DER&pf_rd_r=0KCKZXJSYWM9T6GJQK0N Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design]
 +
*[http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Heat-Transfer-Warren-Rohsenow/dp/0070535558/ref=pd_sim_b_7 Handbook of Heat Transfer]
 +
*[http://www.amazon.com/Heat-Exchangers-Selection-Rating-Thermal/dp/0849309026 Heat Exchangers: Selection, Rating and Thermal Design]
  
= Work to be Done  =
+
<br>
  
{{get involved}}
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= Education for Engineering for Sustainable Development  =
  
'''Stubs that need to be expanded:'''
+
*[[Engineering for Sustainable Development]] is an Appropedia page with external links to education programs and courses.<br>
 +
*The [http://www.engsc.ac.uk/er/sustainable/index.asp Engineering Subject Centre] in the UK offers resources for Education for [[Sustainable Development]].
 +
*The [http://me.queensu.ca/sustainability/index.php Applied Sustainability Research Group] is a research group focused on&nbsp;education on engineering for sustainable development at [[Queen's University]] in Canada.&nbsp;
 +
*The [http://www.aashe.org/resources/grad_Sustainable_Development.php Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education] lists education programs in the United States.
 +
*[[Mech425]] is a course offered at Queen's University. [[Mech425 schedule]] is a complete schedule of the course curriculum with links to resources related to [[Open access]], [[Appropriate technology]], [[Green information technology]], [[Solar energy]], the [[Developing world]], [[Socially responsible investing]], [[Industrial symbiosis]], [[Green design principles]], and [[Sustainability]] in general.
  
*[[Life cycle analysis|http://www.appropedia.org/Heat_Exchangers]]
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<br>  
*<br>
 
  
See also: [[Suggested projects]]  
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= Tools and Software  =
 +
 
 +
*The [[Open source engineering software]] page has many links to various open source software programs used in engineering.
 +
*[http://www.thingiverse.com/ Thingiverse] is a website where people can share digital designs. It also provides a way to upload non-compliant files to be shared on Appropedia pages.<br>
 +
*[http://reprap.org/wiki/Main_Page RepRap] is an&nbsp;open source rapid prototyping system that is capable of producing its own parts and may be able to manufacture low cost heat exchangers
  
 
<br>  
 
<br>  
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= Heat Exchanger Development  =
 
= Heat Exchanger Development  =
  
*[[Engineering for Sustainable Development]] is an Appropedia page with external links to education programs and courses.  
+
*[[Engineering for Sustainable Development]] is an Appropedia page with external links to education programs and courses.<br>
*[[Service learning]] is a great way to accomplish education while providing a useful service. Engineers learn well through practically applying their skills. See [[Service learning in engineering]] for more information.  
+
*The [http://me.queensu.ca/sustainability/index.php Applied Sustainability Research Group] is an engineering group focused on engineering for sustainable development at [[Queen's University]] in Canada
*The [http://www.engsc.ac.uk/er/sustainable/index.asp Engineering Subject Centre] in the UK offers resources for Education for [[Sustainable Development]].  
+
*The [http://www.aashe.org/resources/grad_Sustainable_Development.php Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education]&nbsp;lists education programs in the United States.<br>
*The [http://me.queensu.ca/sustainability/index.php Applied Sustainability Research Group] within the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at [[Queen's University]] in Kingston, Ontario, Canada led by [[User:J.M.Pearce|J.M.Pearce]] provides the opportunity for research and education on engineering for sustainable development.  
+
*The&nbsp;[http://www.engsc.ac.uk/er/sustainable/index.asp Engineering Subject Centre]&nbsp;in the UK offers resources for Education for&nbsp;[[Sustainable Development]].
*The [http://www.aashe.org/resources/grad_Sustainable_Development.php Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education] lists education programs in the United States.  
+
 
*<br>
+
<br>
 +
 
 +
= Job Opportunities  =
 +
 
 +
[[Jobs|See also: Jobs]]<br>
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.enwave.com/career_opportunities.html Enwave]&nbsp;is an innovative company that provides deep lake cooling to its clients
 +
*[http://www.gea-bloksma.com/Career.373.0.html?&L=0 GEA Heat Exchangers]&nbsp;is a manufacturer and repairs heat exchangers
 +
*[http://www.iht-inc.com/about-us/career-opportunities Industrial Heat Transfer]&nbsp;is a designer and manufacturer of heat exchangers for large facilities.
 +
*[http://www.appropedia.org/extensions/FCKeditor/fckeditor/editor/www.SustainJobs.com SustainJobs.com]&nbsp;is a search engine for jobs in the sustainability field.  
 +
*[http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/acdi-cida/acdi-cida.nsf/eng/NIC-5492333-HQE The Canadian International Development Agency] has jobs, internships, and volunteer positions for Canadians interested in development work.<br>
 +
*[http://villageearth.org/ Village Earth] has volunteer opportunities in appropriate technology and other areas.<br>
 +
 
 +
<br>  
 +
 
 +
= Videos  =
 +
 
 +
{{#widget:YouTube|id=GgIwbr6rBbs&amp;feature=related}}
  
 
<br>  
 
<br>  
  
= Tools  =
+
<br>
  
*The [[Open source engineering software]] page has many links to various open source software programs used in engineering.
+
{{#widget:YouTube|id=a6bW8jefL_M&amp;feature=related}}
*[http://www.thingiverse.com/ Thingiverse] is a website where people can share digital designs. It also provides a way to upload non-compliant files to be shared on Appropedia pages.
 
*<br>
 
  
 
<br>  
 
<br>  
  
= Companies involved in creating heat exchangers =
+
= &nbsp;Work to be Done =
  
'''United States'''  
+
{{get involved}}
 +
 
 +
'''Stubs that need to be expanded:'''  
 +
 
 +
*[[Life cycle analysis|http://www.appropedia.org/Heat_Exchangers]]
  
 
<br>  
 
<br>  
  
<br> '''Canada'''
+
There are lots of missing pages in Appropedia for heat exchangers, so feel free to pick one and share your knowledge!
  
http://www.enwave.com/<br>
+
See also:&nbsp;[[Suggested projects]]
  
 
<br>  
 
<br>  
 +
 +
= <br>  =
  
 
== Footnotes  ==
 
== Footnotes  ==
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<references />  
 
<references />  
  
{{DEFAULTSORT:{{Heat exchanger}}}}
 
  
[[Category:Engineering]] [[Category:Portals]]
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[[Category:Portals]]
 +
[[Category:Appropriate technology]]
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[[Category:Engineering]]  
 +
[[Category:Heat_exchangers]] 
 +
[[Category:Energy conservation]] 
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[[Category:CMAS801]]
 +
[[Category:Videos]]
 +
[[Category:Appropriate technology videos]]
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[[Category:Energy videos]]
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[[Category:Engineering videos]]

Latest revision as of 10:28, 6 July 2019


Household uses for heat exchangers
Solarboiler.jpg
About this image
Solar hot water - A heat exchanger is used to transfer energy to the potable water from the fluid being heated in the solar collector


A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. The media may be separated by a solid wall, so that they never mix, or they may be in direct contact [1]. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treatment. One common example of a heat exchanger is the radiator in a car, in which the heat source, being a hot engine-cooling fluid, water, transfers heat to air flowing through the radiator (i.e. the heat transfer medium).






Types of Heat Exchangers:

Air source heat pumps 

Baffle

Concentric tube heat exchanger

Countercurrent exchange

Deep water cooling

Downhole heat exchanger

Dynamic scraped surface heat exchanger

Drain water heat recovery

Energy recovery ventilators

Grate heater

Ground source heat exchanger

Heat exchanger thruster

Heat recovery ventilators

Moving bed heat exchanger

Pillow plate

Plate fin heat exchanger

Radiator

Recuperator

Regenerative heat exchanger

Shell and tube heat exchanger

Solar air heater

Solar hot water heater

Solar wall

Thermal wheel

Waste Heat Recovery Unit



Category tree Sample pages

Developmental Need:

Water


Heat


Low cost


Energy Systems


Education



External Links

General:


Standards


Calculations






Funding Opportunities for Engineers

See also: Grants


Journals

See also: Journals


Books

See also: Books


Education for Engineering for Sustainable Development


Tools and Software

  • The Open source engineering software page has many links to various open source software programs used in engineering.
  • Thingiverse is a website where people can share digital designs. It also provides a way to upload non-compliant files to be shared on Appropedia pages.
  • RepRap is an open source rapid prototyping system that is capable of producing its own parts and may be able to manufacture low cost heat exchangers


Heat Exchanger Development


Job Opportunities

See also: Jobs


Videos




 Work to be Done

Get involved

Appropedia is a wiki, so you can edit and share information and collaborate with others to lighten our ecological footprint and live richly, in harmony with our environment.
You can start contributing after you create an account or log in if you have an existing account.


Stubs that need to be expanded:


There are lots of missing pages in Appropedia for heat exchangers, so feel free to pick one and share your knowledge!

See also: Suggested projects



Footnotes

  1. Kakaç S., Liu H., (2002). Heat Exchangers: Selection, Rating and Thermal Design (2nd ed.) CRC Press. ISBN 0849309026. 311-317.