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Difference between revisions of "Peer to Peer Lending and Microfinance for Solar - Lit. Review"

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(Amy Feldman, Peer-to-Peer Lending for Banks, Too?, Business Week April 27, 2009)
(Basu and Srivastava, 2005 Basu, P., Srivastava, P., 2005. Scaling-up microfinance for India's rural poor. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3646, The World Bank, Washington.)
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<font color="blue">Abstract</font>:Sarvodaya Economic Enterprise Development Services (SEEDS) Ltd, who were runners-up for the Light Award, run a hugely '''successful micro credit scheme to enable Sri Lanka's rural poor to benefit from solar electricity'''. To ensure the spread of the technology SEEDS works with local solar companies, identifying potential customers and then offering and administering loans. With its micro-credit scheme, customers typically make a down payment of 15% or 20%, and pay the balance over two to four years at an interest rate of approximately 10%. The micro-hydro schemes are financed by a mix of 'sweat equity' on the part of the villagers who benefit, along with a SEEDS loan and a government grant. SEEDS have carried out surveys which suggest a reduction of around 300 litres of kerosene per household per year. This is equivalent to about 0.75 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions for each system, or 38 thousand tonnes per year for the whole program.[http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?Ver=1&Exp=06-22-2014&FMT=7&DID=1167642961&RQT=309]
 
<font color="blue">Abstract</font>:Sarvodaya Economic Enterprise Development Services (SEEDS) Ltd, who were runners-up for the Light Award, run a hugely '''successful micro credit scheme to enable Sri Lanka's rural poor to benefit from solar electricity'''. To ensure the spread of the technology SEEDS works with local solar companies, identifying potential customers and then offering and administering loans. With its micro-credit scheme, customers typically make a down payment of 15% or 20%, and pay the balance over two to four years at an interest rate of approximately 10%. The micro-hydro schemes are financed by a mix of 'sweat equity' on the part of the villagers who benefit, along with a SEEDS loan and a government grant. SEEDS have carried out surveys which suggest a reduction of around 300 litres of kerosene per household per year. This is equivalent to about 0.75 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions for each system, or 38 thousand tonnes per year for the whole program.[http://proquest.umi.com/pqdlink?Ver=1&Exp=06-22-2014&FMT=7&DID=1167642961&RQT=309]
  
===Basu and Srivastava, 2005 Basu, P., Srivastava, P., 2005. [http://www.wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2005/06/16/000016406_20050616095055/Rendered/PDF/wps3646.pdf Scaling-up microfinance for India's rural poor.] World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3646, The World Bank, Washington. ===
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=== Basu and Srivastava, 2005 Basu, P., Srivastava, P., 2005. [http://www.wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2005/06/16/000016406_20050616095055/Rendered/PDF/wps3646.pdf Scaling-up microfinance for India ===
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Abstract:   
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This paper reviews the current level and pattern of access to finance for India's rural poor and examines some of the key microfinance approaches in India, taking a close look at the most dominant among these, the Self Help Group (SHG) Bank Linkage initiative. It empirically analyzes the success with which SHG Bank Linkage has been able to reach the poor, examines the reasons behind this, and the lessons learned. The analysis in the paper draws heavily on a recent rural access to finance survey of 6,000 households in India, undertaken by the authors. The main findings and implications of the paper are as follows: India's rural poor currently have very little access to finance from formal sources. Microfinance approaches have tried to fill the gap. Among these, the growth of SHG Bank Linkage has been particularly remarkable, but outreach remains modest in terms of the proportion of poor households served. The paper recommends that, if SHG Bank Linkage is to be scaled-up to offer mass access to finance for the rural poor, then much more attention will need to be paid towards: the promotion of high quality SHGs that are sustainable, clear targeting of clients, and ensuring that banks linked to SHGs price loans at cost-covering levels. At the same time, the paper argues that, in an economy as vast and varied as India's, there is scope for diverse microfinance approaches to coexist. Private sector microfinanciers need to acquire greater professionalism, and the government, too, can help by creating a flexible architecture for microfinance innovations, including through a more enabling policy, legal and regulatory framework. Finally, the paper argues that, while microfinance can, at minimum, serve as a quick way to deliver finance to the poor, the medium-term strategy to scale-up access to finance for the poor should be to 'graduate' microfinance clients to formal financial institutions. The paper offers some suggestions on what it would take to reform these institutions with an eye to improving access for the poor.
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Working Paper Series
  
 
===E Martinot, R Ramankutty, F Rittner, [http://www.cleanairnet.org/lac_en/1415/articles-41080_recurso_1.pdf The GEF Solar PV Portfolio:Emerging Experience and Lessons], Monitoring and Evaluation Working Paper 2, August 2000===
 
===E Martinot, R Ramankutty, F Rittner, [http://www.cleanairnet.org/lac_en/1415/articles-41080_recurso_1.pdf The GEF Solar PV Portfolio:Emerging Experience and Lessons], Monitoring and Evaluation Working Paper 2, August 2000===

Revision as of 22:26, 2 July 2009

Contents

Topical Journals

  • World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development[1]
  • The World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper Series
  • Energy Policy
  • Energy Economics
  • Strategic Direction [2]

Strategic Direction is an essential management information resource for today's strategic thinkers. As a unique service, we scan through the best 400 management journals in the world and distill the most topical management issues and relevant implications for senior managers out of the cutting-edge research. We regularly present case study reviews of the Fortune 500 companies. Each briefing (no more than 2 to 3 pages long) is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the arguments in context.

  • Cato Institute
  • Journal of development economics
  • World Development
  • Journal of Banking and Finance <1
  • Business and Society >1

CSR Journals ranks [3]


Literature Review

Microfinance (from Wikipedia)

Person-to-person lending from Wikipedia[4]

Searches

  • Scholars Portal = Microfinance/micro / peer to peer invest and solar
  • Google Scholar = "microfinance" and "solar",Microfinance solar "peer to peer" investing,


http://www.appropedia.org/Microfinance

Solar and Microfinance

Huang Liming, Financing rural renewable energy: A comparison between China and India, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 13, Issue 5, June 2009, Pages 1096-1103

Abstract: This paper analyses the current status of rural renewable energy (RRE) in China and India, develops and employs an analysis framework to study the environment, channels, instruments and innovative mechanisms of financing rural renewable energy in China and India, and makes a primary comparison.

The financing for rural renewable energy in China and India 3.1. Financing environment for rural renewable energy 3.1.1. China's financing environment 3.1.2. India's financing environment 3.2. Financing channels for rural renewable energy 3.2.1. Government finance 3.2.2. International funding 3.2.3. Commercial banks and non-bank financing institutions 3.2.4. Public stock markets 3.2.5. Private sector finance 3.3. Financing instruments for rural renewable energy 3.3.1. Grants 3.3.2. Renewable energy service companies (RESCOs) 3.3.3. Low-interest and long-term loans 3.3.4. Joint ventures 3.3.5. Asset financing 3.3.6. Venture capital/private equity 3.3.7. Subsidies 3.3.8. Import duty reduction 3.3.9. Reduction in value-added tax 3.4. Innovative financing mechanisms for rural renewable energy


P. Sharath Chandra Rao, Jeffrey B. Miller, Young Doo Wang, John B. Byrne,Energy-microfinance intervention for below poverty line households in India, Energy Policy, Volume 37, Issue 5, May 2009, Pages 1694-1712, ISSN 0301-4215, DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2008.12.039.

Abstract More than 72% of India's population resides in rural India1 and it also has a high concentration of people living under abject poverty. Of the total rural population 27.1–28.3% lives below the poverty line2 (BPL). A lack of energy-finance options is hampering the “quality of life” of the BPL community. The members of this disadvantaged household which forms 27.1% and 23.6% of the India's rural and urban population3 has no ready access to mainstream finance or know—how of sustainable energy products nor do they have access to energy service providing agency. This lack of energy-finance options has provided the marginalized population little means to break the conventional energy paradigm and the corresponding poverty cycle.

Considering the afore-mentioned problem we propose an energy-microfinance intervention or a model that encompasses two independent entities. One has an energy expertise and the other possesses finance management skills. Alternately, we also propose a special purpose entity that comprises of these two entities. This entity fosters different institutional, technical and financial engineering approaches to the provision of energy, finance and infrastructure services necessary for poverty alleviation.[5]

Microfinance models: Self help model, Grameen model. Includes energy-microfinance framework and case studies

[No articles were found that cite this article.]

Amy Feldman, Peer-to-Peer Lending for Banks, Too?, Business Week April 27, 2009

Prosper, a pioneer in connecting little lenders with little borrowers, will start auctioning off bank-originated loans, too. Prosper, the largest "peer-to-peer" lending site, is opening itself up to financial entities that want to list their performing loans and auction them off to average-Joe investors in miniature increments.

Joe Solomon on November 19, 2008,What if, for $25, you could help fund the next electric car?

One of the major challenges with this idea is that the big green technology startups - from the electric car to wind and solar power initiatives - require millions of dollars in startup capital. Compared to the average $1,000 Kiva.org proposal – it would be asking a lot more from the community to fund these projects - and things would likely get a lot more complicated. My hunch, though, is that there are a lot of smaller projects in the green space that would be fundable – (in the $500-$5000 range) and maybe the community could eventually grow to fund bigger projects.

Srinivasan, Sunderasan, "Microfinance for Renewable Energy: Financing the 'Former Poor'.", World Review of Entrepreneurship Manag and Sustainable Development 3.1 (2007):79-89.[6]

Need to purchase a copy!

Abstract: Microbanking facilities have helped large numbers of developing country nationals by supporting the establishment and growth of microenterprises. And yet, the microfinance movement has grown on the back of passive replication and needs to be revitalised with new product offerings and innovative service delivery. Renewable Energy systems viz., solar home systems, biogas digesters, etc., serve to improve indoor air quality, provide superior light and extend working and study hours. Such applications are not inherently income generating and returns on such investments accrue from cost avoidance, but should qualify for microfunding, as such 'quality of life' investments, reflect borrower maturity and simultaneously contribute to MFI sustainability.


Nova-Hildesley,From idea to impact: Funding invention for sustainability., Innovations,2006, 31–42.

A growing number of non profit and for-profit organizations are implementing a new approach to international development jointly emphasizing entrepreneurship and technology.

Microfinance and renewable Energy Investing in a sustainable future,I. Issue 2006

WISIONS is an initiative of the Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, carried out with the support of the Swiss-based foundation Pro-Evolution, to foster practical and sustainable energy projects.

Studies carried out by the United Nations (UN) show that of the 4 billion people who live on less than 1,400 USD a year, only a fraction have access to basic financial services. Microfinance is one promising way to bridge this gap. It is not development aid but self-help assistance and microfinance institutions benefit from providing micro credits.

Overview of projects, obstacles, financial issues and replicability


"Solar power takes hold across rural Sri Lanka.", Appropriate Technology 33.3 (2006):61.

Abstract:Sarvodaya Economic Enterprise Development Services (SEEDS) Ltd, who were runners-up for the Light Award, run a hugely successful micro credit scheme to enable Sri Lanka's rural poor to benefit from solar electricity. To ensure the spread of the technology SEEDS works with local solar companies, identifying potential customers and then offering and administering loans. With its micro-credit scheme, customers typically make a down payment of 15% or 20%, and pay the balance over two to four years at an interest rate of approximately 10%. The micro-hydro schemes are financed by a mix of 'sweat equity' on the part of the villagers who benefit, along with a SEEDS loan and a government grant. SEEDS have carried out surveys which suggest a reduction of around 300 litres of kerosene per household per year. This is equivalent to about 0.75 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions for each system, or 38 thousand tonnes per year for the whole program.[7]

Basu and Srivastava, 2005 Basu, P., Srivastava, P., 2005. [http://www.wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2005/06/16/000016406_20050616095055/Rendered/PDF/wps3646.pdf Scaling-up microfinance for India

Abstract: This paper reviews the current level and pattern of access to finance for India's rural poor and examines some of the key microfinance approaches in India, taking a close look at the most dominant among these, the Self Help Group (SHG) Bank Linkage initiative. It empirically analyzes the success with which SHG Bank Linkage has been able to reach the poor, examines the reasons behind this, and the lessons learned. The analysis in the paper draws heavily on a recent rural access to finance survey of 6,000 households in India, undertaken by the authors. The main findings and implications of the paper are as follows: India's rural poor currently have very little access to finance from formal sources. Microfinance approaches have tried to fill the gap. Among these, the growth of SHG Bank Linkage has been particularly remarkable, but outreach remains modest in terms of the proportion of poor households served. The paper recommends that, if SHG Bank Linkage is to be scaled-up to offer mass access to finance for the rural poor, then much more attention will need to be paid towards: the promotion of high quality SHGs that are sustainable, clear targeting of clients, and ensuring that banks linked to SHGs price loans at cost-covering levels. At the same time, the paper argues that, in an economy as vast and varied as India's, there is scope for diverse microfinance approaches to coexist. Private sector microfinanciers need to acquire greater professionalism, and the government, too, can help by creating a flexible architecture for microfinance innovations, including through a more enabling policy, legal and regulatory framework. Finally, the paper argues that, while microfinance can, at minimum, serve as a quick way to deliver finance to the poor, the medium-term strategy to scale-up access to finance for the poor should be to 'graduate' microfinance clients to formal financial institutions. The paper offers some suggestions on what it would take to reform these institutions with an eye to improving access for the poor.

Working Paper Series

E Martinot, R Ramankutty, F Rittner, The GEF Solar PV Portfolio:Emerging Experience and Lessons, Monitoring and Evaluation Working Paper 2, August 2000

A review of projects financed by microfinance.

Cited by 20: [8]

Gallardo, Joselito, Leasing to Support Small Businesses and Microenterprises,The World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper Series: 1857, (1999)

Need to buy!

Abstract: December 1997 The Bank should maximize opportunities to expand the use of leasing as an approach to financial intermediation in Bank projects to promote the development of small businesses and microenterprises. In most developing countries, capital markets are relatively undeveloped and banks are often unable or unwilling to undertake term lending. And banks prefer to lend to larger, established businesses with well-developed balance sheets and credit histories. Operations in microenterprises and small businesses are cash-flow-oriented but rarely have organized historical financial records or the assets needed for collateral for conventional bank financing. Gallardo explores the potential of leasing as an option to expand small businesses' access to medium-term financing for capital equipment and new technology. In a lease-financing contract, the lessor-financier retains ownership of the asset, lease payments can be tailored to fit the cash-flow generation patterns of the lessee-borrower's business, and the security deposit is smaller than the equity stake required in conventional bank financing. Different types of small businesses require different financial services. It would be worthwhile to encourage development of a range of institutions using special methods to service particular market niches. Most small businesses that generate extra income for a household or employ nonfamily members need simple access to financing to augment their working capital needs. Microfinance appropriate to their needs will feature short cycles of repayment and borrowing. Other small businesses require medium-term financing to acquire the tools and equipment needed to support production growth and expansion. For these businesses, leasing is an attractive new financing option. Gallardo examines and compares the Bank's experience: Lease financing was used to promote the development of small businesses in Pakistan, as part of a microenterprise development loan project. For a Bank-supported alternative-energy project in Indonesia, a variant of lease financing-the hire-purchase contract-is being used in marketing and distribution by private distributors of photovoltaic solar home systems. Lease financing was used by Grameen Trust in Bangladesh to finance the purchase of small tools and equipment and in other countries to promote the growth of alternative energy systems. This paper-a product of the Development Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to identify appropriate policies for environmental regulation in developing countries. The study was funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget under the research project "The Economics of Industrial Pollution Control in Developing Countries" (RPO 680-20).

Limits of microcredit - a paper by Jean-Michel Servet

microcredit is an activity that must consist in lending to the poor for a productive investment that finds solvent openings, with a return higher than the loan cost, for some beneficiaries who have managerial and technical skills.

But a calling into question of the so-called "miracle" of microfinance, and a call for a wider variety of means used. I would like to add also a complicated but exciting reflection on the proper balance between sustainability of the model and the taking into account of some "social” efficiency criteria.


Muhammad Yunus, Poverty Alleviation: Is Economics Any Help? Lessons from the Grameen Bank Experience., Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 52, 1998

... after consulting with the other members of their peer group. ... Grameen Shakti and Grameen Bank will provide loans to people to buy the solar panels as ...

Microfinance, technology and Sustainability Development blog

Just when it might have proved most useful, peer-to-peer lending has been severely hamstrung by the U.S. Securities & Exchange Commission's efforts to get a regulatory handle on the fledgling industry. With the credit crisis making it harder and harder for cash-strapped households and small businesses to get bank loans, the opportunity for creditworthy applicants to borrow up to $25,000 from strangers at slightly higher interest rates was seen as something of a godsend.

Those most in need of new renewable technologies are often least able to raise the finance necessary to fund such development. Now, a new commodities exchange scheme is bringing renewables to the South Pacific using a novel rural payment method. Binu Parthan explains how the scheme works.

Microfinance/ Peer to Peer organizations

GreenMicrofinance Center

GreenMicrofinance Center (GMfC) is a non-profit organization. Our mission is to address climate change and environmental justice by providing education and sharing knowledge on 'microfinance and climate change' and 'clean energy for the poor'. The Center offerings include our document library, blog, and university on-line forum.

Microplace

On the impact of microplace: [9]

KIVA

Kiva

On Kiva: [10]

Kiva is a peer-to-peer lending site that facilitates micropayment loans between citizen lenders and extremely low-income entrepreneurs in developing countries. Through Kiva’s platform, anyone can loan $25 or more to support an entrepreneur and the specific progress of the loan can be tracked from initial funding to repayment. Upon receiving repayment, lenders can withdraw their funds from Kiva or lend again to another entrepreneur, thereby continuing the lending cycle.[11]


Arc Finance

Community Lend

Peer to peer Lending in Canada.

Through P2Ps, borrowers can score loans at rates lower than those offered by banks or credit cards, and lenders can make a buck by investing in a short-term loan.

" The unsecured consumer loan marketplace in Canada exceeds $100 Billion in volume every year and generates interest payments on those loans exceeding $15 Billion annually. By definition, “unsecured” loans are often small loans used for purposes like funding a wedding or paying off high interest credit card debt, for which the lender has not taken security to support the loan.

Today in Canada, this very profitable industry is also a very closed industry, with only a handful of major companies involved. This means that a very small list of banks and credit cards companies are the sole beneficiaries of one of this country’s most profitable industries. "


Citations

Kadra09 19:37, 23 June 2009 (UTC)