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Literature Review for Creating Open Source Low Cost Power Measurement System for Solar Energy

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Contents

Introduction[edit]

Click here for additional notes on the project's Google Slides OSE Worklog

Miscellaneous Links Viewed[edit]

Literature Review[edit]

Google Search for "open source current sensor"[edit]

Literature Review
Index Search Term Search Engine Date (Y-M-D) Title Abstract Notes
1 photovoltaic monitoring systems Google Scholar 2005-11-15 Development of a monitoring system for a PV solar plant
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to introduce a system developed for monitoring PV solar plants using a novel procedure based on virtual instrumentation. The measurements and processing of the data are made using high precision I/O modular field point (FP) devices as hardware, a data acquisition card as software and the package of graphic programming, LabVIEW. The system is able to store and display both the collected data of the environmental variables and the PV plant electrical output parameters, including the plant I–V curve. A relevant aspect of this work is the development of a unit that allows automatic measuring of the solar plant I–V curve using a car battery as power supply. The system has been in operation during the last two years and all its units have functioned well.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Uses NI Hardware (Expensive, not open source)
  • Analog signal conditioning circuit for I-V curve
  • LabVIEW Virtual Instrument for analysis

End of Notes[edit]

2 photovoltaic monitoring systems Google Scholar 1997-05-19 Data Acquisition System for Photovoltaic Systems Performance Monitoring
Abstract
In order to analyze the performance of photovoltaic systems, we develop a real time expert system based on central microcomputer used as microserver and easily consultable with different automatic stations. So, we present in this communication the principles and specificities of the measurement systems and specially of the automatic data measuring device and its sensors and also some aspects of the database and expert system developed for this application.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Uses MC68B09 microchip
  • Flow chart for acquisition logic
  • Synoptic of photovoltaic system
  • The section "4.I The used sensors" may be particularly useful

End of Notes[edit]

3 photovoltaic monitoring systems Google Scholar 2011-06-19 Wireless Zigbee system for perormance monitoring of photovoltaic panels
Abstract
In this paper, a solar photovoltaic (PV) performance monitoring system is introduced by utilizing a wireless Zigbee microcontroller. The proposed system can be used to monitor the performance of an array of PV panels to detect non-ideal operating conditions. Various studies have shown that significant reductions in power output and degradation of the performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers (MPPT) are possible under non-ideal conditions. Hence, monitoring and detection of non-ideal conditions is a critical issue in PV modules. In this paper we present the development of a low-cost small form factor electronic hardware consisting of a wireless Zigbee-enabled microcontroller. The system consists of a back end embedded program and a front end graphical user interface (GUI) that can provide remote monitoring of voltage, current, and power for an array of PV modules. The results of implementation on a proof-of-concept testbed consisting of two embedded controllers installed on two PV modules are presented. The experimental results indicate that the proposed system can provide a low-cost and reliable performance monitoring system for small and large scale PV power plants.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Uses Zigbee (wireless) with USB interface dongle
  • LabVIEW Interface
  • Uses resistive current sensor
  • CC2530EM as measurement platform

End of Notes[edit]

4 photovoltaic monitoring systems Google Scholar 2003-01-00 Development of an integrated data-acquisition system for renewable energy sources systems monitoring
Abstract
Data-acquisition systems are widely used in renewable energy source (RES) applications in order to collect data regarding the installed system performance, for evaluation purposes. In this paper, the development of a computer-based system for RES systems monitoring is described. The proposed system consists of a set of sensors for measuring both meteorological (e.g. temperature, humidity etc.) and electrical parameters (photovoltaics voltage and current etc.). The collected data are first conditioned using precision electronic circuits and then interfaced to a PC using a data-acquisition card. The LABVIEW program is used to further process, display and store the collected data in the PC disk. The proposed architecture permits the rapid system development and has the advantage of flexibility in the case of changes, while it can be easily extended for controlling the RES system operation.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Measuring environmental conditions
  • Uses Hall sensor for current measurement
  • 4N28 Optocoupler
  • Computer as ultimate collection unit
  • LabVIEW Interface

End of Notes[edit]

5 photovoltaic monitoring systems Google Scholar 2012-05-22 Online Monitoring System for Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Applications—Analysis of System Performance From Monitored Data
Abstract
The Guidelines for the Assessment of Photovoltaic Plants provided by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the International Standard IEC 61724 recommend procedures for the analysis of monitored data to asses the overall performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. However, the latter do not provide a well adapted method for the analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems (SAPV) with charge regulators without maximum power point tracker (MPPT). In this way, the IDEA Research Group has developed a new method that improves the analysis performance of these kinds of systems. Moreover, it has been validated an expression that compromises simplicity and accuracy when estimating the array potential in this kind of systems. SAPV system monitoring and performance analysis from monitored data are of great interest to engineers both for detecting a system malfunction and for optimizing the design of future SAPV system. In this way, this paper introduces an online monitoring system in real time for SAPV applications where the monitored data are processed in order to provide an analysis of system performance. The latter, together with the monitored data, are displayed on a graphical user interface using a virtual instrument (VI) developed in LABVIEW ®. Furthermore, the collected and monitored data can be shown in a website where an external user can see the daily evolution of all monitored and derived parameters. At present, three different SAPV systems, installed in the Polytechnic School of University of Jaén, are being monitorized and the collected data are being published online in real time. Moreover, a performance analysis of these stand-alone photovoltaic systems considering both IEC 61724 and the IDEA Method is also offered. These three systems use the charge regulators more widespread in the market. Systems #1 and #2 use pulse width modulation (PWM) charge regulators, (a series and a shunt regulator, respectively), meanwhile System #3 has a charge regulator with MPPT. This website provides a tool that can be used not only for educational purposes in order to illustrate the operation of this kind of systems but it can also show the scientific and engineering community the main features of the system performance analysis methods mentioned above. Furthermore, it allows an external user to download the monitored and analysis data to make its own offline analysis. These files comply with the format proposed in the standard IEC 61724. The SAPV system monitoring website is now available for public viewing on the University of Jaén. (http://voltio.ujaen.es/sfa/index.html).

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Requires a PC to be connected at all times. Web server
  • Extensive Din-rail based circuitry (industrial quality)
  • LabVIEW implementation
  • Python script in conjunction
  • Not much info on hardware

End of Notes[edit]

6 inductive current sensor Google Scholar 1987-11-24 Inductive sensor for current measurement
Abstract
An inductive current measuring sensor is provided comprising several coils connected electrically in series and disposed in a polygonal contour, so as to surround the conductor on which it is desired to measure the current. Each coil comprises windings disposed on an insulating bobbin and connection elements. The bobbins are disposed on the face of a printed circuit having a central recess through which the conductor may pass. The printed circuit carries conducting tracks interconnecting the fixing points of the connection elements together and to external connection members.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Patent for inductive current sensor
  • Uses Rogowski conductive coils
  • Potential inspiration for DIY sensor

End of Notes[edit]

7 open source power monitor IEEE Xplore 2013-11-25 Inspiring energy conservation through open source power monitoring and in-home display
Abstract
Many homeowners and occupants are interested in energy conservation for economical and/or ecological reasons. A number of commercial energy conservation solutions exist on the market today. However, these products contain closed systems and do not provide easy access to much of the raw data needed for more sophisticated analysis. An open source solution would be a great benefit for homeowners and occupants, allowing access to (and custom analysis of) raw power readings. We present a complete open source solution that monitors power, stores raw power readings, and makes provision for an in-home display, that informs stakeholders about energy consumption through a real-time ambient feedback effectively becoming an eco-feedback device.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Open source
  • Uses Arduino Mega, Ethernet shield
  • Ran into flash memory limitations
  • Uses Schneider Electric PowerLogic ION6200, which is definitely not open source.

End of Notes[edit]

8 open source power monitor IEEE Xplore 2011-05-11 zEnergy: An open source project for power quality assessment and monitoring
Abstract
In this paper, a new open source project focused on power quality assessment and monitoring for low voltage power systems is presented. Power quality (PQ) is a crucial matter for proper and reliable operation of industrial or home electrical appliances. In order to improve PQ techniques, efforts are made to develop smart sensors that can report near real-time data. Proprietary software and hardware on dedicated computers or servers processes these data and shows relevant information through tables or graphics. In this situation, interoperability, compatibility and scalability are not possible because of the lack of open protocols. In our work, we introduce zEnergy, an open source platform for computing, storing and managing all of the information generated from smart sensors. We apply the most up-to-date algorithms developed for power quality, event detection, and harmonic analysis or power metering. zEnergy makes use of cutting-edge web technologies such as HTML5, CSS3 and Javascript to provide user-friendly interaction and powerful capabilities for the analysis, measurement and monitoring of power systems. All software used in our work is open source, running on Linux.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • The monitoring system has extensible API
  • Searching for data like harmonics
  • It may be worth looking into the current state of their software
  • Mainly focused on software

End of Notes[edit]

9 open source power monitor IEEE Xplore 2010-25-7 Building a low-cost network for power-quality monitoring with open-source-hardware nodes
Abstract
This paper presents the guidelines for building a low-cost network suitable for power-quality monitoring. The implementation of a standalone basic node capable of extracting various power-quality metrics (Total Harmonic Distortion-THD, Crest Factor, etc) in an open-source hardware embedded system board is described. By utilizing simple signal processing techniques directly in hardware, this node maintains high portability due to its small dimensions. Furthermore, exploitation of its built-in TCP/IP capabilities allows the deployment of a wide area network by the interconnection of basic nodes, in order to provide power-quality data collection for further processing and evaluation. Due to the distributed processing load, the proposed network can achieve high efficiency and reliability.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Arduino Duemilanove
  • DSP applied. Looking at things like THD, PF, f
  • No hardware notes

End of Notes[edit]

10 open source power monitor IEEE Xplore 2016-09-06 Open Power Quality: An open source framework for power quality collection, analysis, visualization, and privacy
Abstract
As power grids transition from a centralized distribution model to a distributed model, maintaining grid stability requires real-time power quality (PQ) monitoring and visualization. As part of the Open Power Quality (OPQ) project, we designed and deployed a set of open source power quality monitors and an open source cloud-based aggregation and visualization system built with the utility customer in mind. Our aim is to leverage a flexible privacy model combined with inexpensive and easy to use PQ meters in order to deploy a high density power quality monitoring network across the Hawaiian islands. In this paper we describe OPHub, a privacy focused open source PQ visualization along with results of a small scale deployment of our prototype PQ meter across the island of Oahu. Our results demonstrate that OPQ can provide useful power quality data at an order of magnitude less cost than prior approaches.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Notes on grid sizing and scale
  • OPQHub may be a useful software to look into
  • Only looking at voltage from system

End of Notes[edit]

11 solar power monitor IEEE Xplore 2016-22-11 Remote monitoring system for solar power panels using intelligent sensors network
Abstract
Improving pre-installed monitoring system for a set of Photovoltaic (PV) panels, using wireless sensor network (WNS) with embedded fuzzy controller, is our contribution in this work in order to control and detect faults within solar panels that affect considerably the energy produced by the solar panels. The new solution is to integrate the detection and classification of faults within the sensors node. The proposed classifier based on Fuzzy logic controller is integrated within the Node. The WSN nodes are implemented with appropriate sensors for more often occurred faults on the solar power panels. A simulation has been done on nodes distribution and a study for the design of a node with appropriate sensors taking into account the priorities of the processing faults. The primary results of simulation are very encouraging in point of fast detection of faults with minimum computation and minimum data transmission.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Detecting light, temp, current, and dust.
  • LM3812 current sensor, on board delta sigma ADC
  • Fuzzy Modeling
  • Mainly looking for fault detection

End of Notes[edit]

12 solar power monitor IEEE Xplore 2016-02-29 A smart IoT system for monitoring solar PV power conditioning unit
Abstract
In this paper, we have described an effective implementation of an intelligent remote monitoring system for solar Photovoltaic (PV) Power Conditioning Unit (PCU) which is used in a greenhouse environment. The proposed system design can be installed in solar PV PCU in order to solve management problems, maintenance and shortens the mean time to repair. We have designed a smart remote monitoring system based on internet of thing for monitoring Solar PV PCU. This system had incorporated remote monitoring for solar PV PCU through internet using host, network GPRS (Global Positioning Radio Service), embedded system gateway and other components. The result of our demonstration shows that the system can monitor store and manipulate data from solar PV PCU. Thus, the remote monitoring functions are realized in real-time.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • IOT approach
  • HTML, CSS, PHP jQuery etc interface
  • Each node has individual GPRS paired with Arduino
  • This was mainly focused on software

End of Notes[edit]

13 solar power monitor IEEE Xplore 2016-08-10 The platform of monitoring and analysis for solar power data
Abstract
Facing with the rapid development of solar energy industry in China and the problems existed during the development process, this paper carried out a series of technical research on remote communication of solar power, integrated modeling of panoramic data, normalized correlation analysis, multi-level display and share of information. Based on the research, we developed an integrated data platform for solar power which consists of key performance parameters of solar power generation equipment, regional solar energy resources and economic benefits of solar power station. Finally, we established a national dissemination system of solar power generation information based on B/S architecture. The integrated data platform, introduced in this paper, have a variety functions of statistics, query, analysis and assessment. With diverse functions in the system, it can fully meet the demands of government departments, power generation companies, equipment manufacturers and research institutions, with a strong capability of public service.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • 3 phase measurements, I, C, active and reactive power, PF
  • Couldn't tell what was going on in the figure due to Chinese characters
  • economic benefit analysis
  • efficiency calculation

End of Notes[edit]

14 solar power monitor IEEE Xplore 2016-06-07 Performance monitoring of a solar photovoltaic power plant using an advanced real-time system
Abstract
This paper presents a novel system which has been developed to supervise in real time the operation of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure a reliable and uninterruptible power supply. The system is composed of a complex acquisition architecture which measures the required information with a high temporal resolution and using a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all the devices, something strictly necessary for accurately establishing a relationship among all events taking place in the plant. Moreover, an advanced system for monitoring and supervising all the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information is presented. This system does not only enable a better control over the performance of all the PV plant's components by detecting any failures or deviations in production, but it also monitors the power quality of the injected signal and its influence on the distribution grid.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • PTP for high synchronization
  • Multiple CRIOs as measurement devices
  • Current sensors not listed
  • AngularJs for software GUI

End of Notes[edit]

15 solar power monitor IEEE Xplore 2015-11-06 Real time monitoring of solar power plant and automatic load control
Abstract
Solar energy constitutes the most abundant renewable energy resource available and in most regions of the world its theoretical potential is far in excess of the current total primary energy supply in those regions. The work of remote data monitoring is highly useful, thereby decreasing the manual work and the errors in reading. In the proposed system we use X-Bee module as trans-receiving system, the distance of transmission is about 800 mts. For a relatively larger distance transmission, a more powerful trans-receiving system c an be introduced so as to increase the reach of the system. The objective of this work is to develop a power management system for optimum utilization of generated power from Solar PV power plants. This is to alleviate the existing situation wherein the net solar power utilization is effectively only about 50%. Some of the features of the proposed scheme are automatic load switching, advanced remote metering & control, and priority based switching.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Monitors data directly from inverter
  • CT, burden, Arduino and XBee
  • Instead of measuring whole AC wave by offsetting, the only look at top half (FIG 5)
  • Also applying wireless load control

End of Notes[edit]

16 solar power monitor IEEE Xplore 2015-06-10 Solar power remote monitoring and controlling using Arduino, LabVIEW and web browser
Abstract
This paper proposes an effective and efficient graphical user interface (GUI) to real time control and monitor the DC power generated by solar panels and DC power consumed by load locally and remotely. There are two GUIs provided server and client. Server computer needs to be installed near to solar panels for monitoring and controlling locally while client GUI can be accessed by using a web browser from any part of world, authorize person can monitor and control all operations. Server and client GUI are designed by using LabVIEW and LabVIEW UI builder while hardware is developed with Arduino Uno, current and voltage sensors, relays and charge controller. Monitoring interface uses real time measurement results to prepare the power, current and voltage graphs, it is also possible to record and reach database file to analyze history of renewable energy source (RES) system. This will also help to increase performance of the existing solar system also other alternative resources of energy. In this system monitoring interface contains power production and consumption, voltage and current graphs and meters on a GUI. Controlling feature includes turn on/shutdown of solar system, increase or decrease energy consumption, generation and switching to other available system.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Arduino toolkit -> LabVIEW -> Web GUI
  • ACS712 current sensor
  • Good open source hardware

End of Notes[edit]

17 solar power monitor IEEE Xplore 2013-05-21 A monitoring system for obtaining high-quality one-second spaced PV maximum power and solar radiation measurements
Abstract
A major concern with future high penetration PV levels is the impact on electric utility power distribution systems due to abrupt changes in power generation caused by cloud shadows and the resulting voltage flicker. The time period of interest in this phenomenon is seconds. This paper describes the process used to obtain GPS time-stamped 1-second spaced maximum panel power output and solar radiation estimates from a data logger controlled system. The key is to operate the system quickly during each repetitive 5-second period, taking a string of measurements and sweeping the test panels current-voltage curve, and then using cubic splines to compute high-quality estimates at integer 1-second spaced intervals.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Not much for hardware references
  • Math on curve fitting. sun rise estimation

End of Notes[edit]

18 solar power monitor IEEE Xplore 2010-12-18 Performance monitoring of solar stand alone power systems
Abstract
Performance monitoring of solar photovoltaic (PV) power systems is very essential for initial system evaluation, and continuous output optimization. Currently, PV system monitoring is complicated and expensive and limited to large scale grid connected solar PV plants. This paper surveys PV system monitoring methods and proposes a simple and economic method that can be used by stand alone PV power systems. The method uses reference cells to collect real time data and an electronic subsystem for processing. Experimental results show that reference cells power output correlate well with monitored module output and can be used for monitoring and optimization.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Uses a reference cell, fault detection

End of Notes[edit]

19 solar power monitor IEEE Xplore 2014-11-12 Development of an Arduino-based automated household utility power monitoring system
Abstract
This work develops an automated household utility power monitoring system and data logging in real-time. It utilizes the Arduino Uno Rev3 Microcontroller board intended for use in conjunction with the ATmega328 chip. For monitoring these parameters, it will be connected to a current transformer through the current and voltage sensor circuit. The system will convert these raw data to digital input for data acquisition and will log these to an SD card by the SD/MMC shield module for data retention in case of power failures. The system is also equipped with DS1307 serial RTC (Real-Time Clock) chip which is responsible for providing real time clock and date needed in the data logging operation. Results and findings indicated that the device has indeed successfully performed its desired function as an automated household utility power monitoring system. As such it will display in real-time, the consumed average power in watt along with its price. This will serve as an assessment parameter in order to measure the acceptability, performance relative to functionality, and marketability of the accomplished technology.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Uses directly tapped transformers for measurement
  • Figure 1 is useful
  • Nice and simple hardware interface

End of Notes[edit]

20 energy monitor software IEEE Xplore 2012-05-14 Energino: A hardware and software solution for energy consumption monitoring
Abstract
Accurate measurement of energy consumption of practical wireless deployments is vital to the research community to develop pragmatic simulators and analytical models for the synthesis of new energy-aware and energy-efficient protocols and algorithms for wireless networks. However, there is considerable dearth in the availability of affordable and scalable energy consumption monitoring tools for the research community. In this paper, we introduce Energino, a scalable and affordable solution for energy consumption monitoring in wireless networks. The Energino power meter is a standalone plug-load meter based on the Arduino platform providing high resolution and sampling rate capabilities. We evaluate the capabilities and distinctive features of the Energino power meter in a real WLAN network. Results show that our solution is capable of isolating high resolution/frequency dynamics that can not be analyzed using commercially available tools. We also release both the hardware schematics and the software with a permissive license in order to encourage the research community to use and extend it.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Arduino based. E-net, wifi and zigbee
  • Generating power consumption models
  • This is a pretty relevant design

End of Notes[edit]

21 energy monitor software IEEE Xplore 2012-02-21 Software tools for monitoring and analysis of energy efficiency
Abstract
This article discusses usage of software tools for monitoring and analysis of energy efficiency.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Tiny survey of software available

End of Notes[edit]

22 electrical current sensor IEEE Xplore 2011-02-20 A ±1.5% nonlinearity 0.1-to-100A shunt current sensor based on a 6kV isolated micro-transformer for electrical vehicles and home automation
Abstract
A wide range of current-sensing techniques has been developed to satisfy various electrical and electronics applications requirements. In high-voltage applications, the main issue is the electrical isolation with accurate measurement at low signal levels. Isolated shunt technology is an attractive and versatile solution for current sensing. Electrical isolated products usually need a power supply at both low and high voltage sides. An original topology that needs only one power supply at the secondary (low voltage) side is reported. In this paper, we introduce an implementation of an integrated shunt current-measurement microsystem based on a 6 kV isolated micro-transformer. This work finds its applications in many domains such as hybrid or electric vehicle battery monitoring or motor control, system building automation or smart grids, where small size and low cost are required.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • custom current sensor, and signal conditioning.
  • pulsed output (maybe higher resolution than ADC?)

End of Notes[edit]

23 Electromagnetics Book NA 2004-00-00 Electromagnetics for Engineers
Abstract
A highly focused, applications-oriented approach to electromagnetics

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Used as reference for Current measurement mathematics
  • Hall effect, CT math

End of Notes[edit]

24 Power Systems Book NA 2010-00-00 Power System Analysis
Abstract
Power System Analysis Third Edition is designed for senior undergraduate or graduate electrical engineering students studying power system analysis and design. The book gives readers a thorough understanding of the fundamental concepts of power system analysis and their applications to real-world problems. MATLAB and SIMULINK, ideal for power system analysis, are integrated into the text, which enables students to confidently apply the analysis to the solution of large power systems with ease. In the third edition, Chapter 1 is revised comprehensively to include energy resources and their environmental impacts. It covers various fossil-fuel power plants as well as all modern power plants using renewable energy sources. Also, this chapter includes discussion of the emergence of the smart grid and the role of power electronics in modern power systems.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Reference for power system analysis

End of Notes[edit]

25 Signal Conditioning Book NA 2010-00-00 Microelectronics Circuit Analysis and Design
Abstract
Microelectronics: Circuit Analysis and Design is intended as a core text in electronics for undergraduate electrical and computer engineering students. The fourth edition continues to provide a foundation for analyzing and designing both analog and digital electronic circuits. The goal has always been to make this book very readable and student friendly.

An accessible approach to learning through clear writing and practical pedagogy has become the hallmark of Microelectronics: Circuit Analysis and Design by Donald Neamen. Now in its fourth edition, the text builds upon its strong pedagogy and tools for student assessment with key updates as well as revisions that allow for flexible coverage of op-amps.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Reference for circuit design, specifically conditioning

End of Notes[edit]

26 TWI Reference NA 2014-04-04 I2C-bus specification and user manual
Abstract
Philips Semiconductors (now NXP Semiconductors) developed a simple bidirectional 2-wire bus for efficient inter-IC control. This bus is called the Inter-IC or I2C-bus. Only two bus lines are required: a serial data line (SDA) and a serial clock line (SCL). Serial, 8-bit oriented, bidirectional data transfers can be made at up to 100 kbit/s in the Standard-mode, up to 400 kbit/s in the Fast-mode, up to 1 Mbit/s in the Fast-mode Plus (Fm+), or up to 3.4 Mbit/s in the High-speed mode. The Ultra Fast-mode is a uni-directional mode with data transfers of up to 5 Mbit/s

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Official reference for I2C communication

End of Notes[edit]

27 TWI Reference NA 2016-00-00 AVR310: Using the USI module as a TWI Master
Abstract
The Two-wire serial Interface (TWI) is compatible with Philips' I2C protocol.

The bus was developed to allow simple, robust, and cost effective communication between integrated circuits in electronics. The strengths of the TWI bus includes the capability of addressing up to 128 devices on the same bus, arbitration, and the possibility to have multiple masters on the bus. The Universal Serial Interface (USI) module on devices like Atmel® ATmega169, ATtiny26, and ATtiny2313 has a dedicated Two-wire mode. The USI provides the basic hardware resources needed for synchronous serial communication. Combined with a minimum of control software, the USI allows higher transfer rates and uses less code space than solutions based on software only. This application note describes a TWI master implementation, in form of a full-featured driver and an example of usage for this driver. The driver handles transmission according to both Standard mode (<100kbps) and Fast mode (<400kbps). The example can be found from the Atmel START webpage, http://start.atmel.com/.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Compatibility notes between TWI and I2C
  • Crucial reference for initial testing

End of Notes[edit]

28 I2C sensor node IEEE Xplore 14-09-14 A reliable hardware platform for wireless sensor networks
Abstract
A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical parameters. The major study in this paper is to design and implement a highly reliable hardware platform at ISM radio bands (i.e. 2.4 GHz) to be employed in a WSN system. ISM radio bands are reserved internationally for industrial, scientific and medical purposes. ZigBee-IEEE 802.15.4 is one of the most emerging technology for WSN. ZigBee Vendors supplying Coordinator, Router and End node separately. In this paper we present a device, can be configurable as Coordinator or router or End node. This device consist MSP430F5438 as microcontroller and CC2520 as RF Controller. Microcontroller part consists of JTAG, USB, Analog Inputs, Digital IOs (i.e. UART, SPI & I2C) and for better performance added Inverted F-Antenna, Matching Circuits and Balun Circuits to CC2520. Schematic translate to Printed Circuit Board by EDA tool Cadence-OrCAD. From our device, transmitted distance up to 25 meters without data loss.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Onboard communication of sensors on a WSN
  • Uses I2C, SPI, UART

End of Notes[edit]

29 I2C sensor node IEEE Xplore 2008-05-07 A runtime energy monitoring system for wireless sensor networks
Abstract
One of the most important issues in the development of wireless sensor networks is energy efficiency. Therefore, it is important to have accurate measurements of the energy consumption of each node.We propose a simple and accurate measurement approach capable to handle this issue. An integrated prototype of our measurement setup was built for the mica2 platform. It can be directly plugged onto the mica2 mote and allows the mote to monitor its energy consumption during runtime. Due to the low costs of our approach it is feasible to employ it in a whole wireless sensor network. The setup shows good accuracy and low power consumption. The mote has access to the measurement setup over the I2C-Bus. Our approach can be easily ported to other wireless sensor network platforms.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Current sensor with ATTiny
  • Calibration procedure

End of Notes[edit]

30 current sensor selection Digi-Key Article Library 2012-09-13 The Basics of Current Sensors
Abstract
While both types of sensors can be economical depending on the application requirements, open-loop sensors provide the best cost advantage in the high current ranges (over 100 A). They are also the smallest size and weight. They maintain constant power consumption, no matter the sensed current. The price advantage of open sensors may only be realized for applications where temperature variation can be restricted.

Closed-loop current sensors, on the other hand, are more suitable for commercial and industrial applications, where they are commonly found. These sensors have the highest accuracy at ambient and high temperature. They are ideal for noisy environments and their output is easily converted to voltage.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Good overview on different types of current sensors

End of Notes[edit]

31 current sensor selection Digi-Key Article Library 2013-12-05 Current Sensor Measurement and Challenges
Abstract

Current sensing is an essential function in end uses ranging from safety-critical automotive and industrial applications to handheld devices, where determining power and efficiency are vital. Precision current monitoring allows designers to obtain critical information (such as motor torque, based on motor current) or diagnostic information. When even small changes in current can be detected it can lead to avoiding costly repairs and mechanical problems before they occur. This article has examined several types of current-sensing technologies and looked at some example devices. For more infromaiton on the products discussed here, use the links provided to access product information pages on the Digi-Key website.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Benefits and problems of sensor types
  • Talks about multiple sensor deployment

End of Notes[edit]

33 energy data logger IEEE Xplore 2016-01-07 Developing an open access monitoring device for off-grid renewables
Abstract
Electricity access is a key driver for developing a modern society. The use of locally generated renewable energy can overcome limitations of expensive grid infrastructure. However, there are still barriers to access particularly for the rural poor in the global south. When individuals or communities invest in electricity provision it is important to know how well the system is performing. Commercial monitoring systems have been developed for large scale renewable energy systems. The cost of these can outweigh the cost of a small decentralised renewable energy system. This paper describes the development of a low cost data logger that is going to be used to monitor the system performance of small photovoltaic nano-grids in Kenya and Bangladesh. The device performs within the expected range for the current, voltage, temperature and irradiance sensors. Data from the data logger device is sent via GPRS to a Website where it can be accessed as real time graphical displays and data files.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Measures multiple extra conditions.
  • Offchip ADC (ADS1115)
  • ACS758 Allegro Hall effect current sensor
  • 5.1V zener diode protects against potential over voltage

End of Notes[edit]

34 energy data logger IEEE Xplore 2015-07-08 User-friendly monitoring system for residential PV system based on low-cost power line communication
Abstract
A photovoltaic (PV) system has been widely deployed in residential areas to reduce energy cost. However, it is not monitored in detail or managed in a user-friendly manner in many cases. Therefore, a PV monitoring system needs to provide both detailed monitoring of each PV module and a user-friendly way of access to the monitored data. In addition, the PV monitoring system needs to be low-cost to be widely deployed. To achieve these needs, this paper proposes a user-friendly PV monitoring system based on a low-cost power line communication (PLC). For cost reduction, the PLC module is developed without a communication modem. For detailed monitoring, the PLC modules are installed at each PV module; the data logger aggregates the monitored data of each PV module and the PV inverter. For userfriendly access, a smart app is used to show the aggregated data graphically. In the field test, the developed PV monitoring system is installed at a real PV system composed of sixteen 400 W PV module; users can figure out the status of the whole PV system through a smart device. This scheme is expected to reduce energy cost in residential areas by maintaining a PV system performance.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • "Low cost" PLC as main controller
  • Data communication packet format
  • One node applied to every panel

End of Notes[edit]

35 energy data logger IEEE Xplore 2014-12-20 Data logging and energy consumption analysis of two houses in St. John's, Newfoundland
Abstract
In this paper a design of a low cost data logger to log temperature and power consumption in a house is presented. The designed data logger is capable of logging four AC current and two temperature measurements. It is based on a low cost microcontroller PIC18F4550. Microcontroller is programmed using Mikrobasic. The circuit displays temperature measurements on an LCD display and all measurements are also stored in separate files on a sd card. Power consumption of two houses was logged for one year using a sampling time of 2 minutes. The data stored in a sd card is used for further analysis. This paper also presents design of data logger and a detailed analysis of energy consumption of two houses based on collected data. Data analysis indicates power consumption pattern and its variation over a year. Analysis indicates that the logged data and monthly data collected by the utility company give similar energy consumption.

Shane's Notes[edit]

End of Notes[edit]

36 energy data logger IEEE Xplore 2014-11-24 Low power for extended current meter deployments
Abstract
Current measurements, the recording of which was once powered by the current itself, is now electronic nearly everywhere. Batteries provide the energy for the electronic systems when the instrument is autonomous and the power required limits the deployment duration more seriously than the data capacity of the logger. There are several strategies that can be used to extend deployment of autonomous current meters starting with low power processors, and concluding with sophisticated sampling schemes.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Really focused on power saving for efficient node

End of Notes[edit]

37 energy data logger IEEE Xplore 2012-10-03 Design perspective of multi-channel data acquisition and logger system for CPV technology
Abstract
The world demand for alternative energy source has increased with the consumption of energy increasing tenfold in the past five decades. Solar power generation is one such alternative, and Concentrated Photovoltaic Technology (CPV) is one of the two main technologies used for producing electricity from Concentrated Solar Power (CSP). Meteorological parameters such as solar irradiance and cell temperature when the sunlight is concentrated on the CPV module influence the efficiency of the CPV power generation systems. Additionally, the output power of a CPV plant must be measured and monitored to improve the condition of plant, again in terms of efficiency and reliability. Firstly, in this paper, the significance of the meteorological parameters and the CPV system parameters are discussed. This is followed by a description of proposed multichannel data acquisition and logger for CPV technology. Experimental results have proven a good level of accuracy of the proposed system in terms of the acquired meteorological parameters and CPV system parameters.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Looking at measuring CPV
  • Hardware circuit provded
  • Labview Interface

End of Notes[edit]

38 energy data logger IEEE Xplore 2011-07-17 Prototype development of a Low Cost data logger for PV based LED Street Lighting System
Abstract
The data logger is an electronic device that records data over time or in relation to location with a built in sensor. The need of data logger is to accomplish monitoring task of street lighting system based on PV Solar Cell in Jakarta province, especially in Thousand Island Regency. Existing PV LED street lighting has not equipped by data logger, therefore monitoring task is done by manually. Prototype developed based on a microcontroller, battery powered, and equipped with internal memory for data storage, and sensors. The system developed should be “Low Power Consumption”, “Low Cost”, portable and easily embedded inside the PV LED Street Lighting controller. One of the primary benefits of using data loggers is the ability to automatically collect data on a 24-hour basis, and time stamp of logging can be set (five minutes to one hour basis). Upon activation, data logger is left unattended to measure and record information for the duration of the monitoring period. This allows for a comprehensive, accurate picture of sub-system conditions being monitored, such as PV Solar Cell, Battery, Charger/Controller, LED Lamp and ambient temperature. Data loggers interface with a personal computer and utilize software to activate the data logger view and analyze the collected data to verify performance of PV Based LED Street Lighting System. The data logger can be used as a stand-alone device. The reports generated are including daily energy used, total energy used, charging or discharging status and failure condition. The power consumption measured of data logger is about 0.24W (20mA at 12V).

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • RS232 Out
  • Low cost, simple
  • I think Fig 2 is a good reference for serial structure

End of Notes[edit]

39 Open Source Ecology Publications OSE 2012-00-00 Toward an Open Source Civilization
Abstract
At Open Source Ecology (OSE), we design and manufacture, and help others

design and manufacture, devices like tractors, bread ovens, and circuit makers. Much as Wikipedia has sought to democratize access to knowledge and the open source software movement has attempted to democratize computing, Open Source Ecology seeks to democratize human wellbeing and the industrial tools that help to create it. As Digital Democracy founder Mark Belinsky put it, we make “victory gardening tools for your victory garden.” We design our tools in a nontraditional way with nontraditional goals in mind, and we design them to work with each Other

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • OSE's objectives, values

End of Notes[edit]

40 Open Source Ecology Publications OSE 2016-09-04 Value creation in open-source hardware communities: Case study of Open Source Ecology
Abstract
Technical progress in production technology, the advancement and spread of information and communication technologies (ICT) as well as the spill-over of the highly efficient and innovative open source principles to the world of physical products represent a new set of tools and concepts to address the challenges of sustainable economic development. Correspondingly, we can observe (new) modes of value creation that put into question traditional economic strategies and assumptions by stressing collaboration instead of competition and knowledge sharing instead of black box engineering. Open Source Ecology (OSE) is a famous example of a nonprofit organization which fosters worldwide participation and collaboration to jointly develop open source hardware for operation in both developing and industrialized countries. Based on the concepts open source appropriate technology (OSAT), the community aims at the free access to the knowledge and knowhow of low-cost and easy-to-build products to empower people to build and run a civilization. This case study describes and analyzes the value creation processes of OSE and derives new opportunities for business models based on openness.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Proof that Open source is the best solution

End of Notes[edit]

41 Open Source Ecology Publications OSE 2015-00-00 Decentralized Production and Affective Economies: Theorizing the Ecological Implications of Localism
Abstract
In this paper I examine the contemporary trend toward de-industrialized and decentralized production with a view to its implications for ecological sustainability. Specifically, I suggest we can understand the potential positive ecological implications of such trends by reconceptualizing “incomplete information” in markets, which is often understood as a key way in which markets fail to solve or forestall environmental problems. One promising aspect of decentralized production is its ability to facilitate greater flows of “information” in the market, as consumers bring themselves into closer proximity to production processes. However, posing the problem and the promise of different regimes of production in terms of information assumes fixed preferences and desires on the part of individual consumers and producers, and it ascribes to the non-human components of the production process only the potential to meet preexisting human desires. I argue for expanding the logic of “information problems” to consider how affects as well as information flow alongside materialities in cycles of production and consumption. Rather than seeing consumer “preferences” as desires inherent in individuals, I claim we should understand affects—including different modes of acquisitiveness as well as ecological and social sensibilities—as the emergent properties of specific assemblages of humans and non-humans that comprise and perform processes of production, distribution, and consumption. To help explicate this claim I first explore the ecological implications of the local food movement, and a specific attempt to capitalize on emerging technologies to decentralize production: Marcin Jakubowski's Open Source Ecology project.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • the local economy effect of OSE
  • OS effects on economy are positive

End of Notes[edit]

42 Open Source Ecology Publications OSE 2016-00-00 Could open source ecology and open source appropriate technology be used as a roadmap from technology colony
Abstract
In the quest for sustainability, emerging economies can no

longer rely on the vertical transference of foreign technologies. Therefore, the development of endogenous technologies as a driver of any sustainable national industrialisation efforts should be reoriented. Technological independence is profound in ensuring sustainability, which according to the research findings, is inhibited by the resilient status of a technology colony. A technology colony demonstrates interests in production and sales, than in idea generation, research and development (R&D), and industrialisation of new products or services. The aim of this article is to provide a brief explanation on what a technology colony is, and how it affects innovation and development. In a next step, the significance of open source ecology (OSE) and open source appropriate technology (OSAT) concepts as a roadmap to eliminate the effects of technology colonisation on the sustainable development of emerging economies are explored relying on a qualitative literature review.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Benefit of getting away from foreign technologies.
  • Technological independence is key to sustainability

End of Notes[edit]

43 Pertinent Datasheets Digi-Key 2013-00-00 Atmel 8-bit AVR Microcontroller with 2/4/8K Bytes In-System Programmable Flash
Abstract
NA

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Pertinent datasheet for reference.

End of Notes[edit]

44 Pertinent Datasheets Digi-Key 2016-11-02 Thermally Enhanced, Fully Integrated, Hall-Effect-Based High-Precision Linear Current Sensor IC with 100 µΩ Current Conductor
Abstract
The Allegro™ ACS770 family of current sensor ICs provides economical and precise solutions for AC or DC current sensing.

Typical applications include motor control, load detection and management, power supply and DC-to-DC converter control, inverter control, and overcurrent fault detection.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Pertinent datasheet for reference

End of Notes[edit]

45 Pertinent Datasheets Digi-Key 2016-11-30 Model CSS2H-3920 Series Current Sense Resistor
Abstract
NA

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Pertinent datasheet for reference

End of Notes[edit]

46 open source data analysis software IEEE Xplore 2010-10-04 WattDepot An Open Source Software Ecosystem for Enterprise-Scale Energy Data Collection, Storage, Analysis, and Visualization
Abstract
WattDepot is an open source, Internet-based, service-oriented framework for collection, storage, analysis, and visualization of energy data. WattDepot differs from other energy management solutions in one or more of the following ways: it is not tied to any specific metering technology; it provides high-level support for meter aggregation and data interpolation; it supports carbon intensity analysis; it is architecturally decoupled from the underlying storage technology; it supports both hosted and local energy services; it can provide near-real time data collection and feedback; and the software is open source and freely available. In this paper, we introduce the framework, provide examples of its use, and discuss its application to research and understanding of the Smart Grid.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Software is completely independent of hardware
  • Taking data from existing power meters in house

End of Notes[edit]

47 open source data analysis IEEE Xplore 2016-07-06 PoN: Open source solution for real-time data analysis
Abstract
With rapid innovations and growing Internet population, petabytes of information are being generated every second. Processing these enormous data and analysing is a tedious process now-a-days. The amount of data in real-time is growing tremendously. Nearly 80% of the data is in unstructured format. Analysis of unstructured data in real-time is a very challenging task. Existing traditional business intelligence (BI) tools perform best only in a pre-defined schema. Most of the real-time data are logs and dont have any defined schema. Doing queries over these large datasets takes long time. During streaming of real-time data, much unwanted information is extracted from the data source causing overhead in the system. This results in an increase in the cost of construction and maintenance. Each and every second, new data streams keeps accumulating in the system consistently about whats going on in the world. Gathering these data and processing is an essential skill to know, for preparing a vital report. In this paper, we propose a Piece of News (PoN) end-to-end solution where we used the appropriate Hadoop components for real-time data analytics. Our aim is to extract the health data from the normal news data so that we can predict any real-time breakouts immediately. Rather than collecting all the news, we filtered only the important news based on certain threshold, thus reducing the cost. We compared historical data with real-time data which leads to take prompt action as we already knew the outbreaks from the previous data. One step ahead we can even detect any dangerous outbreaks before anyone else in the world. Not only we did real-time analytics using Hadoop componants but also we ran queries over the collected news dataset using Hive and Pig. Finally, we presented their performance comparison.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Big Data handling
  • Handle data only as real time stream

End of Notes[edit]

48 Current Monior Appropedia 2015-06-22 Low-Cost Open-Source Voltage and Current Monitor for Gas Metal Arc Weld 3D Printing
Abstract
Arduino open-source microcontrollers are well known in sensor applications for scientific equipment and for controlling RepRap 3D printers. Recently low-cost open-source gas metal arc weld (GMAW) RepRap 3D printers have been developed. The entry-level welders used have minimal controls and therefore lack any real-time measurement of welder voltage or current. The preliminary work on process optimization of GMAW 3D printers requires a low-cost sensor and data logger system to measure welder current and voltage. This paper reports on the development of a low-cost open-source power measurement sensor system based on Arduino architecture. The sensor system was designed, built, and tested with two entry-level MIG welders. The full bill of materials and open source designs are provided. Voltage and current were measured while making stepwise adjustments to the manual voltage setting on the welder. Three conditions were tested while welding with steel and aluminum wire on steel substrates to assess the role of electrode material, shield gas, and welding velocity. The results showed that the open source sensor circuit performed as designed and could be constructed for <$100 in components representing a significant potential value through lateral scaling and replication in the 3D printing community.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Circuit is single layer milled
  • Open Source
  • Pretty close to what I need already, just need the addition of a communication handler

End of Notes[edit]

49 electrical energy data logger ScienceDirect 2013-00-00 Study of Renewable Energy Sources Capacity and Loading Using Data Logger for Sizing of Solar-wind Hybrid Power System
Abstract
If the sizing of renewable energy power plant is planned with a less reliable data of its energy sources, usually in the future, the power system will have poor performance. Such cases often occur in various regions, including Indonesia. This problem can be solved through observation and measurement in the power systems using a data logger. Data logger is the electronic equipment which can record the formation of data accurately. In this paper, the current and voltage formation of solar-wind hybrid power system which is recorded by the data logger will be analyzed. The results then will be used for resizing strategy of the plant, especially which was established but still showed indications of inefficiency. Furthermore, by using the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE), the system energy cost before and after resizing will be compared. The data logger is also used to see the capacity of the energy source by applying the indirect method.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • What to actually do with the data once you get it
  • Useful formulas to generate figures from collected data
  • Data logger at multiple sources

End of Notes[edit]

50 electrical energy data logger ScienceDirect 2013-11-00 Design of an accurate, low-cost autonomous data logger for PV system monitoring using Arduino that complies with IEC standards
Abstract
A new data logger using the Arduino open-source electronic platform was developed to solve the current problem of monitoring photovoltaic (PV) systems at low-cost, especially in remote areas or regions in developing countries. The data logger meets all of the relevant requirements in terms of accuracy included in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards for PV systems, with a resolution of 18-bits, including 8 analogue inputs for measuring up to 8 PV modules and/or weather sensors, 3 inputs for low-cost analogue temperature sensors and virtually unlimited inputs for digital temperature sensors. The new data logger is completely autonomous, and the prototype has achieved an initial cost of only 60 €. It was tested during a 6-month period under the harsh environmental conditions of the summer and winter in Southern Spain. The results using both the sensors and silicon reference cells indicate that the new system is reliable and exhibits comparable performance to commercial systems. This data logger is of special interest for both solar energy research and applications in developing countries, as it is both open-source and flexible. The data logger can be customised for the specific needs of each project at low-cost. The details of the specific design and its implementation are described.

Shane's Notes[edit]

  • Single layer board
  • Arduino UNO, with external ADC (MCP3424)
  • Info stored on SD flash chip

End of Notes[edit]