We continue to develop resources related to the COVID-19 pandemic. See COVID-19 initiatives on Appropedia for more information.

Difference between revisions of "HSU mason jar analysis"

From Appropedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Line 234: Line 234:
  
 
*Cradle-to-Cradle Results per kg Formed and Finished Glass
 
*Cradle-to-Cradle Results per kg Formed and Finished Glass
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
!Carbon Footprint Measurements!!North America
 
!Carbon Footprint Measurements!!North America
 
|-
 
|-
Line 239: Line 240:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Global Warming Potential (kg CO2/kg glass)||1.25 <ref> http://www.gpi.org/sites/default/files/LCA%20-%20GPI2010%20-%20compressed.pdf</ref>
 
|Global Warming Potential (kg CO2/kg glass)||1.25 <ref> http://www.gpi.org/sites/default/files/LCA%20-%20GPI2010%20-%20compressed.pdf</ref>
 +
|}
 +
"
  
  

Revision as of 21:38, 30 November 2016

ENGR308 Page in Progress
This page is a page in progress by students in Engr308 Technology and the Environment. Please refrain from making edits unless you are a member of the project team, but feel free to make comments using the discussion tab. Check back for the finished version on December 20, 2016.



This is a research project in partnership between Engr308 Technology and the Environment and The Sustainability Office and HSU Dining at Humboldt State University during Fall 2016. The project includes analyzing the various impacts of mason jars impacts on campus. Client leads are

  • Morgan King, Sustainability & Waste Coordinator
  • Katie Koscielak, Sustainability Analyst
  • Ron Rudebock, Director of Dining Services

Our object is to analyze the impacts of mason jars on campus and the effects of the new HSU policy and pricing regarding mason jars versus disposables. A secondary goal is work towards a recommendation regarding the policy. Impacts will be focused primarily on $, CO2, and Energy. Final products will include:

  • Quantification of impacts over mason jar life cycle
  • Quantification of impacts over disposable life cycle
  • A spreadsheet for HSU specific impacts with clear instruction, outputs and referenced sources. This spreadsheet will include best estimates of the current disposable versus mason landscape gathered from dining data, surveys, and observations. These numbers will be adjustable by the clients and shared for other schools or communities to adapt.
  • A graph of the number of times a mason jar must be reused before it buys back its energy in comparison to various disposables (and possibly other reusables).

Some background information:

Teams

TEAM 1

TEAM JAR-JAR BINKS

The Jarheads

FREE MASONS

Jar-Droppers

TEAM Meta

Research

Use wiki markup for references, which is the following format:

  • Information. <ref>URL or Title of reference. </ref>

See Help:Footnotes for more.

I will not be too draconian on writing style... but make sure NOT TO PLAGIARIZE![1]

TEAM 1 Research

This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: You need to come up with your own name are replace all places it says team 1 with your name.


Embedded Energy, CO2, and Life Cycle Analysis Concepts

In the spring of 2016, Humboldt State University chose to embark in a new on campus program that would not only continue Humboldt State’s commitment to sustainability but also make a significant reduction to our carbon impact as students and a community as a whole.

This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: You want to avoid statements that have an opinion on the information, like significantly reduce. If this is from the school then quote it.
Humboldt State University in its commitment to reduce the carbon footprint on campus chose to be part of the movement in order to fulfill its commitment to its mission chose to begin to execute newer methods to meet its mission.  Inspired  by the Kill the Cup Campaign ( a national campaign to end the use of disposable coffee cups), WRRAP ( Waste Reduction and Resource Awareness Program), and Zero Waste Humboldt, Humboldt State University’s Dining services started to sell to students mason jars in regards to cut down the use of disposable coffee cups on campus. Disposable cups, also commonly know as coffee cups are used daily by millions of people each day to drink coffee. In 2010 it was estimated that the United States alone consumed around 2.3 billion paper cups ([2]), in order to make a difference and reduction in those numbers, Humboldt State believes that the mason jar is one of the many solutions that could help reduce the numbers. In this literature review, we will go over the overall embedded energy, CO2 and life cycle analysis of the mason jar, the embedded energy and CO2 in the materials, as well the embedded energy in the shipping of the jars, and lastly the overall information of the drinking vessels offered by Humboldt State Dining services.
This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: This whole paragraph is a bit hard to read. Be sure to proof read it. The fist paragraph is the first impression of you to the reader, you want it to be a good impression.


Embedded Energy and CO2 in materials

Mason jars, & disposable cups are composed of very different sorts of materials. Mason jars are mainly composed of glass and aluminum tops while disposable cups are mostly made out of plastic or paper. The energy, and methods to process all this materials are different, but all create an impact, and take an amount of energy to produce.

  • Embedded energy in different types of glass
    • On average, one kilogram of "Glass (from sand, etcetera): 18-35MJ (5,000 to 9,700 watt-hours)" [3]
  • Embedded CO2 in different types of glass
    • "Not recycled : 8.4 kg Co2 per kilogram of glass
    • Recycled : 1.4 kg Co2e per kilogram of glass"[4]
  • Embedded energy in mason jars
    • Each mason jar's "Unit Weight: 0.56 lbs." [5]
    • There is 9.4 kilowatt hours per kilogram [6]
    • There are 0.454 pounds per kilogram [7]
    • There are 4.27 kilowatt hours per pound of glass for mason jars
This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: This looks like a calculation. Normally do not do your own calculations in a literature review... but if you do, make that clear with a footnote.


  • Embedded CO2 in mason jars
    • Assuming the glass is not recycled, there is 8.4 kg of Co2 per kg of glass[8]
    • Each mason jar's "Unit Weight: 0.56 lbs." [9]
    • There is 9.4 kilowatt hours per kilogram [10]
This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: why is this listed here again?
    • There are 0.454 pounds per kilogram [11]
    • There is 3.81kg of Co2 per mason jar
This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: This looks like a calculation. Normally do not do your own calculations in a literature review... but if you do, make that clear with a footnote.


  • Embedded energy in disposable cups
    • There are 0.55 MJ in embedded energy per paper cup[12]
This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: What kind of paper cup?
    • That is the equivalent of 0.152 kilowatt hours per cup.
This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: This looks like a calculation. Normally do not do your own calculations in a literature review... but if you do, make that clear with a footnote.


  • Embedded CO2 in disposable cups
    • Coffee cups at 0.25 lbs of CO2-savings each[13]

Embedded Energy and CO2 in shipping

After being processed, and manufactured, mason jars & disposable cups have to be shipped for long distances

This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: The jars being shipped long distances are an opinion not fact. You can not quantify a long distance. All you really know is that they are shipped unless you know were they are coming from.

, sometimes from other countries into the US before they can be shipped to California, and then into the HSU campus, and distributed into the different points where the mason jars are obtainable at HSU. This transportation has CO2 impacts, and requires energy to happen.

  • General embedded energy in shipping by sea
  • General embedded CO2 in shipping by sea
    • 10 Kg of CO2 per tonne-km [14]
This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: What size ship or assumptions?


  • General embedded energy in shipping by land
  • General embedded CO2 in shipping by land
    • 50 Grams of CO2 per tonne-km [15]
This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: What kind of truck or assumptions?


HSU drinking vessels

  • Where do HSU mason jars come from?
    • Ball Corporation [16]
    • GET Industries
  • Where do HSU disposable containers come from?
    • Karat Premium Disposable Paper & Plastic Foodservice Products [17]

JAR-JAR BINKS Research

Embedded Energy, CO2, and Life Cycle Analysis Concepts

Embodied or embedded energy (EE) is defined as the energy used during the entire lifecycle of a product. For example, the EE of a mason jar or a disposable cup could include extraction and processing of raw materials, manufacturing, transportation, distribution, use, reuse, recycling and final disposal. EE calculations are used to conduct life cycle assessments (LCA). LCA is a well-explored concept and has been used as an environmental management tool since the late 1960’s. [18]

LCA provides a tool for evaluating the relative environmental impact of various materials and calculates externalities otherwise excluded from pricing. These analyses allow for a comparison of products like the use of mason jars vs. disposable cups. Our LCA will include emissions and the EE of the materials and shipping. (United States D.O.E.). [19]

Embedded Energy and CO2 in materials

The primary constituent of mason jars is glass, while disposable cups can be made from a number of materials including plastic, paper, and foam.

  • Embedded energy in different types of glass
  • Embedded CO2 in different types of glass

"

Material Embedded Energy (MJ/kg) Embedded CO2 (kg/kg)
Soda-Lime 11 .8
Float Glass 15.511 1.136
Primary Glass 15.00 .86
Secondary Glass 11.50 .55
Fiberglass 28.00 1.54
Toughened 23.50 1.27

"[20] [21]

  • Embedded energy in mason jars
  • Embedded CO2 in mason jars

Weight (g) EE (MJ/kg) Total EE (MJ) Embedded CO2 (kg/kg) Total CO2 (kg/kg) 12 oz. glass wide mouth jar 279 g 15.00 4.185 .86 .240 Stainless steel lid 20 20.19 .4038 1.37 .027 [22] [23]

  • Embedded energy in disposable cups
  • Embedded CO2 in disposable cups

Cup Mass (g/cup) Material Specific Energy (MJ/kg) Embedded Energy (MJ/cup) Material Specific CO2 (kg/kg) Embedded CO2 (kg/kg) Plastic 59 107 6.3 4.1 .2419 Paper 8.3 66 .55 .031 .2573 Foam 1.9 104 .20 .023 .0437

[24] [25] [26]

Embedded Energy and CO2 in shipping

The embedded energy of cups also includes the cost of shipping. Shipping may include both travel by sea via cargo ship or travel by land via large truck.

This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: What size ship or assumptions?
  • General embedded energy in shipping by sea
    • 1.4 MJ/TEU/km for a 4000 TEU Container[27]
  • General embedded CO2 in shipping by sea
    • .003 kg/tonne/km[28]
  • General embedded energy in shipping by land
    • 36.63 MJ/Truck/km[29]
  • General embedded CO2 in shipping by land

HSU Drinking Vessels

  • Where do HSU mason jars come from?
    • Ball[31], confirmed by Mary McDowell of HSU Dining Services
  • Where do HSU disposable containers come from?
    • Karat[32], confirmed by Mary McDowell of HSU Dining Services
This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: How far are these places? Land or sea shipping?


The Jarheads Research

Embedded Energy, CO2, and Life Cycle Analysis Concepts

The Embedded Energy of any material refers to the energy behind all aspects of producing that material. For example, the embedded energy behind producing a mason jar includes the energy of meting the glass, forming the shape of the jar, the packaging of the product, the shipping of the product, and etc.

Life Cycle Analyses are done so the environmental impact of a product can be found. [33]

Capture.PNG
This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: Do not start with a graphic. The graphic is to small. You need to talk about what embedded energy is and what a life cycle analysis is in words.
[34]
  • “Last year, about 3.4 billion glass bottle servings were packaged in refillable bottles with a life-span of 15 uses. By avoiding glass production and bottle manufacturing, about five million gigajoules of energy are saved - equivalent to the annual electricity requirements of almost 90,000 Canadians.” [35]
  • Cradle-to-Cradle Results per kg Formed and Finished Glass
Carbon Footprint Measurements North America
Primary Energy Demand (Mj/kg glass) 16.6
Global Warming Potential (kg CO2/kg glass) 1.25 [36]

"


Embedded Energy and CO2 in materials

  • Embedded Energy in different types of glass
  • Embedded CO2 in different types of glass

Impact of one pound of "Glass, soda-lime": Overall impact (CEII): 110.56 Depletion (DI): 274.92 Pollution (PI): 109.18 Entropy (EI)): 0.02

“ All this heat requires phenomenal energy consumption and resulting greenhouse gas emissions. Some calculate this could be as much as 2 tonnes of CO2, per 1 tonne of glass, when transport of such a heavy product is factored in. All this gives glass an [Embedded] Energy of about 12.7 MJ/kg” [37]

  • All types of glasses; Emissions and Embedded Energy

This article has 4 different sections about the emission and embedded energy that come from making containers out of different type of glasses. First section is the introduction of WARM and Glass. WARM is EPA’s Waste Reduction Model, which EPA is Environmental Protection Agency. Recycling of glass bottle containers is one that is a closed-loop recycling, which means that the glass that is recycled becomes a new product or even the same product as it once was as oppose to going to the waste stream. WARM is a model that helps determine the net emissions for the different types of glass waste procedures which consist of: Source Reduction, recycling, land filling, and combustion.This model also calculates energy used in these procedures. One thing to note is that this glass information only takes in account those used in the form of containers and packaging like: beer containers, wine containers, food storage containers, jars, and others of the sort.

Type of Product: Glass Bottles and Jars Generation (discarded)[Short Tons]: 11,570,000 Recovery[Short Ton]: 3.200,000 EPA 2014 Source

The Second Section has to do with recycling and processing in the WARM Model. The life cycle WARM considers is basically the moment when the glass container is discarded. “Recycling and source reduction are the two materials management options that impact the upstream production of materials, and consequently are the only management options that impact the upstream GHG emissions.(pg.2).”

Material Product: Glass Virginia Manufacture/ Process Energy per Short Ton made from Virginia Inputs: 6.49 (Million BTU) Transportation Energy per Short Ton Made from Virginia Inputs : 0.58 (Million BTU) TOTALING: 7.08 (Million BTU) Recycled Manufacture/ Process Energy per Short TOn Made from Recycled Inputs: 4.32(Million BTU) Transportation Energy per Short Ton Made from Recycled Inputs : 0.34 (Million BTU) TOTALING: 4.66 (Million BTU)

Third Section is about Raw Materials Acquisition and Manufacturing. Basically shows the energy used or consumed for production of glass products and mostly the association from Greenhouse Gases( GHG) which include: manufacturing Processes, Transportation Materials, , and others.

Typical Composition of Modern Container Glass: Chemical: Silica(SiO2) Purpose:Former,Source:Sand,%Composition:72%-73.5% Chemical: Soda(Na2O) Purpose:Flux,Source:Soda ash from trona ore (Na2CO3),%Composition:12%-14% Chemical: Potash (K2O) Purpose: Flux, Source: Mined and processed potassium salts, %Composition: 0.6% Chemical: Lime (CaO) Purpose:Stabilizer, Source: Limestone (CaCO3), %Composition: 9%-12% Chemical: Magnesia (MgO) Purpose: Stabilizer, Source: Impurity in limestone, %Composition: 1.2%-2.0% Chemical: Alumina (Al2O3) Purpose:Stabilizer, Source: Feldspar, %Composition: 1.2%-2.0%

There are three steps of how manufacturers produce a glass container; Melting and Refining, Forming, and Post-Forming which all emit GHG emissions and use, of course, energy to produce them. Transportation is another factor looked into this section for the WARM.

Retail Transportation Energy Use and GHG Emissions Material/Product: Glass Avrg Miles Per Shipment: 356 Retail Trans. Energy (Mil BTU per Short TOn of Product): 0.35 Retail Trans. Emissions (MTCO2E per Short TOn of Product): 0.03

Last Section is Materials Management Methodologies. According to the article’s studies, source reduction and recycling processes of WARM actually have a net negative emissions and combustion and landfilling have positive net emissions. So most glass containers that are sold in the marketplace only contain a minimum of 5% and a max of 30%. It is good to note that “Glass is most frequently manufactured using ‘virginia’ inputs”, or very low percent of recycled inputs. So the percent of Current Production from Recycled Inputs is 23% and percent of current production from “Virginia” inputs is 77 [38]

  • Embedded energy in mason jars
*“Steel and Aluminum facts” University of Cambridge

This article goes over the CO2 and energy emission data of steel and aluminum in the world. In 2007, steel had total CO2 emissions of 2.5 GtCO2 and aluminum had 0.2 GtCO2. (I’m including data for both because some jars use steel lids and others use aluminum). Aluminum had an average “primary energy intensity” of 175 MJ/kg. The table also includes primary energy intensity for different kind of steel. [39]


*“Primary Aluminum Production: Climate Policy, Emissions and Costs”

This article includes data on the emissions of different PFC’s (perfluorocarbons ), or, different kinds of aluminum. The table on page 5 of the article is the main source of this data, which concluded that the total carbon emissions, as of 1995, was 35 MT/yr. Page 11 of the article also has a table that includes data on specific emissions of the World Primary Aluminum Production, which has calculations for absolute emissions. [40]

This is a chart that shows the discharges from production of various items listed below and the impact it has on the environment.

This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: Strange sentence consider re-writing.


"

Resource or Item Amount Unit Pollution (PI) Total Impact (CEII)
Recycled waste -0.28 pound -0 -0
Carbon dioxide pollution 0.5 pound 17.85 17.67
Nitrogen oxides pollution 0.002 pound 35.7 35.34
Sulfur dioxide pollution 0.0006 pound 14.82 14.67
Landfilled waste 0.007 pound 0.25 0.25
Liquid waste 0.06 gallon (US) 2.14 2.12
Particulate matter (PM) 0.0002 pound 12.85 12.72

" [41]


  • Embedded energy in disposable cups
  • Emdedded CO2 in disposable cups

Energy & CO2 of different cups: The total energy for a paper cup is 700 kJ/cup and the total energy for a polystyrene cup is 400 kJ/cup. Also, washing each mug more economically severely drops the number of uses to save energy and CO2. [42]

Embedded Energy and CO2 in shipping

  • General embedded energy in shipping by sea
Capture2.PNG

[43]

This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: This section needs a lot more. Can not read graphic.


  • General embedded CO2 in shipping by sea
  • General embedded energy in shipping by land
  • General embedded CO2 in shipping by land

HSU drinking vessels

  • Where do HSU mason jars come from?

HSU receives their Jars, for drinks, from Ball Corporation which is owned by Fresh Preserving. [44]

  • Where do HSU disposable containers come from?

Free Masons Research

Embedded Energy, CO2, and Life Cycle Analysis Concepts

Embedded energy is the total amount of energy required to make a product, including the energy necessary to manufacture, manipulate, and transport materials and final products. Embedded CO2 is the total amount of Carbon Dioxide emitted in the atmosphere during the making of a product, including the CO2 emitted to make, manipulate, and transport materials and final products.

This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: Strange wording, try to rephrase.


[45]

Embedded Energy and CO2 in materials

Mason Jars have become one of HSU’s new alternative and trendy reusable containers.

This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: Avoid statements like trendy unless it it a quote, only state facts not opinions.

This is opposed to using a disposable container, even though the University has switched over to biodegradable products.

This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: Strange wording.
Below are the Embedded Energy and CO2 used in the production of mason jars:
  • Embedded energy in different types of glass

Borosilicate: 10^4 MJ/m^3 Soda-lime silicate:10^2 MJ/m^3 Silica:10^5 MJ/m^3 [46] Float-Glass: 15.9 MJ/kg [47] Toughened: 26.2 MJ/kg Laminated:16.3 MJ/kg Tinted:14.9 MJ/kg [48]

  • Embedded CO2 in different types of glass

Embedded CO2 in different types of glass Float Glass- 1.74 kg CO2/kg Toughened- 1.74 kg CO2/kg Laminated- 1.92 kg/CO2/kg [49] Soda-Lime Glass- 1.36kg CO2/0.8kg [50]

  • Embedded Energy in mason jars
This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: Where did this value come from, no calculations in lit review.

14 MJ/kg [51]

  • Embedded CO2 in mason jars

0.38 pounds CO2 per 12 oz. glass bottle [52]

  • Embedded energy in disposable cups

0.55 MJ/cup [53]

  • Embedded CO2 in disposable cups
This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: Where did this value come from, no calculations in lit review.

0.11kg CO2/cup [54]

Embedded Energy and CO2 in shipping

Production of the mason jar is only considering part of the environmental impacts of the mason jar use and consumption. Another significant part of this environmental consideration is that of shipping the product from the warehouse to the store that sells the product. Products such as Mason Jars and paper cups are both manufactured in China and require shipping over sea (via container ship) and land (semi-truck) to reach the store where they are purchased.

  • General embedded energy in shipping by sea

1.4 MJ/TEU/km for a 4000 TEU Container [55]

  • General embedded CO2 in shipping by sea

04 kg/tonne km [56] .003 kg/tonne km [57]

  • General embedded energy in shipping by land

36.63 MJ/vehicle km [58] [59] 67.677m3/truck [60]

  • General embedded CO2 in shipping by land

14 kg/tonne km [61] .08 kg/tonne km [62]

HSU drinking vessels

  • Where do HSU mason jars come from?

“GET Industries.”

  • Where do HSU disposable containers come from?

“United Natural Foods Incorporated.”

Jar-Droppers Research

This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: You have a lot of information, you need to just keep what you need and organize it.

Embedded Energy, CO2, and Life Cycle Analysis Concepts

  • Embedded Energy is the amount of energy used in the production process to create the product or good. This included all of the energy used to mine the raw materials, manufacture the good, transport it and deliver it to an end user. This embedded energy is also known as embodied energy and is key for completing a lifecycle analysis of a product. Life cycle analysis assesses the environmental impacts of a product including the raw materials used, processing, manufacturing, product life, and disposal. [63] [64]

Embedded Energy and CO2 in materials

This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: This sections needs to be organized. No calculations only research.

Some brief introduction and general description, then find numbers and support for the following:

This page or section needs work on grammar, spelling, clarity and/or layout. You can help by editing.
This comment was left: What is this sentence for?
  • Embedded energy in different types of glass
    • Float glass- 15.9 MJ/kg
    • Toughened glass- 27 MJ/kg[65]
    • Glass block, primary (3” thick) 185.8 - 345.1 MJ/sf
    • Glass block, recycled (3” thick) 142.5 - 264.6 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, primary (1/4” thick) 15.5 - 28.8 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, primary (3/8” thick) 23.2 - 43.1 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, primary (1/2” thick) 31.0 - 57.5 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, primary (3/4” thick) 46.5 - 86.3 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, primary (1” thick) 61.9 - 115.0 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, primary (1-1/8” thick) 69.7 - 129.4 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, primary (1-1/4” thick) 77.4 - 143.8 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, primary (1-3/8” thick) 85.2 - 158.2 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, primary (1-1/2” thick) 92.9- 172.6 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, recycled (1/4” thick) 11.9 - 22.1 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, recycled (3/8” thick) 17.8 - 33.1 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, recycled (1/2” thick) 23.7 - 44.1 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, recycled (3/4” thick) 35.6 - 66.2 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, recycled (1” thick) 47.5 - 88.2 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, recycled (1-1/8” thick) 53.4 - 99.2 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, recycled (1-1/4” thick) 59.4 - 110.2 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, recycled (1-3/8” thick) 65.3 - 121.3 MJ/sf
    • Glass sheet, recycled (1-1/2” thick) 71.2 - 132.3 MJ/sf[66]
  • Embedded CO2 in different types of glass
  • ”In total, the manufacture of 1 tonne of packed float glass results in the emission of approximately 1.2 tonnes of CO2.” Below are the separate pieces of the total CO2 emissions.
  • ”Quarrying and processing of raw materials results in supplier emissions of approximately 0.3 tonnes CO2 per tonne glass packed.”
  • ”Natural gas and heavy fuel oil are used to melt the raw materials. This combustion process emits approximately 0.5t CO2 per tonne of float glass.”
  • ”Carbonate raw materials decompose when heated to emit approximately 0.2t CO2 per tonne glass.”
  • ”The electricity required to heat the float bath and annealing lehr emits approximately 0.2t CO2 per tonne glass at the electrical suppliers’ generation site.”
  • ”Modified properties can be produced by means of surface coating (on or off-line). On line coating contributes an additional 0.7kgCO2 per m2 (1m2 of 4mm float glass weighs 8kg).”[67]
  • Embedded energy in mason jars
  • This is a formula we created to find the embedded energy in one mason jar. EE mason jar= 15.9 MJ/kg x 3.5 lbs. x 1/12 (jar/12 pack) x .45 (kg/lbs.) [68]
  • Embedded CO2 in mason jars
  • 0.38 pounds CO2 per 12 oz. glass bottle [69]
  • Embedded energy in disposable cups

5.5 M/J per cup x 12oz cup =8.25 MJ/cup[70]

  • Embedded CO2 in disposable cups

36oz of CO2 embedded in 12 disposable cups (3 oz of carbon in each oz of paper cup)[71]

Embedded Energy and CO2 in shipping

Some brief introduction and general description, then find numbers and support for the following:

  • General embedded energy in shipping by sea
  • General embedded CO2 in shipping by sea[72]
    • All units (g CO2 / kWh)
  • Shipping container:
    • at port: 710
    • While maneuvering & hauling: 696
    • During cruising: 631
  • Bulk Carrier:
    • at port: 706
    • While maneuvering & hauling: 688
    • During cruising: 624
  • Products Tanker:
    • at port: 710
    • While maneuvering & hauling: 710
    • During cruising: 645
  • General embedded energy in shipping by land [73]
  • Unit: MJ/t-km
    • traveled by truck: 2.7
  • General embedded CO2 in shipping by land [73]
  • Unit: t CO2e / t-km x 10^6
    • Traveled by Truck: 180

HSU drinking vessels

  • Where do HSU mason jars come from?
    • Ball Mason Jars confirmed by Ronnie Morton (supervisor at HSU marketplace[74]
    • Muncie, Indiana (Ball Corp.)
  • Where do HSU disposable containers come from?
    • Karat Cup Company confirmed by Ronnie Morton (supervisor at HSU marketplace)
    • Premium Disposable Paper & Plastic Foodservice Product[75]
    • Located in Chino, CA
    • HSU purchases Eco-Friendly paper hot cup

References

  1. Humboldt Plagiarism
  2. http://www.carryyourcup.org/get-the-facts
  3. http://www.lowtechmagazine.com/what-is-the-embodied-energy-of-materials.html
  4. http://www.greenrationbook.org.uk/resources/footprints-glass/
  5. https://www.uline.com/Product/Detail/S-17491/Jars/Canning-Jars-16-oz?pricode=WZ495&gadtype=pla&id=S-17491Q3&gclid=CjwKEAiAjIbBBRCitNvJ1o257WESJADpoUt0AMLcy9ZXNWv0sTPDFb-ssYuV49TiWohb6__ADNXmzBoCi27w_wcB&gclsrc=aw.ds
  6. http://www.lowtechmagazine.com/what-is-the-embodied-energy-of-materials.html
  7. https://www.google.com/search?q=pounds+in+kilograms&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8
  8. http://www.greenrationbook.org.uk/resources/footprints-glass/
  9. https://www.uline.com/Product/Detail/S-17491/Jars/Canning-Jars-16-oz?pricode=WZ495&gadtype=pla&id=S-17491Q3&gclid=CjwKEAiAjIbBBRCitNvJ1o257WESJADpoUt0AMLcy9ZXNWv0sTPDFb-ssYuV49TiWohb6__ADNXmzBoCi27w_wcB&gclsrc=aw.ds
  10. http://www.lowtechmagazine.com/what-is-the-embodied-energy-of-materials.html
  11. https://www.google.com/search?q=pounds+in+kilograms&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8
  12. https://www.dartcontainer.com/media/1889/ilea.pdf
  13. http://www.carbonrally.com/challenges/12-Paper-Coffee-Cups
  14. http://www.worldshipping.org/industry-issues/environment/air-emissions/carbon-emissions
  15. http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_Tech_Brief_RE_for%20Shipping_2015.pdf
  16. https://www.freshpreserving.com/
  17. https://karatcup.com/
  18. Menzies, Gillian F., Seyhan Turan, and Philip FG Banfill. "Life-cycle assessment and embodied energy: a review." Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Construction Materials 160.4 (2007): 135-144.
  19. http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/TableView.aspx?table=Notes
  20. Ashby, M. (2012). Materials and the Environment - Eco-informed Material Choice.
  21. http://www.circularecology.com/embodied-energy-and-carbon-footprint-database.html
  22. Ashby, M. (2012). Materials and the Environment - Eco-informed Material Choice.
  23. http://www.circularecology.com/embodied-energy-and-carbon-footprint-database.html
  24. https://www.dartcontainer.com/media/1889/ilea.pdf
  25. Ashby, M. (2012). Materials and the Environment - Eco-informed Material Choice.
  26. https://plasticfoodservicefacts.com/life-cycle-inventory-foodservice-products
  27. http://www.sname.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=8fc28849-71a2-4f98-886f-7b5e7b8819a8
  28. http://www.ics-shipping.org/docs/co2
  29. http://cta.ornl.gov/data/chapter2.shtml
  30. http://www.ics-shipping.org/docs/co2,
  31. https://www.freshpreserving.com/jars/
  32. https://karatcup.com/eco-friendly-paper-hot-cups/
  33. https://enviroliteracy.org/environment-society/life-cycle-analysis/
  34. www.ball.com/Ball/media/Ball/Global/Downloads/Ball-Sustainability-Report-2007.pdf
  35. http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.humboldt.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=10&sid=16455a3e-87f5-4e23-a278-e3b3ee78b26d%40sessionmgr4006&hid=4108
  36. http://www.gpi.org/sites/default/files/LCA%20-%20GPI2010%20-%20compressed.pdf
  37. http://www.treehugger.com/culture/ecotip-glass-whats-the-environmental-impact.html
  38. https://www3.epa.gov/warm/pdfs/Glass.pdf
  39. http://www.lcmp.eng.cam.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/W1-Steel-and-aluminium-facts.pdf
  40. http://mit.dspace.org/bitstream/handle/1721.1/3603/MITJPSPGC_Rpt44.pdf?sequence=1
  41. http://envimpact.org/glass
  42. http://www.dunand.northwestern.edu/courses/Case%20study/Scott%20Cronin%20-%20Coffee%20Cup%20Comparison.pdf
  43. http://www.ics-shipping.org/docs/co2
  44. https://www.freshpreserving.com/
  45. http://www.appropedia.org/Embedded_energy
  46. https://books.google.com/books?id=59glCO89MFcC&pg=PA612&lpg=PA612&dq=embodied+energy+in+borosilicate+glass&source=bl&ots=j0_eybrt2H&sig=sgygxhEI6YqukhSkXW74VJ_UPfQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjowPCKvo_QAhVE6iYKHY-2B2EQ6AEIIDAB#v=onepage&q=embodied%20energy%20in%20borosilicate%20glass&f=false
  47. http://www.level.org.nz/fileadmin/downloads/Materials/LevelMGlass.pdf
  48. http://www.victoria.ac.nz/architecture/centres/cbpr/resources/pdfs/ee-coefficients.pdf
  49. http://www.branz.co.nz/cms_show_download.php?id=0b8ef9199ec8361f5d6e5e2bb1322697350e824e
  50. https://books.google.com/books?id=Y2qghvWIj1YC&pg=PA537&lpg=PA537&dq=embodied+CO2+in+soda-lime+glass&source=bl&ots=MLvp6IT2z2&sig=F8FGRI7toblvEM_hpqq_1xVZf8U&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjCyKGdmZjQAhWHZCYKHQzkDZ0Q6AEIIzAC#v=onepage&q=embodied%20CO2%20in%20soda-lime%20glass&f=false
  51. http://www.energysavingcommunity.co.uk/understanding-embedded-energy.html
  52. http://www.co2list.org/files/carbon.htm
  53. https://www.dartcontainer.com/media/1889/ilea.pdf
  54. http://business.edf.org/files/2014/03/starbucks-report-april2000.pdf
  55. http://www.sname.org/HigherLogic/System/DownloadDocumentFile.ashx?DocumentFileKey=8fc28849-71a2-4f98-886f-7b5e7b8819a8
  56. http://www.oecd.org/trade/envtrade/2386636.pdf
  57. http://www.ics-shipping.org/docs/co2
  58. http://cta.ornl.gov/data/chapter2.shtml
  59. http://www.dot.ca.gov/trafficops/trucks/quickguide.html
  60. http://cerasis.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/2015TrailerGuide.pdf
  61. http://www.oecd.org/trade/envtrade/2386636.pdf
  62. http://www.ics-shipping.org/docs/co2,
  63. http://www.yourhome.gov.au/materials/embodied-energy
  64. www.istc.illinois.edu/info/library_docs/tr/tr40.pdf
  65. www.level.org.nz/fileadmin/downloads/Materials/LevelMGlass.pdf
  66. https://upstyleindustries.files.wordpress.com/.../materiallife-embodied-energy-of-building-materials.pdf
  67. http://www.nsg.com/en/sustainability/glassandclimatechange/embodiedc02infloatglass
  68. https://www.leaf.tv/articles/mason-jar-specifications/
  69. http://www.co2list.org/files/carbon.htm
  70. http://sustainability.tufts.edu/wp-content/uploads/Comparativelifecyclecosts.pdf
  71. https://www.nrdc.org/stories/global-warming-101
  72. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421510004015
  73. 73.0 73.1 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es702969f
  74. http://library.calstate.edu/humboldt/articles/record?id=proquest200995525
  75. www.karatcup.com