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{{Template:Practivistas Dominicana student projects header}}
 
{{TOCright}}
 
{{TOCright}}
 +
[[File:Solar_Lighting_Cube.jpg|left|thumb|200px|Solar lighting tower from intermediate bulk containers.]]
 +
 
==Background==
 
==Background==
 
The streets are not the most suitable habitat for animals to live in. Animals are especially vulnerable when they need rehabilitation, recovery, and rest. Ghetto2Garden takes care of cats and dogs with reduced potential for adoption; that are deformed, blind, unwanted, elderly, and/or are terminally ill.  
 
The streets are not the most suitable habitat for animals to live in. Animals are especially vulnerable when they need rehabilitation, recovery, and rest. Ghetto2Garden takes care of cats and dogs with reduced potential for adoption; that are deformed, blind, unwanted, elderly, and/or are terminally ill.  
  
The Ghetto2Garden initiative was developed initially in an attempt to find an appropriate shelter to house 6 cats and 40 dogs. Currently Ghetto2Garden houses 50 dogs and 10 cats who have been rescued from the streets of Santo Domingo and provides these animals with a care facility where they can live the rest of their days in peace and happiness. This student involvement in this project is the result of the collaboration between Colectivo Revark and the Practivistas Dominicana program in an attempt to bring sustainable construction and renewable energy to the construction of the shelter.
+
The Ghetto2Garden initiative was developed initially in an attempt to find an appropriate shelter to house 6 cats and 40 dogs. Currently Ghetto2Garden houses 50 dogs and 10 cats who have been rescued from the streets of Santo Domingo and provides these animals with a care facility where they can live the rest of their days in peace and happiness. This student involvement in this project is the result of the collaboration between Colectivo Revark and the [[Practivistas Dominicana Program invitation|Practivistas Dominicana Program]] in an attempt to bring sustainable construction and renewable energy to the construction of the shelter.
 +
 
 +
==Objective Statement==
 +
The objective of this [[Appropriate Technology]] project was to develop and construct a renewable energy system with Ghetto2Garden dog shelter program. We worked on putting together renewable energy for Ghetto2Garden to not only have a more dependable source of energy but to lessen carbon emissions. The renewable energy system will eventually be used to power a vaccination refrigerator and other miscellaneous units such as cell phone chargers and laptops. Solar energy was the most accessible and appropriate technology for Ghetto2Garden. The project consisted of two parts; Building a "Solar Power Cube", and constructing a "Solar Lighting Cube."
 +
 
 +
==Location==
 +
Because Ghetto2Garden was in the process of finding a new site for the animal refuge, the project took place in La Yuca.
 +
 
 +
'''La Yuca del Naco, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic'''
  
==Objective==
+
[[File:Locationofturbine.png]]
The objective of this project is to begin working with the Ghetto2Garden dog shelter program and develop a suitable form of renewable energy to fuel part of the shelter.
 
  
 +
=Literature Review=
 +
See the literature review done for the Ghetto2Garden project [[Ghetto2Garden_solar_power/literature_review|here]].
  
 
==Criteria==
 
==Criteria==
 
+
The work of this project was done in collaboration with the architectural team RevArk and the father of the project, Tomás. The priorities associated with the criteria for the Recyclable Cubes were determined by discussion with the collaborators.
{| class="wikitable sortable"
+
{|class="wikitable sortable"
!width="225"|Criteria
+
|-
!width="25"|Weight
+
! Criteria
!width="225"|Constraints
+
! Weight (0-10)
 +
! Constraints
 +
|-
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Aesthetics|| 5 || Must be acceptable to the client's vision
 
|Aesthetics|| 5 || Must be acceptable to the client's vision
Line 20: Line 34:
 
|Durability || 7 || Maintenance must be simple with few necessary repairs
 
|Durability || 7 || Maintenance must be simple with few necessary repairs
 
|-
 
|-
|Mobility || 5 || Must be transportable to the Location, partial set-up before arrival  
+
|Mobility || 5 || Must be transportable to the location, partial set-up before arrival  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Feasibility || 9 || Must be able to complete it, with easy construction within the time frame  
 
|Feasibility || 9 || Must be able to complete it, with easy construction within the time frame  
 
|-
 
|-
|Creativity || 8 || Must reflect the creativity shown in Architectural plans
+
|Creativity || 8 || Must reflect the creativity shown in architectural plans
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Energy Produced || 10 || Must be at least able to steadily produce 200 watts
 
|Energy Produced || 10 || Must be at least able to steadily produce 200 watts
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Cost || 7 || Must be less than $1000 US
 
|Cost || 7 || Must be less than $1000 US
 +
|-
 +
|Security || 10 || Must be unobtrusive and obviously well secured
 
|}
 
|}
  
==Timeline==
+
==Proposed Timeline==
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
! Date
 
! Date
 
! Activity
 
! Activity
! Photos
 
 
! Members  
 
! Members  
 
|-
 
|-
Line 49: Line 63:
 
|June 22
 
|June 22
 
|Must have a meeting with Tomas by this date
 
|Must have a meeting with Tomas by this date
|Everyone + RevArc
+
|Everyone + RevArk
 
|-
 
|-
 
|June 23
 
|June 23
Line 68: Line 82:
 
|}
 
|}
  
==Literature review==
+
==Final Design==
 +
===Solar Power Cube===
 +
[[File:SDC11892.JPG|Solar Power Cube|thumb|right|498x628px]]
 +
Colectivo ReVark, an experimental group that investigates applications of sustainable design and construction, designed a animal refuge for Ghetto2Garden. This animal refuge is designed to incorporate liquid shipping cubes as dog kennels which were coincidentally designed to double (or triple) as solar lighting cubes and a solar power cube. Other forms of alternative energy were considered, but solar energy turned out to be the most accessible and appropriate technology in this case. 
 +
 
 +
====Design and Construction Process====
 +
[[File:Cutting cube.jpg|thumb|right|300x300px|Cutting open liquid shipping container to insert "control board" and batteries]]
 +
'''Design'''
 +
*Sizing the system
 +
*Resistance to the elements
 +
*Mobility
 +
*Security
 +
*Technical Issues
 +
See [[Photovoltaics]] for more information about sizing a solar system, wire sizing, and the components of a system.
  
===Climate===
+
'''Construction'''
Santo Domingo Latitude: 18°29'N  Longitude: 069°55'W
+
*Cutting the cube
 +
*Joining the two panels
 +
*Mounting the panels
 +
* Soldering wires
 +
*Connecting the system together
  
The average temperature in Santo Domingo is roughly 26<sup>o</sup>C or approximately 79<sup>o</sup>F.
+
'''Materials used:'''
 +
*Liquid shipping container
 +
*Solar panels
 +
*Inverter
 +
*Solar Charge Controller
 +
*Deep Cycle Batteries
 +
*Switch
 +
*Wire
 +
*Metal Bars
  
There is an average of 8 hours full sun per day January through September and an average of 7 hours full sun per day October through December.<ref>http://www.weather2travel.com/climate-guides/dominican-republic/</ref>
+
<gallery>
 +
Image:
 +
File:Pallet Liquid Containers photo1.jpg|Liquid Shipping Container
 +
File:Solar Panels.JPG|Solar Panels
 +
File:Control Board.JPG|"Control Board"
 +
</gallery>
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
'''Components'''
!Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic <ref>http://smn.cna.gob.mx/climatologia/normales/estacion/chis/NORMAL07087.TXT</ref>
+
{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; margin:.5em"
!Jan
+
|-
!Feb
+
! Device 
!Mar
+
! Specifications
!Apr
+
! Description
!May
+
!Picture
!Jun
+
|-
!Jul
+
| Solar Panels
!Aug
+
| Two 140W Panels in parallel
!Sep
+
| Used to charge Two 6V batteries in series with 225AH
!Oct
+
| [[Image:Solar Panels.JPG|thumb]]
!Nov
+
|-
!Dec
+
| Fuse
!Total
+
| 35A Fuse
|----
+
| The fuse is used to protect the elements of the circuit
!Daily Max Temperature (<sup>o</sup>F/<sup>o</sup>C)
+
| [[Image:Fuse Housing.JPG|thumb]]
|81/27
+
|-
|84/29
+
| Solar Charge Controller
|84/29
+
| 12/24V
|86/30
+
30A
|86/30
+
| The Solar Charge Controller protects the batteries from being destroyed by the solar panels by opening the circuit when they are fully charged. Furthermore, it regulates the amperage at which the batteries are charged.
|88/31
+
| [[Image:Solar Charge Controller.JPG|thumb]]
|91/33
+
|-
|93/34
+
| Switch
|88/31
+
| 30 Amp
|88/31
+
| The Switch is used to disconnect the batteries from the system if needed.
|88/31
+
| [[Image:ESwitch.JPG|thumb]]
|84/29
+
|-
|86.8/30.4
+
| Deep Cycle Batteries
|----
+
| Two 6V in series
!Daily Avg Temperature (<sup>o</sup>F/<sup>o</sup>C)
+
225AH
|75/24
+
| The Batteries will be used to power a vaccination fridge and other miscellaneous uses.
|75/24
+
| [[Image:Deep Cycle Batteries.JPG|thumb]]
|77/25
+
|-
|79/26 
+
| Inverter
|79/26
+
| 200W
|81/27   
+
12V
|81/27   
+
| Used to convert Direct Current to Alternating Current.
|81/27   
+
| [[Image:Invertor.JPG|thumb]]
|81/27   
+
|-
|81/27   
+
| Liquid Shipping Container
|79/26   
+
| Roughly a cubic meter
|77/25   
+
| Solar array is mounted to the top and the cube is used to house batteries, inverter, as well as the charge controller.
|78.7/25.9
+
| [[Image:Pallet Liquid Containers photo1.jpg|thumb]]
|----
+
|-
!Daily Min Temperature (<sup>o</sup>F/<sup>o</sup>C)
+
| Electrical wires
|61/16
+
| 8 gauge
|66/19
+
10 gauge
|68/20
+
| 10 gauge wire was used to connect panels to charge controller. 8 gauge was used to connect everything else.
|70/21
+
| [[Image:Electrical Wire.JPG |thumb]]
|72/22
+
|-
|73/23
+
| Terminal Connectors
|75/24
+
|  
|72/22
+
| Used to connect the batteries in series.  
|72/22
+
| [[Image:Terminal Connectors.JPG |thumb]]
|72/22
 
|70/21
 
|66/19
 
|69.7/20.9
 
|----
 
!Monthly Rainfall (in/mm)
 
|2.52/64
 
|2.2/56
 
|2.09/53
 
|2.8/71
 
|7.4/188
 
|5.51/140
 
|5.71/145
 
|7.01/178
 
|7.09/180
 
|7.4/188
 
|3.9/99
 
|3.31/84
 
|56.93/1,446
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
===Biogas===
+
{{-}}
'''Benefits of Biodigestion'''<br />
 
This type of system would utilize the available manure as a result of housing the dogs. Fertilizer from the processed organic waste could be sold for profit. Also, biogas is a highly efficient form of energy. Excess natural gas or unprocessed biogas could be sold as well. Some benefits of biogas include: reduction in volume of waste, complete decomposition of waste materials, nutrient capture, recycling, reduction of pathogens, odor reduction, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions<ref>http://www.americanbiogascouncil.org/biogas_biogasBenefits.asp</ref>.<br /> Using a biodigester may decrease the amount of exposure to pathogens which can be spread to humans by means of premature composting, agricultural run off, and contamination of the water table.
 
[[File:PractivistasBiodigesterG2G2013.png|thumb|right|600px|Diagram of Biodigestion size breakdown<ref>http://sistemabiobolsa.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/size-chart-biobolsa.pdf</ref>]]<br />
 
'''Composition'''<br />
 
Biogas, which consists mainly of methane, can be produced when food waste from households, manure, or crops from agriculture are broken down by micro-organisms in digesters and wastewater treatment plants. To upgrade biogas to natural gas or vehicle fuel quality, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and other contaminants need to be separated out<ref>http://www.greenlanebiogas.com/about-biogas</ref>. The composition of a gas issued from a digester depends on the substrate of its organic matter load, and the feeding rate of the digester. Usually the composition includes high amounts of CH4 (methane), CO2 (Carbon Dioxide), and variable amounts of N2, O2, H2O, H2S, NH3, and aromatic compounds<ref>http://www.biogas-renewable-energy.info/biogas_composition.html</ref>.<br /> Typically, biogas is composed of roughly 55 - 65% methane, 35-45% carbon dioxide, a small fraction of Hydrogen Sulfide gas, and other trace gases. This can result in problems because the Hydrogen Sulfide gas, even in small amounts, can be very corrosive and degrade any equipment/parts that are metal<ref>repository.lib.ncsu.edu/ir/bitstream/1840.../etd.pdf</ref>.<br /> For much more small scale biodigester projects, it may be beneficial to use a packet of non-stainless steel wool in the gas regulator in order to reduce the H<sub>2</sub>S in the Biogas, as did [[Practivistas Chiapas biodigester|Practivistas in Chiapas]].
 
 
'''Phases of anaerobic digestion'''<br />
 
''Hydrolysis and acidogenesis:''Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates are hydrolyzed by a series of microorganisms. Hydrolytic enzymes break the polymers into smaller molecules that can be digested by the microorganisms. Lipase converts lipid microorganism waste into fatty acid chains that, when hydrolyzed, form amino acids. Pyruvate and NADH are created by hexoses and pentoses and continue to be broken down into the final endo-products of this phase: lactate, propionate, acetate, and ethanol.<br />
 
''Acetogenesis and dehydrogenation:''This phase is primarily responsible for the break down of volatile fatty acids into acetate and H2.<br />
 
''Methanogenesis:'' Methanogens can only function in anaerobic conditions and are mainly either  H<sub>2</sub>/CO<sub>2</sub> and acetate-consumers. These microbes transform the final biochemicals into methane, which is our main source of energy for the system. In some cases,a two step methanogenesis process is necessary to keep the balance of volatile fatty acids and H<sub>2</sub> low. This must be tested and maintained to prevent high methane contents in the waste water. <ref>http://www.fao.org/docrep/w7241e/w7241e0f.htm</ref><br />
 
'''Types of Biodigester Technology'''<br />
 
''Inoculum/Seed'': To begin creating a biodigester, many suggest a preliminary stage to start the growth of the anaerobic bacteria and get an initial pH balance. To begin, fill a large container (suggested 55gal drum) with one part manure and one part water. Test the pH periodically before placing it into the digestor. After placing the first slurry into the digestor, the system should first begin to produce carbon dioxide, and then methane once it reaches stability. Holding a lighter over the system should indicate once the methane is being produced.<ref>http://www.appropedia.org/Biogas_start_up</ref><br />
 
'''Applications of Biogas'''<br />
 
One potential application of biogas is its use in fuel cells. Fuel cells transform chemical energy into electrical energy by breaking up the bonds. In biogas, H2 is the biochemical fuel that could be transformed using this method. Due to the high energy capacity of H2, the use of H2 fuel cells in combustion engines can be 2 or 3 times the efficiency of the techniques in use today. <ref>http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.humboldt.edu/science/article/pii/S0360319913004552</ref><br />
 
  
===Wind Energy===
+
==== Budget ====
[[File:Thepicture.png|thumb|right|300px]]
+
{| class="wikitable sortable"
[[File:Wind.png|thumb|right|200px]]
+
|-
[[File:Untitledfreq.png|thumb|left|200px]]
+
! Materials
 +
! Unit Price $(DOP)
 +
! Quantity
 +
! Cost $(DOP)
 +
! Cost $(USD)
 +
|-
 +
|140 watt Solar Panel
 +
| N/A
 +
| 2
 +
| 13,941.00
 +
| 340.02
 +
|-
 +
| Solar Charge Controller
 +
| 3,500.00
 +
| 1
 +
| 3,500.00
 +
| 85.37
 +
|-
 +
| Deep Cycle Battery (6V)
 +
| 4,000.00
 +
| 2
 +
| 8,000.00
 +
| 195.12
 +
|-
 +
| Fuse and Housing
 +
| 15.00
 +
| 1
 +
| 15.00
 +
| 0.37
 +
|-
 +
| Switch
 +
| 50.00
 +
| 1
 +
| 50.00
 +
| 1.33
 +
|-
 +
| Inverter
 +
| Donated
 +
| 1
 +
| 0.00
 +
| 0.00
 +
|-
 +
| Electrical Wire
 +
| 625.00
 +
| 1
 +
| 625.00
 +
| 15.24
 +
|-
 +
| Battery terminal connectors
 +
| 75.00
 +
| 2
 +
| 150.00
 +
| 3.66
 +
|-
 +
| Liquid Shipping Container
 +
| Donated
 +
| 1
 +
| 0.00
 +
| 0.00
 +
|-class="sortbottom"
 +
!colspan="3" align=right|Total Cost
 +
| align ="right" | '''$26,281.00'''
 +
| align ="right" | '''$641.00'''
 +
|}
 +
{{-}}
  
"The wind resource in the Dominican Republic is strongly dependent on elevation and proximity to the coastline. In general, the wind resource is best on hilltops, ridge crests, and coastal locations that have excellent exposure to the prevailing winds from the east. The extreme southwestern and northwestern regions of the country are estimated to have the greatest number of areas with good-to-excellent wind resources for utility-scale applications, because the upper-air winds and ocean winds are greatest in these regions."<ref>http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy99osti/27032.pdf</ref>
+
====Important Instructions - Read Before Use====
 +
*Give cube more tilt to allow water to properly flow off of panels
 +
*Absolutely no more than 200 watts plugged into the inverter
 +
*During times of no sun, cut down on energy consumption
 +
*When connecting the system
 +
**1st - Connect the batteries to the charge controller
 +
**2nd - Connect the solar panels to the charge controller
 +
**3rd - Connect the inverter to the charge controller
 +
*The inverter has an on/off button
 +
*Be very careful around the battery terminals
 +
*The red wire is positive
 +
*The striped wire is negative
  
"The Dominican Republic has a good wind resource. Many locations boast an average wind speed of over 7 meters per second at 80 meters above sea level, and a number of locations offer average speeds greater than 8 meters per second. One global study found that roughly 13 percent of locations have wind speeds of 7 meters per second or greater, generally considered an indication that low-cost wind energy development is possible. "<ref>http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy99osti/27032.pdf</ref>
+
====When Moving the Solar Cube====
 +
*Remove the solar panel from the cube
 +
*Remove the batteries from the cube
 +
*Do not leave the disconnected panels facing the sun
 +
*Be careful with panel during transportation, it is fragile
  
"In Santo Domingo, losses due to module temperature would likely be larger than in most locations. The hourly mean ambient temperature in Santo Domingo is always above 20°C, exceeding 28°C in the early afternoon even during the coldest months and staying over 30°C throughout the middle of the day during the summer. This would result in very high module temperatures. However, the average wind speed is also relatively high, with hourly means above 3 meters per second over almost all the daylight hours throughout the year. Winds are also strongest during the early afternoon hours, when temperature is highest. With increased wind speed comes increased heat loss in the module due to convection, and therefore somewhat lower power degradation."<ref>http://blogs.worldwatch.org/revolt/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/WORLDWATCH-DR-ENGLISH.pdf</ref>
+
====Video====
 +
{{#widget:YouTube|id=sXVTKnXNtbY}}
  
"The best wind resources are found in the southwestern provinces of Pedernales and Barahona and the northwestern provinces of Puerto Plata and Monte Cristi. Significant areas of good-to-excellent wind resource can be found in many other locations, such as well-exposed hilltops and ridge crests of the Samana peninsula and other near-coastal locations throughout the Dominican Republic and the major mountain ranges including Cordillera Septentrional, Cordillera Oriental, Cordillera Central, and Sierra Neiba. The mapping results show many additional areas of moderate wind resource for utility-scale applications or good wind resource for village power applications, including many east-facing coastal locations along the eastern and northern coasts of the Dominican Republic."
+
===Solar Lighting Cube===
 +
[[File:Solar Lighting Cube.jpg |Solar Lighting Cube|thumb|right]]
 +
The solar lighting cube is planned to be a unit on top of each of the shelter structures that will provide lighting for the dog houses for approximately 3 hours without sun.  
  
"The highest wind resource from June to August and December to February, with a maximum in July and a minimum in October. The diurnal pattern of wind speeds on exposed ridge crests tend to have the highest speeds during the night and early morning hours and lowest during mid-day." <ref>http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy02osti/27602.pdf</ref>
+
====Design and Construction Process====
 +
'''Design'''
 +
*Resistance to Weather
 +
*Flexibility of lights
 +
*Amount of light Produced
 +
*Unobtrusive
  
===Solar Energy===
+
'''Construction'''
 +
*Cutting the cube
 +
*Mounting the Bar
 +
*Installing the batteries
 +
*Mounting the lights
  
The solar power is a very powerful resource of energy, especially in areas with a vast quantity of sun by year, that's the main reason why the sun is the preferential renewable energy source from the nature; Enclosing tremendous opportunities for almost every country in the world makes it striking in economical and potential energy ways.
+
'''Materials used:'''
 +
*Donated Solar Lighting Units with Batteries
 +
*Liquid Shipping Container
 +
*Aluminum Wire
 +
*Screws
 +
*Zip Ties
  
"DNI stands for direct Normal Irradiation which  is the amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface that is always held perpendicular (or normal) to the rays that come in a straight line from the direction of the sun at its current position in the sky. Typically, you can maximize the amount of irradiance annually received by a surface by keeping it normal to incoming radiation. This quantity is of particular interest to concentrating solar thermal installations and installations that track the position of the sun."<ref>http://www.3tier.com/en/support/solar-prospecting-tools/what-direct-normal-irradiance-solar-prospecting/</ref>
+
'''Components'''
 +
{| class="wikitable"  
 +
|-
 +
! Device 
 +
! Specifications
 +
! Description
 +
!Picture
  
GHI stands for Global Horizontal Irradiance. wich it's a geometrical position that claims how the irradiance from the sun affects a certain point on earth.  
+
|-
 +
| Liquid Shipping Container
 +
| Roughly a cubic meter
 +
| Solar array is mounted to the top and the cube is used to house batteries, invertor, as well as the charge controller.
 +
| [[Image:LiquidCube.jpg|thumb]]
 +
|-
 +
| Solar lighting Systems
 +
| Includes Solar panel and light
 +
| These units were installed with two batteries and 3 lights per cube. Only one battery is necessary to run the lights.
 +
| [[Image: SolarLights.jpg|thumb]]
 +
|
 +
|}
  
[[File:Exhibit3-02.jpg|thumb|right]]  <ref>http://www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us/publications/renewenergy/solarenergy.php</ref>
 
  
"Judged globally, the solar resource in the Dominican Republic is quite good. Average GHI across the country generally ranges from 210 to 250 watts per square meter (W/m2), making it comparable with that of the U.S. Southwest and generally superior to areas along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. DNI, on the other hand, although still higher than that of much of the globe, is significantly lower than in the Mediterranean and U.S. Southwest. Average values are mostly between 170 and 250 W/m2. Within the Dominican Republic, irradiance is generally higher in the western half of the country, both for GHI and DNI, with some of the best areas found in the southwest."
+
==== Budget ====
 +
The individual solar lighting units were donated for our project.
  
"Santo Domingo is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic, situated on the Caribbean Sea on the country’s southern coast. It is home to roughly one-quarter of the total population, making it the most important potential market for decentralized solar power production."
+
====Video====
 +
{{#widget:YouTube|id=wdykJnABhvc}}
  
 +
==Contributors==
 +
*[[User:Drwilliedre|William McMeekin]]
 +
*[[User:Enomis3|Simone Groves]]
 +
*[[User:Acalcano12|Abraham Calcano]]
 +
* Osvaldo De Aza Carpio
  
[[File:Solar1Untitled.png|thumb|left]]
+
[[Category:Practivistas Dominicana Program]]
 
+
[[Category:Projects]]
"Santo Domingo’s solar resource is very strong by global standards. The average GHI value at the Santo Domingo site is 5.45 kilowatt-hours (kWh) per square meter per day (227.1 W/m2). (See Figure 5.) This compares favorably with most of the rest of the Caribbean region and is significantly higher than the insolation in the areas of Europe and Asia where solar power penetration is currently highest. In Germany, for example, few locations sport a GHI over 3.0 kWh/m2/day, and virtually nowhere is the GHI above 3.5. The DNI average is 4.97 kWh/m2/day (207.1 W/m2) at the Santo Domingo site, again strong when compared globally, although not as much so. (See Figure 6.) The average DIF is 2.04 kWh/m2/day (85.0 W/m2). Compared to the rest of the Dominican Republic, Santo Domingo has a mediocre solar resource, both in terms of GHI and DNI."
+
[[Category:Energy]]
 
+
[[Category:Technology]]
[[File:Solar2Untitled.png|thumb|right]]
+
[[Category:Construction and materials]]
[[File:Solar3Untitled.png|thumb|left]]
 
 
 
"The monthly mean GHI varies significantly throughout the year. (See Figure 7.) Average GHI is highest in April and May, with the May mean at 6.29 kWh/m2/day (262.1 W/m2). GHI is between 5.82 and 6.08 kWh/m2/day in March, June, July, and August, but it declines sharply throughout the rest of the year, falling below 5.07 kWh/m2/day for each month during October–February."
 
 
 
[[File:Solar4Untitled.png|thumb|right]]
 
 
 
"Monthly mean DNI is much less variable over the course of the year. It peaks in March and April, with a March value of 5.45 kWh/m2/day. DNI is lowest in December, at 4.53kWh/m2/day, but all months during July–January are below4.85. DNI monthly means are more variable year-to-year, however."
 
 
 
"During the course of the day, GHI peaks in the early afternoon throughout the year, highest between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m. and usually peaking between 1 and 2 p.m. (See Figure 8.) The peak hourly mean is consistently over three times the daily mean. DNI is of course also highest during the middle of the day, but because it involves tracking the sun’s movement, the peaks more closely resemble plateaus that last from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. The largest values for DNI are found in the mid-afternoon during February–May, early afternoon during June–September, and late morning during October–January."
 
 
 
[[File:Solar5.png|thumb|left]]
 
 
 
"According to data from the annual reports of the Organismo Coordinator del Sistema Electrico (OC), electricity generation reaches its peak in the late summer months of July and August, with an average of 987,000 megawatt-hours (MWh) generated in July from 2005 to 2009. Monthly generation averages 950,000 MWh or more during May–October but is lower during the other half of the year, particularly in January
 
and February."
 
 
 
"There is consistently a high level of unmet electricity demand in the Dominican Republic as well, often as much as 200,000 MWh per month. There is no clear pattern in the time of the year when unmet demand is highest over the years 2005–2009. Solar irradiance lines up reasonably well with demand, as GHI stays high through all the months of highest electricity use save September and October. DNI matches consumption
 
less well, as it is relatively lower in late summer."
 
 
 
"Daily load curves show that the highest electricity demand occurs in the evening, from 7 p.m. to 11 p.m. This of course means that other solutions will be necessary to meet peak demand. During daylight hours, peak demand varies somewhat depending on the day of the week, falling as early as 12–1 p.m. or as late as 2–3 p.m. This matches up well with the daily variance in irradiance, although more so with GHI
 
than DNI, as DNI dips right in the middle of the day in some months. Concentrated solar thermal power with storage would be an option for using solar energy to serve these evening demands. "<ref>http://blogs.worldwatch.org/revolt/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/WORLDWATCH-DR-ENGLISH.pdf</ref>
 
 
 
===Bicycle Energy===
 
The use of bicycles to create electricity is an example of converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. In an electrical generator, mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.  The electrical generator "uses the mechanical energy supplied to it to force the movement of electric charges present in the wire of its windings through an external electric circuit. This flow of electric charges constitutes the output electric current supplied by the generator. This mechanism can be understood by considering the generator to be analogous to a water pump, which causes the flow of water but does not actually ‘create’ the water flowing through it."<ref>http://www.dieselserviceandsupply.com/How_Generators_Work.aspx</ref><br />
 
 
 
'''Power Potential'''<br />
 
On average a person generates at least 100 watts per hour. An athlete can generate as much as 500 watts per hour. Unfortunately though, most systems for collecting and generating electrical energy by bicycle are extremely inefficient. Most systems are severely limited by a 12 volt battery’s resting potential and its capacity. <ref>http://www.windstreampower.com/Bike_Power_Generator.php</ref><br />
 
'''Components'''<br />
 
Cyclist, Bike, Permanent magnet motor (or stepper motors or car alternators), Bike training stand, Rollers, Attach the motor to the stand (on left hand side of the front wheel), Electricity smoother (capacitor or lead acid battery), Inverter, cables with a ‘quick-release.’ <ref>http://www.magnificentrevolution.org/diy/single-bike-generator/</ref>
 
 
 
===Dog Power===
 
Because Ghetto2Garden is a shelter for cats and dogs, it is thought that we could potentially "tap" into the kinetic energy of animals playing to create electrical energy. This would be similar to creating electricity using a bicycle. One idea, would be to use a sort of hamster wheel for dogs that diverts a small amount of its electrical energy to power a laser pointer to keep the pups interested in using the fun powered electrical generator. With out an incentive like a laser, it may be hard to keep the animals interested long enough to create much electricity.
 
 
 
===Energy Storage===
 
When creating electricity using wind, solar or any other kind of renewable energy it may be a good idea to have a way to store it when its not being used. This is especially true if your system is not tied to the grid. Without energy storage it is not possible to use the electrical energy created from solar or wind when it is not sunny or windy. It is obvious that it is not always windy or sunny so this could be a problem. For Ghetto2Garden it may be beneficial to store our kinetic, wind or solar energy by using a battery.
 
  
Various types of chargable batteries and their usage-
+
===Update October 2013===
{| class="wikitable"
+
As of October 2013 Ghetto2Garden houses 80 dogs and 13 cats. 55 of the dogs and 10 of the cats are sheltered in a large house where Tomas De Santis pays rent monthly. 12 dogs and the remaining 3 cats are sheltered in a different house. The remaining 13 dogs are sheltered in a third house. All three locations are in the city of La Yuca. Co- founders Wilfredo Mena Veras, Tomas De Santis, and their team will start building a new shelter before the end of October 2013. The shelter  wil be built in the mountains, 40minutes outside the city of La Yuca. Their goal is to take these dogs from the streets of La Yuca "the ghetto" to the mountains "the garden".  
|-
 
! Battery Types<ref>www.pureenergybattery.com/pdf/batterytypes.pdf‎</ref>
 
! Voltage (V)
 
! Common Usage
 
|-
 
| Rechargable Alkaline
 
| 1.5
 
| CD/MP3 players, electronic games, cameras, flash lights...
 
|-
 
| NiMH
 
| 1.2
 
| Digital cameras, remote controlled cars
 
|-
 
| NiCd
 
| 1.2
 
| Power Tools
 
|-
 
| Li-ion
 
| 3.6-3.7
 
| Notebook computers, PDAs, Mobile phones, camcorders, digital cameras
 
|-
 
| Lead Acid
 
| 12V
 
| Car starter battery, lift trucks, golf carts, standby power
 
|}
 
<br />
 
Flooded battery is a type of battery that is usually made by battery companies specifically for solar use. These are usually very long lasting durable batteries with the drawback that they cannot be used inside. The way the battery works includes a release of a flamable gas, and therefore cannot be stored in enclosed spaces without ventilation. <ref>http://www.freesunpower.com/batteries.php</ref><br />
 
AGM or Absorbed Glass Matt batteries are the high end solution for the Solar Battery problem. They are generally more expensive, but also worth the price that you pay for them because their life span is so much longer and they are able to store energy more efficiently.
 
  
===Algal Biofuel===
+
So far 1700 block cylinders were donated by construction companies, almost enough to build the front gate of the shelter. These cylinders will be stacked high enough to provide visual protection for the dogs from the public. On top of the cylinders a wire fence will be installed to keep the animals inside, and for security. The mayor of La Yuca has lent them a tractor. They have also received 6 industrial containers, which will be reused to make living spaces at the new shelter for Tomas, a friend of Tomas, a helper, and a security guard. There is still a need for a foundation for the fence. More cylinders and wire fence are needed to build the rest of the gate. Funds are needed for dog food and contract workers to build the shelter. Above all volunteers are needed for all kinds of tasks.  
One potential solution for the cleansing of the waste water that may be formed as a result of processing the fecal matter from the large number of dogs in the Ghetto2Garden program, is the cleansing of the waste water using algae. Recent experiments show that carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus can be effectively removed from waste water to produce large amounts of algal biomass which can then produce a liquid energy that can be used like natural gas or fossil fuels.<ref>http://newscenter.nmsu.edu/9281/power-nmsu-explores-algal-biofuel-production-from-wastewater</ref> Algae also have the ability to accumulate toxic heavy metals which are frequently in waste water and allow them to be removed. <ref>http://www.oilgae.com/algae/cult/sew/sew.html</ref> <br />
 
'''Waste water'''<br />
 
Waste water is primarily cleansed if it has had the solids removed. Secondarily cleansed if it has undergone some form of biological digestion. Lastly, Tertiary cleansing results in cleansed water that should have only remnants of organic material, no questionable bacteria, and no odor to it, but is otherwise clean water. <ref>.http://www.oilgae.com/algae/cult/sew/tp/tp.html</ref>
 
  
===Water Diversion hydration station===
+
The solar cubes built during  El Practivistas Dominicana have not been installed because the new shelter has not been built. The solar cubes are currently stored in Osvaldo's home, a director of La Yuca community who helped build them. The rest of the materials are also in storage to prevent theft.[[File:Ghetto1.jpg|thumb]][[File:800px-Ghetto2.jpg|thumb]]
The roof of the shelter will be designed so that rainwater will be captured for the use of the cats and dogs.
 
  
==References==
+
==Update 2015==
{{Reflist}}
+
As of Summer 2014, Ghetto2Garden has moved to a more secure location, is housing even more dogs and cats, and now has a fully functioning photovoltaic system. See [[Ghetto2Garden renewable energy 2014]].
  
[[Category:Practivistas Dominicana Program]]
+
[[File:G2GTeamPhoto.JPG|thumb|left|Ghetto2Garden 2014 team]]
[[Category:Projects]]
 

Latest revision as of 07:20, 10 March 2015

Practivistas Dominicana - Student Projects

La Yuca ecoladrillo schoolroom (2011) - La Yuca rainwater catchment (2014) (2013) (2012) (2011) - La Yuca small scale renewable energy (2014) (2012) (2011) - La Yuca schoolroom renovation (2013) - Las Malvinas ecoladrillo schoolroom (2012) - Las Malvinas botica popular hullkrete (2015) (2013) - Las Malvinas eco-block police station (2014) - Las Malvinas eco-block testing (2015) (2014) - Las Malvinas botica popular ecoladrillo (2013) - Las Malvinas rainwater catchment system (2014) (2013) - Las Malvinas rainwater feasibility study (2014) - Las Malvinas community center shade structure (2014) - Ghetto2Garden solar power (2014) (2013) - Arroyo Norte waste plastic innovations (2015) (2014) - Solar workshops (2015)



Solar lighting tower from intermediate bulk containers.

Background[edit]

The streets are not the most suitable habitat for animals to live in. Animals are especially vulnerable when they need rehabilitation, recovery, and rest. Ghetto2Garden takes care of cats and dogs with reduced potential for adoption; that are deformed, blind, unwanted, elderly, and/or are terminally ill.

The Ghetto2Garden initiative was developed initially in an attempt to find an appropriate shelter to house 6 cats and 40 dogs. Currently Ghetto2Garden houses 50 dogs and 10 cats who have been rescued from the streets of Santo Domingo and provides these animals with a care facility where they can live the rest of their days in peace and happiness. This student involvement in this project is the result of the collaboration between Colectivo Revark and the Practivistas Dominicana Program in an attempt to bring sustainable construction and renewable energy to the construction of the shelter.

Objective Statement[edit]

The objective of this Appropriate Technology project was to develop and construct a renewable energy system with Ghetto2Garden dog shelter program. We worked on putting together renewable energy for Ghetto2Garden to not only have a more dependable source of energy but to lessen carbon emissions. The renewable energy system will eventually be used to power a vaccination refrigerator and other miscellaneous units such as cell phone chargers and laptops. Solar energy was the most accessible and appropriate technology for Ghetto2Garden. The project consisted of two parts; Building a "Solar Power Cube", and constructing a "Solar Lighting Cube."

Location[edit]

Because Ghetto2Garden was in the process of finding a new site for the animal refuge, the project took place in La Yuca.

La Yuca del Naco, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

Locationofturbine.png

Literature Review[edit]

See the literature review done for the Ghetto2Garden project here.

Criteria[edit]

The work of this project was done in collaboration with the architectural team RevArk and the father of the project, Tomás. The priorities associated with the criteria for the Recyclable Cubes were determined by discussion with the collaborators.

Criteria Weight (0-10) Constraints
Aesthetics 5 Must be acceptable to the client's vision
Durability 7 Maintenance must be simple with few necessary repairs
Mobility 5 Must be transportable to the location, partial set-up before arrival
Feasibility 9 Must be able to complete it, with easy construction within the time frame
Creativity 8 Must reflect the creativity shown in architectural plans
Energy Produced 10 Must be at least able to steadily produce 200 watts
Cost 7 Must be less than $1000 US
Security 10 Must be unobtrusive and obviously well secured

Proposed Timeline[edit]

Date Activity Members
June 17 Criteria & Timeline Due Everyone
June 20 All research on Batteries, inverters, and complete construction process (including soldering) must be complete and uploaded to Appropedia. Also research the best angles for light to hit solar panels for max output. Everyone
June 22 Must have a meeting with Tomas by this date Everyone + RevArk
June 23 Make sure all materials and equipment is bought Simone & Will
June 28 Complete first panel and figure out optimal method of attachment. Everyone
July 1 Project completed Everyone
Week of July 1 Presentations Everyone

Final Design[edit]

Solar Power Cube[edit]

Solar Power Cube

Colectivo ReVark, an experimental group that investigates applications of sustainable design and construction, designed a animal refuge for Ghetto2Garden. This animal refuge is designed to incorporate liquid shipping cubes as dog kennels which were coincidentally designed to double (or triple) as solar lighting cubes and a solar power cube. Other forms of alternative energy were considered, but solar energy turned out to be the most accessible and appropriate technology in this case.

Design and Construction Process[edit]

Cutting open liquid shipping container to insert "control board" and batteries

Design

  • Sizing the system
  • Resistance to the elements
  • Mobility
  • Security
  • Technical Issues

See Photovoltaics for more information about sizing a solar system, wire sizing, and the components of a system.

Construction

  • Cutting the cube
  • Joining the two panels
  • Mounting the panels
  • Soldering wires
  • Connecting the system together

Materials used:

  • Liquid shipping container
  • Solar panels
  • Inverter
  • Solar Charge Controller
  • Deep Cycle Batteries
  • Switch
  • Wire
  • Metal Bars

Components

Device Specifications Description Picture
Solar Panels Two 140W Panels in parallel Used to charge Two 6V batteries in series with 225AH
Solar Panels.JPG
Fuse 35A Fuse The fuse is used to protect the elements of the circuit
Fuse Housing.JPG
Solar Charge Controller 12/24V

30A

The Solar Charge Controller protects the batteries from being destroyed by the solar panels by opening the circuit when they are fully charged. Furthermore, it regulates the amperage at which the batteries are charged.
Solar Charge Controller.JPG
Switch 30 Amp The Switch is used to disconnect the batteries from the system if needed.
ESwitch.JPG
Deep Cycle Batteries Two 6V in series

225AH

The Batteries will be used to power a vaccination fridge and other miscellaneous uses.
Deep Cycle Batteries.JPG
Inverter 200W

12V

Used to convert Direct Current to Alternating Current.
Invertor.JPG
Liquid Shipping Container Roughly a cubic meter Solar array is mounted to the top and the cube is used to house batteries, inverter, as well as the charge controller.
Pallet Liquid Containers photo1.jpg
Electrical wires 8 gauge

10 gauge

10 gauge wire was used to connect panels to charge controller. 8 gauge was used to connect everything else.
Electrical Wire.JPG
Terminal Connectors Used to connect the batteries in series.
Terminal Connectors.JPG


Budget[edit]

Materials Unit Price $(DOP) Quantity Cost $(DOP) Cost $(USD)
140 watt Solar Panel N/A 2 13,941.00 340.02
Solar Charge Controller 3,500.00 1 3,500.00 85.37
Deep Cycle Battery (6V) 4,000.00 2 8,000.00 195.12
Fuse and Housing 15.00 1 15.00 0.37
Switch 50.00 1 50.00 1.33
Inverter Donated 1 0.00 0.00
Electrical Wire 625.00 1 625.00 15.24
Battery terminal connectors 75.00 2 150.00 3.66
Liquid Shipping Container Donated 1 0.00 0.00
Total Cost $26,281.00 $641.00


Important Instructions - Read Before Use[edit]

  • Give cube more tilt to allow water to properly flow off of panels
  • Absolutely no more than 200 watts plugged into the inverter
  • During times of no sun, cut down on energy consumption
  • When connecting the system
    • 1st - Connect the batteries to the charge controller
    • 2nd - Connect the solar panels to the charge controller
    • 3rd - Connect the inverter to the charge controller
  • The inverter has an on/off button
  • Be very careful around the battery terminals
  • The red wire is positive
  • The striped wire is negative

When Moving the Solar Cube[edit]

  • Remove the solar panel from the cube
  • Remove the batteries from the cube
  • Do not leave the disconnected panels facing the sun
  • Be careful with panel during transportation, it is fragile

Video[edit]

Solar Lighting Cube[edit]

Solar Lighting Cube

The solar lighting cube is planned to be a unit on top of each of the shelter structures that will provide lighting for the dog houses for approximately 3 hours without sun.

Design and Construction Process[edit]

Design

  • Resistance to Weather
  • Flexibility of lights
  • Amount of light Produced
  • Unobtrusive

Construction

  • Cutting the cube
  • Mounting the Bar
  • Installing the batteries
  • Mounting the lights

Materials used:

  • Donated Solar Lighting Units with Batteries
  • Liquid Shipping Container
  • Aluminum Wire
  • Screws
  • Zip Ties

Components

Device Specifications Description Picture
Liquid Shipping Container Roughly a cubic meter Solar array is mounted to the top and the cube is used to house batteries, invertor, as well as the charge controller.
LiquidCube.jpg
Solar lighting Systems Includes Solar panel and light These units were installed with two batteries and 3 lights per cube. Only one battery is necessary to run the lights.
SolarLights.jpg


Budget[edit]

The individual solar lighting units were donated for our project.

Video[edit]

Contributors[edit]

Update October 2013[edit]

As of October 2013 Ghetto2Garden houses 80 dogs and 13 cats. 55 of the dogs and 10 of the cats are sheltered in a large house where Tomas De Santis pays rent monthly. 12 dogs and the remaining 3 cats are sheltered in a different house. The remaining 13 dogs are sheltered in a third house. All three locations are in the city of La Yuca. Co- founders Wilfredo Mena Veras, Tomas De Santis, and their team will start building a new shelter before the end of October 2013. The shelter wil be built in the mountains, 40minutes outside the city of La Yuca. Their goal is to take these dogs from the streets of La Yuca "the ghetto" to the mountains "the garden".

So far 1700 block cylinders were donated by construction companies, almost enough to build the front gate of the shelter. These cylinders will be stacked high enough to provide visual protection for the dogs from the public. On top of the cylinders a wire fence will be installed to keep the animals inside, and for security. The mayor of La Yuca has lent them a tractor. They have also received 6 industrial containers, which will be reused to make living spaces at the new shelter for Tomas, a friend of Tomas, a helper, and a security guard. There is still a need for a foundation for the fence. More cylinders and wire fence are needed to build the rest of the gate. Funds are needed for dog food and contract workers to build the shelter. Above all volunteers are needed for all kinds of tasks.

The solar cubes built during El Practivistas Dominicana have not been installed because the new shelter has not been built. The solar cubes are currently stored in Osvaldo's home, a director of La Yuca community who helped build them. The rest of the materials are also in storage to prevent theft.

Ghetto1.jpg
800px-Ghetto2.jpg

Update 2015[edit]

As of Summer 2014, Ghetto2Garden has moved to a more secure location, is housing even more dogs and cats, and now has a fully functioning photovoltaic system. See Ghetto2Garden renewable energy 2014.

Ghetto2Garden 2014 team