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Aquaculture production of duckweed

The Lemnaceae (duckweed, water lentils) family are the smallest flowering plants. They are free-floating plants with 1 to 3 leaves and a single root (or root-hair) from each frond. Because of their extremely rapid growth, duckweeds can be aggressive invaders of ponds and are often considered a nuisance. They grow in dense colonies in quiet water, best if undisturbed by wave action. They require nutrient-rich water, high in phosphorus and nitrogen, and are therefore often found in areas of agricultural run-off. Various species are known and grow in different climates throughout the world. Because of the very high productivity per surface area, duckweed holds great potential for future global villages. This tiny aquatic plant has tremendous potential for cleaning up pollution, combating global warming and feeding the world.

Duckweed - Not just for Ducks: Research from the Tropical Ecological Farm, College of Agriculture and Forestry -CAF, Thu Duc, Ho Chi Min City, Vietnam:

"Duckweed is probably the fastest growing multi-cellular plant. It grows naturally on waste water and can double its weight in 24 hours. It is unique amongst plants in that its protein content can be manipulated according the nitrogen content of the water in which it is growing. This is important because it integrates with the biodigester. It is the ideal water plant to introduce into an integrated farming system because it can use the nitrogen in the effluent coming from the biodigester to enrich its protein content to a level only slightly lower than Soya Bean, approaching 35%. In terms of protein production, grown under ideal conditions in can produce 10 tonnes of protein per hectare per year. This compares with Soya bean which produces less than 1 tonne per year.

Duckweed is good for the environment because it doesn’t require artificial fertilizers, on the contrary it cleans up waste by removing organic and inorganic nitrogen coming from decomposition of organic matter, contributing to the fight against eutrophication. It doesn’t need fungicides and has no significant natural pests.

Duckweed can be eaten by chickens, ducks and pigs and can supply all of the protein needs for locally adapted breeds."

Duckweed as food

Depending on strain and growing conditions, duckweeds can have very high protein content of up to 50% of dry mass. High levels of vitamins are also present. The taste is remotely similar to spinach. Duckweeds have historically played a role in some east Asian cuisines (Wolffia genus). Because of rapid growth and ease of cultivation, duckweeds for consumption by animals and humans are now getting more attention. Current uses as animal fodder are mostly as fish food (carp, tilapia) and bird food (chicken, duck). Possible uses as part of a human diet are still vastly under-explored.

Duckweed for bio-energy

Duckweed produces biomass faster than any other flowering plant. It has clear potential as an alternative for biofuel production.

Duckweed as bio-sensors

Duckweeds are used for the detection of heavy metals and organic contaminants.


[to follow]

Ideas and applications

Human consumption: duckweed in salad or soup, on a sandwich or as a component of vegetable spread (or as a substitute for: lettuce, spinach, water cress, alfalfa, ... ?)

For animals: fish food, chicken food,


Cross, J.W. (2006). The Charms of Duckweed. [1]

Wikipedia entry on duckweed in general and on Wolffia

July 2008 article on Treehugger [2]

Very comprehensive manual on duckweed aquaculture [3]

Duckweed as a Primary Feedstock for Aquaculture [4]

Duckweed as a feed supplement for livestock [5]

Older patent with many details on duckweed for human consumption [6]

Integrated Tilapia & Duckweed Farming System [7]

Manual for the use of biodigester effluent and ponds for duckweed production (from Vietnam) [8]