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Difference between revisions of "Cycling"

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{{topic header| default.png |Cycling}}
 
{{topic header| default.png |Cycling}}
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{{Offline content bundle}}
 
{{TOCright}}
 
{{TOCright}}
==An efficient mode of transport==
+
 
 +
== Cycling as a means of transport ==
 +
== Introduction ==
 +
Isolation is one of the key elements of [[poverty]]; isolated communities have little or no access
 +
to goods and services, and few opportunities to travel beyond their immediate surroundings.
 +
This restricts agricultural productivity, reduces health and educational and limits
 +
opportunities for employment and political opportunity.
 +
 
 +
Limited financial resources prevents investment in transport maintaining the position of poverty and isolation. Consequently, there is a need to develop alternative, more affordable means of transport.
 +
 
 +
Developing such systems requires consideration of four key elements:
 +
* the improvement of village level infrastructure such as paths, tracks, and footbridges
 +
* the provision of adequate and affordable rural transport services
 +
* the siting of services closer to the communities , thereby removing or reducing the need for lengthy trave
 +
* the promotion and use of intermediate means of transport including; pack animals, sledges, animal carts, cycle based transport and some low cost motorised devices. One of the more common types of intermediate transport is the bicycle.
 +
 
 +
Bicycles are a low cost means of transport that can improve access to water, health facilities and, for example, address stove marketing problems faced by woman producer groups in Kenya.<ref name="Bicycles in developing contexts" />
 +
 
 +
===Energy efficiency===
 
Even areas with just footpaths bicycling is the most energy-efficient means of transport generally available.  Bicycling at low to medium speeds (10-15 mph, 16-24 km/h), uses only the energy required to walk.  
 
Even areas with just footpaths bicycling is the most energy-efficient means of transport generally available.  Bicycling at low to medium speeds (10-15 mph, 16-24 km/h), uses only the energy required to walk.  
  
 
In both biological and mechanical terms, the bicycle is extraordinarily efficient. In terms of the amount of energy a person must expend to travel a given distance, investigators have calculated it to be the most efficient self-powered means of transportation.<ref>"Bicycle Technology", S.S. Wilson, Scientific American, March 1973</ref> From a mechanical viewpoint, up to 99% of the energy delivered by the rider into the pedals is transmitted to the wheels, although the use of gearing mechanisms may reduce this by 10-15%.
 
In both biological and mechanical terms, the bicycle is extraordinarily efficient. In terms of the amount of energy a person must expend to travel a given distance, investigators have calculated it to be the most efficient self-powered means of transportation.<ref>"Bicycle Technology", S.S. Wilson, Scientific American, March 1973</ref> From a mechanical viewpoint, up to 99% of the energy delivered by the rider into the pedals is transmitted to the wheels, although the use of gearing mechanisms may reduce this by 10-15%.
<ref>
+
<ref>[http://www.jhu.edu/~gazette/1999/aug3099/30pedal.html "Johns Hopkins Gazette"], 30 August, 1999</ref><ref>"Bicycling Science", Frank R. Whitt, David G. Wilson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1982, ISBN 0-262-23111-5</ref>
[http://www.jhu.edu/~gazette/1999/aug3099/30pedal.html "Johns Hopkins Gazette"], 30 August, 1999</ref>
+
<ref>"Bicycling Scie
+
1000
+
nce", Frank R. Whitt, David G. Wilson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1982, ISBN 0-262-23111-5</ref>
+
  
 
In terms of the ratio of cargo weight a bicycle can carry to total weight, it is also a most efficient means of cargo transportation.
 
In terms of the ratio of cargo weight a bicycle can carry to total weight, it is also a most efficient means of cargo transportation.
  
 
An added bonus is that a bicycle can utilize gravity to go faster down hill and even partialy any counterpart hills.
 
An added bonus is that a bicycle can utilize gravity to go faster down hill and even partialy any counterpart hills.
 +
 +
==Work use==
 +
Extended cycle user Aloysius Fernando, cultivator of mainly plantains & peanuts, sells peanuts in nearby towns. With the extended cycle, he can now transport enough to meet demand (1200 packets as opposed to 400 packets on his original bicycle). With increased business earnings he began to cultivate a larger area of land and could hire a peanut shelling machine.
 +
 +
===Bicycle taxis===
 +
The Bicycle taxi or boda boda has become popular in Uganda and Kenya, they operate for
 +
hire from stands in towns, bus stops and market centres. The name boda boda is said to
 +
come from the time when the East African Community existed and there was free movement
 +
across the boarder between Uganda and Kenya. Travellers were offered transport to the
 +
boarder by bicycle-riders shouting ‘Border Border’ to attract passengers.
 +
Converting a bicycle to a taxi requires reinforced forks, stronger brakes, a passenger seat
 +
and footrests, and cushions. New seat designs enable woman to ride side-addle should help
 +
to improve access.
 +
 +
Although the work is hard, the operators can earn a living despite a lack of formal education.
 +
The community transport organisation in Ndhiwa and The Kibos Cycle Taxi Association of
 +
Kisumu, Western Kenya worked in conjunction with [[Practical Action East Africa]] to:<br>
 +
 +
* enhance the safety of bicycle taxis<br>
 +
* provide a cycle lane along the Kibos road<br>
 +
* set up a mini-medical insurance scheme for passengers and operators<br>
 +
* provide a credit scheme and repair fund for the members
 +
 +
==Cost==
 +
The bicycle is still expensive for poorer families in Africa and can cost between 20 to over 100 per cent of a rural household’s annual income. Therefore, transport needs to be supported by an affordable system of manufacture, supply, and repair.
 +
 +
Affordability is related to the availability of spare parts and repair services, which are
 +
sometime lacking in rural areas. Several projects have attempted to boost local economics
 +
by encouraging artisanal production of suitable transport and improve the local capabilities of
 +
metal workers to maintain and repair bicycles and other types of transport.
  
 
==Safety==
 
==Safety==
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===Charging a mobile device===
 
===Charging a mobile device===
  
The bicycle's dynamo can be used to charge a mobile device. See the [http://usb-bike.be/ universal bike charger system]
+
The bicycle's dynamo can be used to charge a mobile device. See the [http://usb-bike.be/ universal bike charger system] and [http://www.econvergence.net/category-s/1822.htm The Cycle Charger]
  
 
==Footnotes and references==
 
==Footnotes and references==
<references/>
+
{{reflist}}
 +
<ref name="Bicycles in developing contexts">Text taken from [[Bicycles in developing contexts]] article</ref>
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==

Revision as of 08:17, 17 December 2012


Default.png    See also the Cycling category.
for subtopics, how-tos, project pages, designs, organization pages and more.


This page is in Appropedia's offline content bundle.

Cycling as a means of transport

Introduction

Isolation is one of the key elements of poverty; isolated communities have little or no access to goods and services, and few opportunities to travel beyond their immediate surroundings. This restricts agricultural productivity, reduces health and educational and limits opportunities for employment and political opportunity.

Limited financial resources prevents investment in transport maintaining the position of poverty and isolation. Consequently, there is a need to develop alternative, more affordable means of transport.

Developing such systems requires consideration of four key elements:

  • the improvement of village level infrastructure such as paths, tracks, and footbridges
  • the provision of adequate and affordable rural transport services
  • the siting of services closer to the communities , thereby removing or reducing the need for lengthy trave
  • the promotion and use of intermediate means of transport including; pack animals, sledges, animal carts, cycle based transport and some low cost motorised devices. One of the more common types of intermediate transport is the bicycle.

Bicycles are a low cost means of transport that can improve access to water, health facilities and, for example, address stove marketing problems faced by woman producer groups in Kenya.[1]

Energy efficiency

Even areas with just footpaths bicycling is the most energy-efficient means of transport generally available. Bicycling at low to medium speeds (10-15 mph, 16-24 km/h), uses only the energy required to walk.

In both biological and mechanical terms, the bicycle is extraordinarily efficient. In terms of the amount of energy a person must expend to travel a given distance, investigators have calculated it to be the most efficient self-powered means of transportation.[2] From a mechanical viewpoint, up to 99% of the energy delivered by the rider into the pedals is transmitted to the wheels, although the use of gearing mechanisms may reduce this by 10-15%. [3][4]

In terms of the ratio of cargo weight a bicycle can carry to total weight, it is also a most efficient means of cargo transportation.

An added bonus is that a bicycle can utilize gravity to go faster down hill and even partialy any counterpart hills.

Work use

Extended cycle user Aloysius Fernando, cultivator of mainly plantains & peanuts, sells peanuts in nearby towns. With the extended cycle, he can now transport enough to meet demand (1200 packets as opposed to 400 packets on his original bicycle). With increased business earnings he began to cultivate a larger area of land and could hire a peanut shelling machine.

Bicycle taxis

The Bicycle taxi or boda boda has become popular in Uganda and Kenya, they operate for hire from stands in towns, bus stops and market centres. The name boda boda is said to come from the time when the East African Community existed and there was free movement across the boarder between Uganda and Kenya. Travellers were offered transport to the boarder by bicycle-riders shouting ‘Border Border’ to attract passengers. Converting a bicycle to a taxi requires reinforced forks, stronger brakes, a passenger seat and footrests, and cushions. New seat designs enable woman to ride side-addle should help to improve access.

Although the work is hard, the operators can earn a living despite a lack of formal education. The community transport organisation in Ndhiwa and The Kibos Cycle Taxi Association of Kisumu, Western Kenya worked in conjunction with Practical Action East Africa to:

  • enhance the safety of bicycle taxis
  • provide a cycle lane along the Kibos road
  • set up a mini-medical insurance scheme for passengers and operators
  • provide a credit scheme and repair fund for the members

Cost

The bicycle is still expensive for poorer families in Africa and can cost between 20 to over 100 per cent of a rural household’s annual income. Therefore, transport needs to be supported by an affordable system of manufacture, supply, and repair.

Affordability is related to the availability of spare parts and repair services, which are sometime lacking in rural areas. Several projects have attempted to boost local economics by encouraging artisanal production of suitable transport and improve the local capabilities of metal workers to maintain and repair bicycles and other types of transport.

Safety

Many people choose not to cycle due to safety concerns. However, Alan Durning on the Sightline Institute blog argues that cycling is safer than people think - even safer than driving, when all health factors are taken into account (see the argument and analysis at Safe Streets (Bicycle Neglect #9). (No doubt this would vary a lot depending on the location and traffic conditions - Jakarta for example could be expected to be extremely dangerous for cyclists as well as pedestrians - certainly motorcyclists experience a shocking rate of death and injury).

Compare the effects on public health as well. An Australian study concluded that more people die of respiratory conditions due to air pollution from cars, than die from traffic accidents.[verification needed]

Another Australian study compared the exposure to pollution of various modes of transport - walking, driving, transit, and cycling. (what were the exact results? Was this a proper study or just one sample of each, for the What's Good for You? TV program?[Suggested project])

Of course, safety is much greater when wearing a helmet, and this is highly recommended. However, a UK study found that requiring people to wear helmets had resulted in a drop in the number of cyclists, and it was estimated that more people died due to low fitness (heart problems etc) than would have died if they'd been allowed to cycle without helmets.[verification needed] This suggests a more lenient policy - encouraging helmets, but not carrying out actions (in particular fines) that will discourage people from cycling if they hate helmets. Perhaps more comfortable helmets could be designed, as an option for the helmet-averse - safer than going bareheaded, but more likely to be worn.[Suggested project] Another idea might be to allow non-use of helmets on bike paths, but require them when cycling on the roads - though legal penalties should still be weighed carefully, lest cycling be discouraged.

Regardless of the actual safety of cyclists on the road, it seems obvious that safer and more pleasant cycling conditions would lead to more people cycling.

Economic impacts of cycling

Cycling offers various economic benefits:

  • cycleways are cheaper than roads
  • leads to better health, meaning lower medical costs[5] and higher productivity
  • leads to better physical health (obviously - if there is believed to be a safety problem which depends on the particular location, this has to be weighed up as well, as one factor).
  • would be expected to lead to better mental health (less stressful, more enjoyable, plus the
cycling is often quicker than driving, when traffic is heavy, leading to more

Alan Durning on the Sightline Institute blog offers his analysis: Wheels of Fortune (Bicycle Neglect #10)

Social impact of cycling

Social capitalW and happiness in the community are important factors in setting policy. Cycling offers several advantages:

  • Faces are visible and conversation is possible making it possible to connect with and possibly befriend other cyclists and even pedestrians, especially when meeting them on regular commuting or recreational routes.
  • Exercise improves one's mental state.[verification needed]

Bicycles with lever arms

Maurice Houbracken's bicycle

Bicycles can be equipped with lever arms, in order to reduce the effort required for the bicycling. The first bicycle with a lever arm was built by Maurice Houbracken. The effort required "reportedly" reduced the effort required by 50%. After a conversation with the builder though, it is clear that the system was built immediately without much prior designing. This would mean that much improvement is still prossible (ie the lightgreen lever arm could possibly be attached elsewhere, on a more favorable position, and the angle might also be changed). Also, by increasing the lever arm, the fabricator stated that a 100% effort reduction is definitely possible, and perhaps that a redesign is thus useful for other purposes (ie vehicles where the driver takes another position; ie such as with the AT e-velomobile). Also, a similar lever arm could also be used for purposes other than transportation (ie winching, ...).

Electric bicycles

Electric bicycle drivetrain

Bicycles can also be fitted with an electric motor and a battery. If recharged with renewable energy, this is another sustainable option. Less effort means less sweat, but also less of the benefits of exercise. A great option when covering long distances or avoiding sweating (e.g. on the way to work in hot weather).

Bamboo bicycles

Several (traditional-styled) bikes have been produced mainly from bamboo. Price ranges of these vary greatly[6][7][8][9].

Speculation follows: The likely difficulties include:

  • Getting consistent size and shape of bamboo.
  • Consistent mechanical problems (only if mechanical parts are made of bamboo or wood as well).
  • Avoiding splitting by use of special fittings and glue (mentioned in the article) - yet it must still be strong enough to safely carry a rider.
  • Does the bamboo potentially create large splinters in the event of a serious accident? If so, these splinters could cause serious injuries

Benefits of cycling

See Benefits of cycling.

Using cycle power for other purposes

See also Pedal power, Category:Pedal power and Human power.

Charging a mobile device

The bicycle's dynamo can be used to charge a mobile device. See the universal bike charger system and The Cycle Charger

Footnotes and references

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Bicycles_in_developing_contexts
  2. "Bicycle Technology", S.S. Wilson, Scientific American, March 1973
  3. "Johns Hopkins Gazette", 30 August, 1999
  4. "Bicycling Science", Frank R. Whitt, David G. Wilson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1982, ISBN 0-262-23111-5
  5. Whether this is directly a community cost or purely borne by the individual depends on which country is being examined, whether there is a state-funded system.
  6. Bamboo Bike design 1
  7. Sustainable bamboo bikes
  8. [www.calfeedesign.com/products/bamboo/ Calfee bamboo bikes]
  9. Bamboo bike project

[1]

See also

External links

  • Text taken from Bicycles in developing contexts article