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Cradle-to-cradle design (sometimes C2C, cradle 2 cradle, or Regenerative design) is a biomimetic philosophy and practice of design. It approaches design and production as a system, using nature's processes as a model. Materials are viewed as nutrients circulating in a metabolismW.
The term was coined by Walter R. Stahel in Switzerland in the 1970s, applied by the Interface carpet company in the mid-1990s (working with Amory Lovins, Paul Hawken and others), and popularized by William McDonough.
See Waste#Waste separation It should be noted that the cradle-to-cradle envisions far better separation as what's currently done. For example, plastics can then be recycled rather than burned. See Plastics_recovery_manual_4
McDonough divides categorises recycling into Upcycling and Downcycling. The first describes a method of recyling in which the waste material is made more pure, allowing its use in more products/processes. The latter makes the waste material more contaminated with other materials, making it usable in less products/materials.
Examples of finished products
- Cradle-to-cradle shoes have been made through the Nike Considered project.
- The Edag light car
- Rohner Textile AG Climatex-textile
- Biofoam; a cradle-to-cradle alternative to expanded polystyrene
- Sewage sludge processing plants are facilities that create fertiliser from sewage sludge. This approach is green retrofit for the current (inefficient) system of organic waste disposal; as composting toilets are a better approach in the long run.Template:Citation needed
- Energy conservation: every step of production or resource-transformation will require energy input even in a cradle-to-cradle system. The source and impact of this energy must be considered.
- Appropriate technology
- Life cycle assessment
- Lovins, L. Hunter (2008). Rethinking production in State of the World 2008, pp. 38–40.
- Green Guru Gone Wrong: William McDonough, Fast Company, November 1, 2008.
- Nike Considered
- Rohner textile Climatex as cradle-to-cradle certified textile