Get our free book (in Spanish or English) on rainwater now - To Catch the Rain.

Difference between revisions of "Climate change"

From Appropedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Line 1: Line 1:
 
{{topic header| default.png |Climate change}}
 
{{topic header| default.png |Climate change}}
'''Climate change'''{{W|Climate change}} is a significant and lasting change in the weather pattern over a period of decades to periods of millions of years. In this article we discuss the rise in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans since the 19th century to the present (the current '''global warming''').<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming</ref> Global warming is expected to have far greater negative effects on [[developing countries]] as on developed countries.
+
'''Climate change'''{{W|Climate change}} is a significant and lasting change in the Earth's climate over a period of decades to periods of millions of years. In this article we discuss the rise in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans from the 19th century to the present (the current '''global warming''').<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming</ref> Climate change is expected to have far greater negative effects on [[developing countries]] than on developed countries.
  
 
== The science of climate change ==
 
== The science of climate change ==
 
{{main|Science of climate change}}
 
{{main|Science of climate change}}
  
Although the existence of the greenhouse effect has been largely understood since 1896<ref>[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svante_Arrhenius#Greenhouse_effect]</ref>, there are still a tiny minority of scientists who remain critical of specifics written in some reports of the IPCC{{w|Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change}} and other organisations. These people, so-called climate change skeptics{{w|Climate change skeptics}} are generally misinformed or are deliberately attempting to create doubt and uncertainty about the science.
+
Although the existence of the greenhouse effect has been largely understood since 1896<ref>[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svante_Arrhenius#Greenhouse_effect]</ref>, there are still a tiny minority of scientists who remain critical of specifics written in some reports of the IPCC{{w|Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change}} and other organisations. These so-called climate change skeptics{{w|Climate change skeptics}} are generally misinformed or are deliberately attempting to create doubt and uncertainty about the science.
 
   
 
   
 
Certain politicians, lobbyists and economists refer to disinformation from climate change 'skeptics' for their own advantage, portraying an image that climate change does not exist, poses but a minor problem, or may even be beneficial so as to be able to prevent action to reduce greenhouse gases (mostly resulting from the burning of fossil fuels). The GWPF in the UK is an example of a political lobbying group, which is secretly funded to fossil fuel interests.
 
Certain politicians, lobbyists and economists refer to disinformation from climate change 'skeptics' for their own advantage, portraying an image that climate change does not exist, poses but a minor problem, or may even be beneficial so as to be able to prevent action to reduce greenhouse gases (mostly resulting from the burning of fossil fuels). The GWPF in the UK is an example of a political lobbying group, which is secretly funded to fossil fuel interests.
Line 20: Line 20:
 
{{main|Measures to stop global warming}}
 
{{main|Measures to stop global warming}}
  
Several options are available to reduce the global warming. Most of these (the most efficient ones) are lifestyle changes (ie diet, propogation, ...) and can be put in place today. We also do not need to wait for any specific technology to became available. Rather, the essential technology is already here today.<ref>See an overview of the measures needed at http://jnmocc.blogspot.com</ref><ref>Politicians often portray a different picture but it is not based in reality</ref> The options are:
+
Several options are available to reduce the impacts of a changing climate. Most of these (the most efficient ones) are lifestyle changes (i.e. stop the burning of fossil fuels, stop eating meat etc.) and can be put in place today. We also do not need to wait for any specific technology to became available. Rather, the essential technology is already here today. Politicians often portray a different picture but it is not based in reality. Selected options include:
 +
 
 
* Reduce the release of greenhouse gases{{W|Greenhouse gas}} (GHG's) into the atmosphere (ie through energy efficiency, ...)
 
* Reduce the release of greenhouse gases{{W|Greenhouse gas}} (GHG's) into the atmosphere (ie through energy efficiency, ...)
* Prevent carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere (ie through Carbon capture and storage (CCS), [[biochar]], ...). With [[Carbon sequestration]]/CCS, after combusting a fuel, the CO<sub>2</sub> is stored in a cavity underground.
+
* Prevent carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere (ie through carbon capture and storage (CCS), [[biochar]], ...). With [[Carbon sequestration]]/CCS, after combusting a fuel, the CO<sub>2</sub> is stored in a cavity underground.
* Remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, e.g. through [[ocean fertilisation]], planting extra [[trees]], ...
+
* Remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, e.g. through geo-engineering [[ocean fertilisation]], planting extra [[trees]], ...
 
* Shield some of the atmosphere from the sun or reflect a proportion of sunlight back into space (ie by painting roads, parkings and [[White roofs|roofs]] white, spraying sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere, ...)<ref>Note: this direct temperature reduction does not reduce carbon levels, so [[ocean acidification]] from higher carbon dioxide is still a problem</ref>
 
* Shield some of the atmosphere from the sun or reflect a proportion of sunlight back into space (ie by painting roads, parkings and [[White roofs|roofs]] white, spraying sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere, ...)<ref>Note: this direct temperature reduction does not reduce carbon levels, so [[ocean acidification]] from higher carbon dioxide is still a problem</ref>
 
* [[Climate change mitigation]]: build [[heat tolerant houses]] ([[passive solar]] with suitable [[insulation]]), [[flood control]] barriers, ...
 
* [[Climate change mitigation]]: build [[heat tolerant houses]] ([[passive solar]] with suitable [[insulation]]), [[flood control]] barriers, ...
* Grin and bear it: put up with the inconveniences and the expected loss of biodiversity and increases in certain types of [[natural disasters]]
+
* Grin and bear it: put up with the inconveniences and the expected loss of biodiversity and increases in certain types of [[natural disasters]] and wait for extinction.
  
The IPCC already allows/assumes a 2°C temperature rise, so already makes use of the last "option". In addition, it also advises the use of most other measures, yet stays critical of [[geoengineering]] options, due to the dangers involved.
+
The IPCC already considers a 2°C temperature rise is inevitable. In addition, it also advises the use of most other measures, yet stays critical of [[geoengineering]] options, due to the dangers involved.
  
 
==Notes==
 
==Notes==

Revision as of 13:09, 25 October 2014


Default.png    See also the Climate change category.
for subtopics, how-tos, project pages, designs, organization pages and more.


Climate changeW is a significant and lasting change in the Earth's climate over a period of decades to periods of millions of years. In this article we discuss the rise in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans from the 19th century to the present (the current global warming).[1] Climate change is expected to have far greater negative effects on developing countries than on developed countries.

The science of climate change

Although the existence of the greenhouse effect has been largely understood since 1896[2], there are still a tiny minority of scientists who remain critical of specifics written in some reports of the IPCCW and other organisations. These so-called climate change skepticsW are generally misinformed or are deliberately attempting to create doubt and uncertainty about the science.

Certain politicians, lobbyists and economists refer to disinformation from climate change 'skeptics' for their own advantage, portraying an image that climate change does not exist, poses but a minor problem, or may even be beneficial so as to be able to prevent action to reduce greenhouse gases (mostly resulting from the burning of fossil fuels). The GWPF in the UK is an example of a political lobbying group, which is secretly funded to fossil fuel interests.

Uncertainties in the impact of global warming

Natural disasters caused or aggrevated by global warming

Although climate change itself has been proven, there are some remaining uncertainties in predicting the effects. The IPCC is highly confident that impacts will increase as greenhouse gases and associated positve feedback effects kick in (methane release from melting permafrost), though their severity and the timescales may differ to some extent:

  • changing weather patterns (greater or fewer precipitation on specific areas, the weather is also expected to be much more radical). This will negatively affect farming[3][4][5][6]
  • natural disasters (ie mud slides, hurricanes, ...) are expected to occur much more frequently. Death toll in 2003 = 150000 people [7][8]
  • Sea-level rise[9] will contaminate a very large percentage of the agricultural fields with sea salt and make them no longer suitable for continued food production.[10] In addition, many low-lying islands and coastlines will need to be abandoned, forcing many people to move.

Climate change mitigation

Several options are available to reduce the impacts of a changing climate. Most of these (the most efficient ones) are lifestyle changes (i.e. stop the burning of fossil fuels, stop eating meat etc.) and can be put in place today. We also do not need to wait for any specific technology to became available. Rather, the essential technology is already here today. Politicians often portray a different picture but it is not based in reality. Selected options include:

  • Reduce the release of greenhouse gasesW (GHG's) into the atmosphere (ie through energy efficiency, ...)
  • Prevent carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere (ie through carbon capture and storage (CCS), biochar, ...). With Carbon sequestration/CCS, after combusting a fuel, the CO2 is stored in a cavity underground.
  • Remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, e.g. through geo-engineering ocean fertilisation, planting extra trees, ...
  • Shield some of the atmosphere from the sun or reflect a proportion of sunlight back into space (ie by painting roads, parkings and roofs white, spraying sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere, ...)[11]
  • Climate change mitigation: build heat tolerant houses (passive solar with suitable insulation), flood control barriers, ...
  • Grin and bear it: put up with the inconveniences and the expected loss of biodiversity and increases in certain types of natural disasters and wait for extinction.

The IPCC already considers a 2°C temperature rise is inevitable. In addition, it also advises the use of most other measures, yet stays critical of geoengineering options, due to the dangers involved.

Notes

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming
  2. [1]
  3. www.knmi.nl/africa_scenarios/brochure_Afrika.pdf
  4. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Water/images/precipitation_intensity_map.png Precipitation changes
  5. http://climatelab.org/@api/deki/files/462/=Desertification_map.png
  6. One solution is to grow less fragile crops, ie more resistant to changes in watering
  7. 150000 people killed by global warming upto 2003
  8. http://climatelab.org/climate_change_security
  9. Sea level rise: 2m rise expected by 2100 A.D., 6,5m by 2200 A.D.
  10. Earth under water documentary
  11. Note: this direct temperature reduction does not reduce carbon levels, so ocean acidification from higher carbon dioxide is still a problem

See also

Interwiki links

External Links