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This [[Improved cook stoves|Improved Fuel Stove]], or Rocket Stove, is the final project for [[Engr305]] at [[Humboldt State University]]. The project goal is to construct a demonstration rocket stove for the [[Campus Center for Appropriate Technology]] on the campus of Humboldt State University. The rocket stove will serve as an example of improved fuel stove technology and development; students and public touring the center will learn about the design, function and need for improved fuel stoves around the world. The rocket stove will also enable the residents of the center to cook with traditional [[biomass]], reducing their dependence on petroleum based energy sources. It is important to note that rocket stoves are designed for populations around the world who depend on biomass for their cooking fuel. The use of rocket stoves in developed nations is not necessary. Developed nations using modern cooking methods are not faced with health and environmental issues related with traditional cooking methods. The improved fuel stove was designed, built and tested by Daniel Moyer and Tyler Jones. 
  
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Populations increasingly rely on biomass for cooking fuel, thus hindering the next step toward modern cooking methods. Populations in developing nations want the same modern, self cleaning, convection, downdraft stove found in American suburbs. Many people argue that modern cooking methods are more appropriate. Modern cooking methods are efficient at fuel conversion and produce less atmospheric particulates, however the dependence on petroleum hinders the appropriateness of modern cooking methods.
  
==Introduction==
 
Improved cook stoves are an attempt to address the negative environmental and social effects of the three rock fire. Improved Stoves increase efficiency of fuel consumption and reduce the amount of pollution released into indoor cooking environments. Improved fuel stoves designs are constructed with metal  housing and insulating materials enclosing the fire. Improved fuel stoves improve heat transfer and fuel combustion, resulting in a efficient clean burning wood stove. In order to understand why improved fuel stoves are necessary, one must first look at the unhealthy and unsustainable traditional cooking methods.
 
  
===Traditional Three Rock Fire===
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Improved cook stoves are an attempt to address the negative environmental and social effects of the three rock fire. Improved Stoves increase efficiency of fuel consumption and reduce pollution released into indoor cooking environments. Improved fuel stoves designs are constructed with metal housing and insulating materials enclosing the fire. Improved fuel stoves improve heat transfer and fuel combustion, resulting in an efficient clean burning wood stove.
====Definition====
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The rocket stove has social and environmental benefits to the large population in the developing world that have no other alternative than burring biomass for their cooking and heating needs. Rural cultures around the world depend on the three rock fire for there cooking needs. Inefficient methods of cooking places the environment in jeopardy, over harvesting of fuel for cooking can causes damage to vegetation and wildlife. Understanding traditional cooking methods can help explain why improved fuel stoves are an important appropriate technology. “Most cooking fires are surrounded by three of more stones, bricks, mounds of mud of lumps of fireproof material – thus the common name of three rock fire” (Foley, Moss, and Timberlake 1984).
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====Benefits====
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Three rock fires have benefits not found on improved stoves such as; space heating, protection from insects, and the flexibility to use a wide variety of fuels in different seasons. Domestic lighting is one of the important uses of three rock fires, a function that the improved stove cannot perform. “Three rock fires provide light, heat and a social focal point for family and friends” (Foley, Moss, and Timberlake 1984). A three rock fire producing lots of smoke in a riparian or wetland environment might have the added benefit of preventing insect’s bites. The open fire possesses important advantages compared to an improved stove. “It cost nothing and no special materials, tools or skills are needed to construct it” (Foley, Moss, and Timberlake 1984). If the other functions of the three rock fire are not replicated with its replacement then the improved stove is not being judged and evaluated fully. “If the fire is used to provide heat or light at times when cooking is not taking place, then its efficiency can hardly be judged only on the basis of how well it heats pots” (Foley, Moss, and Timberlake 1984).
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====Critiques====
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A large population of people in developing nations depend on traditional three rock fires for cooking; this primitive form of cooking negatively impacts the health of people using the stove and the well being of the natural environment. Two billion people use biomass for cooking and heating worldwide.  Traditional three rock fires are used inside the persons dwelling, usually located on a dirt floor. “Over the last 30 years awareness of the environmental and social costs of using traditional fuels and stoves has grown” (Bryden et al. 2001). Traditional three rock fires pose major obstacles to the environmental, social health and sustainability of society. The most important concern with traditional three rock fires is indoor air quality. Biomass fuels release large amounts of air pollutants when burned on traditional three rock fires. These pollutants become concentrated in inadequately ventilated homes and dwellings. “Several recent studies have identified prolonged exposure to biomass smoke as a significant cause of human health problems” (Barnes 1994). Biomass burned on three rock fires produces harmful soot and ash that become concentrated when confined inside a dwelling, resulting in harmful indoor air conditions. “According to recent estimates by the World Health Organization, up to 1.6 million women and children die every year from breathing polluted air in their homes” (Witt, Weyer, and Manning 2006). Respiratory and vision problems occur in mostly women and children because they spend significant time indoors tending to cooking fires. Another critique with traditional wood fires is the inefficiency in fuel consumption. Traditional wood fires are very efficient at turning wood into energy. However, traditional wood fires are inefficient at transferring the released energy into the cooking vessel. Most of the released energy in the wood is wasted heating the surrounding air rather than heating the cooking vessel. The inefficient transfer of energy requires the user to use more wood fuel, increasing the amount of wood harvested from the surrounding environment. The increased demand for wood can further deplete the already stressed local natural environment. The third critique of traditional wood fires is childhood burns. “Burns are quite common in homes using fire and can be fatal or horribly disfiguring” (Bryden et al. 2001). Children can easily fall into the fire because traditional wood fires are located on the floor. Burns disfigure and scar their victim and the experience can be very painful for both the child and family.
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== Design ==
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===Materials===
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The materials used in the construction of a rocket stoves main body are made from recycled metal barrels. An old lemon oil can was trimmed to the proper dimensions, becoming our pot skirt. The insulated combustion chamber is comprised of ceramic insulated bricks purchased at a local pottery supply store. The chamber is held together with eighteen gauge stainless steel metal plating fastened with 3/8 inch hardware. The hardware used to construct the rocket stove includes machine screws, nuts, washers and sheet metal screws; all of our hardware utilized was purchased from a local hardware store.
  
===Why Improved Fuel Stove are Good===
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===Budget===
====Introduction====
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{| class="wikitable sortable"
A rocket stove is a type of improved biomass stove. Improved stoves reduce the demand for biomass fuel and improve living conditions for populations who currently use three rock fires. The main justifications for improved stoves are economical, social, and environmental. Stove programs can produce economic benefits. The stove saves time and money for the users. In urban areas, were people purchase biomass fuel, the payback time for the cost of a improved stove is short, thus providing extra cash from purchasing less fuel. “In rural areas, more efficient stove can reduce the time spent collecting fuel for cooking, freeing time for child care and income-producing activities” (Barnes 1994). Improved stoves can help moderate the environmental externalities of over harvesting trees.
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|-
====Indoor Air Quality====
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!Item
Indoor air quality is the main driving factor in the decimation programs around the developing third world. Soot and ash produced when cooking with traditional three rock fires creates unhealthy amounts of indoor air particulates, resulting in respiratory and breathing issues. Improved indoor air quality and fuel efficiency have social and health benefits, especially for women and children. In order to reduce indoor air pollution, improved stoves must improve combustion of the wood fuel. Improving combustion reduces the amount of smoke and harmful emissions produced during the burning process. “A hotter fire burns up more combustible gases and produces less smoke” (Bryden et al. 2001). The key to having efficient combustion is to burn wood at a high temperature. Several methods can be used to increases the temperature of the fire. Having a good air draft into the fire is essential to increasing combustion temperature. Insulation around the fire can help the fire to burn hotter. “Lift the burning sticks up off the ground so that air can scrape under the sticks and through the charcoal” (Witt, Weyer, and Manning 2006). The most important factor in improving combustion is metering the fuel. Metering the fuel allows only the burning portion of the wood to be heated. “Meter the sticks into the combustion chamber to make a hot, fierce, jumpy looking fire that does not make charcoal” (Bryden et al. 2001). Fully burned biomass fuel produces less smoke and harmful emissions reducing indoor air pollution.
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!Cost
====Fuel Efficiency====
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|-
Improved Fuel stoves can reduce the amount of wood fuel needed to cook. Improving the heat transfer efficiency of energy from the fire to the cooking vessel reduces the amount of energy wasted, thus reducing the amount of wood needed. In order to improve the fuel efficiency of rocket stoves you must improve the heat transfer from the fire to the cooking vessel. The crucial factor in improving stove efficiency is having the hot air and gas released from the fire, contact the cooking vessel in the largest possible surface area. This is accomplished through the use of a pot skirt that creates a narrow channel forcing hot air and gas to rub along the bottom and sides of the cooking vessel. Increasing heat transfer can also be accomplished through the use of wide pots. “Using a wide pot creates more surface are to increase the transfer of heat” (Witt, Weyer, and Manning 2006). Increasing the speed of the hot gases that rub against the pot can improve heat transfer. Improved stoves are insulated and lifted off of the floor preventing childhood burns.
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| Insulated ceramic bricks
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| $29.60
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|-
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| 8 Quart Stock Pot
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| $19.99
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|-
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| Ceramic brick cement
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| $3.95
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|-  
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| 2 square feet Sheet Metal
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| $19.99
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|-
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| Misc. Nuts, Bolts and Fasteners
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| $20.00
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|-
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| 8 Quart Stock Pot
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| $8.49
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|-
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| 16 Gallon Drum
 +
| Free
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|-class="sortbottom"
 +
! Total
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| $84.02
 +
|}
  
===Stove Programs===
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[[Image:improvedfuelstove.jpg|thumb|Fig.1:Combustion chamber]]
====Obstacles====
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[[Image:improvedfuel1_1.jpg|thumb|Fig1.1: Metal Case]]
Improved stove programs face many political, social and economic obstacles that must be addressed if an improved stove program is going to succeed. The major obstacles to the success of improved stove programs in rural areas is freely available biomass resources leads people to continue to rely on biomass for cooking. Improved stove programs have failed in areas were fuel is not purchased or fuel is easy to collect. “Many stove programs have failed because the target group have no shortage of wood or do not perceive shortages and thus see no pressing reason to adopt improved stove” (Barnes 1994). Stove programs must be conducted in areas that have a need for improved stoves. “Programs must be targeted carefully to situations in which people pay high prices for fuel or walk long distances to collect fuel wood to other biomass materials” (Barnes 1994). Ease of use is a major concern where stoves require fuel wood to be cut into small pieces. Stove users that have neither the time nor the tools to cut the wood into small sizes, may result in the improved stove going unused. “No matter how efficient or cheap the stove, individual households have proved reluctant to adopt it if it is difficult to install and maintain or less convenient and lass adaptable to local preferences than its traditional counterpart” (Barnes 1994). The high price of the improved stoves can be a formidable barrier to their adoption. “Although in the long run improved fuel stoves save money, the initial cash outlay required may prevent poorer people from affording the stove” (Barnes 1994).
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[[Image:improvedfuel1_5.jpg|thumb|Fig1.2: Combustion chamber inside the barrel]]
====Ways to Succeed====
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[[Image:Improvedfuelstove1.jpg|thumb|Fig.2.1: Metal Bracket]]
Stove programs have a better chance of success in urban areas where people buy both the fuel and the stove. Programs in rural areas succeed where fuel wood has already been harvested and people are spending extended periods of time gathering fuel. Improved stoves that have a quick payback period generally are more likely to be adopted in poorer rural areas. “Programs have been most effective where households pay relatively high prices for wood fuels; in such cases, the improved stoves can pay for themselves in fuel savings very rapidly, even though they are usually more expensive to produce and buy than traditional stoves” (Barnes 1994). Targeting specific areas where cooking fuel is expensive can ensure improved stoves to be quickly adopted and purchased. The evaluation of improved stoves is an important in understanding how and why improvements and changes in design should be implemented.
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[[Image:improvedfuel1_4.jpg|thumb|Fig.2.2: Barrel filled with Vermiculite ]]
====Indigenous Culture====
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[[Image:improvedfuelstove6.jpg|thumb|Fig.3: Sheet metal shelf]]
The respect for indigenous culture is important in the improved stove design. Feedback and a two way interaction with local users should be designed in any improved stove program. “Stove dissemination programs are most effective when they allow for interaction and feedback between designers, producers, and users” (Barnes 1994). Stoves need to be adapted to each region around the world. The different styles of cooking in various countries dictate different stove designs. “Stoves should be modified or redesigned to meet regional requirements” (Barnes 1994). Improved stoves are most successful where local knowledge and customs are taken into account. “Households have been most receptive when the dissemination process takes full account of the capacities and the needs of local stove producers and consumers” (Barnes 1994). Stove programs do best in areas where people have an unequivocal need to save fuel and the improved stoves can be produced cheaply by local industries or artisans. “Improved stoves are most popular when they are easily and locally manufactured and have clear advantages in fuel economy, durability, ease of use, and cleanliness” (Barnes 1994). Populations utilizing improved stove realize the benefits and advantages to their health and local environment.
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[[Image:improvedfuel1_2.jpg|thumb|Fig4.1: Skirt]]
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[[Image:improvedfuel7.jpg|thumb|Fig.4.2: Skirt inside barrel]] 
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[[Image:improvedfuel1_3.jpg|thumb|Fig5.1: Lid]]
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[[Image:improvedfuel9.jpg|thumb|Fig.5.2: Complete Rocket Stove]]
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[[Image:improvedfuel8.jpg|thumb|Fig.6: Stainless steel pot]]
  
 
 
==Design==
 
===Materials===
 
Materials used in the construction of the rocket stove main body are made from recycled metal barrles. A old lemon oil can was trimmed to the proper dimensions, becoming our pot skirt. The insulated combustion chamber is comprised of ceramic insulated bricks purchased at a local pottery supply store. The chamber is held together with eighteen gauge stainless steel metal plating fastened with 3/8 inch hardware. The hardware used to construct the rocket stove includes machine screws, nuts, washers and sheet metal screws; all hardware utilized was purchased from a local hardware store.
 
===Budget===
 
*Insulation
 
*Stock Pot 10"
 
*Hardware
 
 
===Construction Steps===
 
===Construction Steps===
#We built our square combustion chamber out of insulative bricks. The bricks were extensively shaped using a hack saw. Heat resistant putty was used as sealant.  
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#The square combustion chamber was constructed out of insulative bricks. Bricks were cut and shaped using a hack saw. Heat resistant putty was used as sealant.
#We built a case for the combustion chamber to sit in using sheet metal. The metal was cut out with tin snips and fastened with screws at the edges.  
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#A metal bracket supports a sheet metal case that holds the combustion chamber in place. The metal was cut out with tin snips and fastened with screws at the edges.  
#We used a drill and tin snips to cut a square out of the barrel corresponding to the dimensions of the metal casing. The casing for the combustion chamber fits into the hole, protruding on both sides.  
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#Drill and tin snips are used to cut a square out of the barrel corresponding to the dimensions of the metal casing. The casing for the combustion chamber fits into the hole, protruding on both sides.
#The casing is firmly secured to a metal beam that streatches across the barel. This beam is secured on both sides with L brackets.  
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#The casing is firmly secured to a metal beam that stretches across the barrel. This beam is secured on both sides with L brackets.  
 
#Vermiculite is poured into the barrel in order to insulate the combustion chamber. This insulation fills the space between the chamber and the barrel and is filled as high as the top of the chamber.
 
#Vermiculite is poured into the barrel in order to insulate the combustion chamber. This insulation fills the space between the chamber and the barrel and is filled as high as the top of the chamber.
#At the top opening of the combustion chamber we constructed a metal shelf. This shelf is circular and perfectly fits inside of the barrel. It has a square cut in it corresponding to the top opening of the combustion chamber. This allows for gasses to pass through, but seals them off from the bottom half of the barrel. The shelf is secured firmly to the outside of the barrel with L brackets and screws.  
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#At the top opening of the combustion chamber we constructed a metal shelf. This shelf is circular and perfectly fits inside of the barrel. It has a square cut in it corresponding to the top opening of the combustion chamber. This allows for gasses to pass through, but seals them off from the bottom half of the barrel. The shelf is secured firmly to the outside of the barrel with L brackets and screws.
#In the top half of the barrel, we constructed a skirt. This skirt surrounds the cooking pot, leaving a small gap on the bottom and the sides. The skirt was constructed out of a can. We used a grinder to cut a square opening in the bottom to chanel the hot gasses. The top of the can was cut completely open. This skirt is fastened to the shelf with screws and washers. The washers provide a resting area for the pot, creating gap between the bottom of the skirt and the bottom of the pot. 
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#In the top half of the barrel, we constructed a skirt. This skirt surrounds the cooking pot, leaving a small gap on the bottom and the sides. The skirt was constructed out of a can. We used tin snips to cut a square opening in the bottom to channel the hot gasses. The top of the can was cut completely open with a Sawzall. The skirt is fastened to the shelf with screws and washers.  
#The pot is inserted into an opening in the top of the barrel. Here we have cut out a circle with the grinder and then carefully bent the metal down at a right angle using square pliers and a mallet This way the pot is extra sealed and the opening for it is not jagged or sharp.  
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#The pot is inserted into an opening in the top of the barrel. Here we have cut out a circle with tin snips and then carefully bent the metal down at a right angle using square pliers and a mallet. This way the pot is extra sealed and the opening for it is not jagged or sharp.
 
#We cut a hole  out of the upper side of the barrel and fastened a circular metal chimney over the hole using screws.  
 
#We cut a hole  out of the upper side of the barrel and fastened a circular metal chimney over the hole using screws.  
#To use our rocket stove, burn fuel inside the combusion chamber and set the pot inside the skirt.
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#To use our rocket stove, burn fuel inside the combustion chamber and set the pot inside the skirt.
  
 
===Design Principles===
 
===Design Principles===
#A well constructed rocket stove will allow for air to circulate. With this in mind, it is important to provide an even pathway for the air. The chimny, the combustion chamber and the skirt gap should all have the same cross-sectional area.
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#A well constructed rocket stove will allow for air to circulate. With this in mind, it is important to provide an even pathway for the air. The chimney, the combustion chamber and the skirt gap should all have the same cross-sectional area.
 
#Unless oxygen is being circulated, the fire will smother. When building the combustion chamber it is necessary to provide a shelf for the fuel. This way, fresh air will be pulled underneath the burning fuel.  
 
#Unless oxygen is being circulated, the fire will smother. When building the combustion chamber it is necessary to provide a shelf for the fuel. This way, fresh air will be pulled underneath the burning fuel.  
#The chimny should be short, reaching just above the cookpot. This allows for hot gasses to flow more rapidly through the system.  
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#The chimney should be short, reaching just above the cookpot. This allows for hot gasses to flow more rapidly through the system.  
#Heat will radiate from the combustion chamber. For imporved efficiency, insulate arround the chamber.  
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#Heat will radiate from the combustion chamber. For improved efficiency, insulate around the chamber.
  
==Testing==
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== Testing ==
Testing is essential to rocket stove projects. Testing should happen throughout the entire life of a stove project. The evaluation of improved stoves helps determine if the model is marketable, whether production costs are as low as possible, and if improvements are needed. “Careful testing of stoves has resulted in a more accurate understanding of how to make a better stove. Without experimentation and testing, the development of a stove is based on conjecture” (Bryden et al. 2001). Technical advances in energy efficiency alone will not ensure success. Stove programs must be complemented by appropriate project design, implementation and proper institutional support. Without proper testing, stove programs will have unrealistic expectation of the efficiency of improved stoves. Stove programs can overestimate the efficiency of improved stoves when tested in a controlled lab setting. Improved stoves never do as well in real households. “The fuel savings that can be attained in a laboratory often have little relationship to savings possible under field conditions” (Witt, Weyer, and Manning 2006). Many stove programs in controlled lab settings achieved a 75% reduction in fuel consumption. After examination of early stove programs, fuel efficiency expectations of improved stoves has been substantially reduced. “Most people in the stove community now agree that a 50% decrease in fuel consumption should be considered a major achievement and that should be content with a savings of 25% or even less” (Barnes 1994). Laboratory settings can be valuable with designing and initial testing of improved stoves; testing in field conditions can ensure the final product is built and designed correctly. Producing a stove design that adheres and conforms to local culture is vital in ensuring a successful stove program.
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Testing is essential to rocket stove projects. Testing should happen throughout the entire life of a stove project. The evaluation of improved stoves helps determine if the model is marketable, whether production costs are as low as possible, and if improvements are needed. "Careful testing of stoves has resulted in a more accurate understanding of how to make a better stove. Without experimentation and testing, the development of a stove is based on conjecture". Technical advances in energy efficiency alone will not ensure success. Stove programs must be complemented by appropriate project design, implementation and proper institutional support. Without proper testing, stove programs will have unrealistic expectation of the efficiency of improved stoves. Stove programs can overestimate the efficiency of improved stoves when tested in a controlled lab setting. Improved stoves never do as well in real households. "The fuel savings that can be attained in a laboratory often have little relationship to savings possible under field conditions" <ref name="Barnes">Barnes, Douglas F. "What Makes People Cook With Improved Biomass Stoves." Worldbank.org. World Bank. Web. 03 Oct. 2011. <http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1999/08/15/000009265_3970311122727/Rendered/INDEX/multi_page.txt>.
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</ref>. Many stove programs in controlled lab settings achieved a 75% reduction in fuel consumption. After examination of early stove programs, fuel efficiency expectations of improved stoves have been substantially reduced. "Most people in the stove community now agree that a 50% decrease in fuel consumption should be considered a major achievement and that should be content with a savings of 25% or even less" <ref name="Barnes" />. Laboratory settings can be valuable with designing and initial testing of improved stoves; testing in field conditions can ensure the final product is built and designed correctly. Producing a stove design that adheres and conforms to local culture is vital in ensuring a successful stove program.
  
 
===Types of Testing===  
 
===Types of Testing===  
The field water boil test will be used to evaluate the efficiency of the our improved fuel stove.  
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In testing our stove, we wanted to find out how long it would take to boil water and how much wood was being used. We also inspected the ashes to determine if the wood was fully combusted. Ultimately we did three types of tests.
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 +
# We boiled water from a cold start and from hot start. Hot start means that we started the test when there was already wood burning. The starting temperature for the water was sixty three degrees. 
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# We maintained a boil for 30 minutes. We did not start the clock until all of the wood that initially brought the water to a boil had burned out. This gave us more accurate results.
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===Results===
 
===Results===
No results as yet. Testing to start soon.
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# It took 13 minutes and .36 pounds of wood to heat four liters of water 108 <sup>o</sup>F. This was done from a cold start (nothing burning initially). The starting temperature was 62<sup>o</sup>F and the final temperature was 170<sup>o</sup>F.
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# From a hot start, it took 10 minutes and .56 pounds of wood to heat the same volume of water 149 <sup>o</sup>F. The starting temperature was 63 <sup>o</sup>F and the final temperature was 212 <sup>o</sup>F.
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# From a hot start, it took 11 minutes and .72 pounds of wood to heat six liters of water 146 <sup>o</sup>F. The starting temperature was 64 <sup>o</sup>F and the final temperature was 210 <sup>o</sup>F.
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# To keep six liters of water boiling for half of an hour it took .18 pounds of wood. The starting temperature was 212 <sup>o</sup>F and the final temperature was 210 <sup>o</sup>F.
  
==Lit Review==
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== Conclusion ==
*Barnes, D.F., K. Openshaw., K.R. Smith., and R.V. Plas. What Makes People Cook with Improved Biomass Stoves? World Bank Technical Paper No. 242. Energy Series. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
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The results of our testing demonstrated that the project was a success. The first thing that we noticed was that the air circulation is excellent. We never had a problem getting enough air into the fire or with having smoke back out of the combustion chamber. This makes starting a fire very easy. Also, we were happy to see that there were hardly any ashes left over. The wood burned hot and combusted completely. Although the top of the stove gets hot when the fire is burning fast, the vermiculite does a very good job of insulating the bottom part. The lower half of the stove never got too hot to touch and the very base never even got warm. Once a fire is going, it must be tended regularly. As well as adding new wood as the fire burns, it is important to constantly push burning pieces all the way into the chamber. Our stove is very efficient. To cook spaghetti in our stove would require roughly one pound of wood and would take only a few minutes longer than a regular stove. By using a lot of wood and creating a big flame, it is possible to boil water quickly. With less wood, the same amount of water can be boiled but it takes longer. It takes a lot of wood to heat water initially, but to keep it boiling requires very little wood. One pound of wood would keep six liters of water boiling for about two and a half hours. When our stove is burning, the pot and the skirt get a lot of soot. Periodically, it will be necessary to clean this soot out.  
This publication from the World Bank gives a comparison of stove programs throughout the third world. The paper gives an overview of the general lessons from stove programs: consumer preferences, stove design, role of government and donor agencies and the role of subsidies. The paper presents the role of politics in improved stove programs; considerable information regarding the emergence of government based stove programs is included in the paper. Advantages of included the stove market and consumer preferences section. This topic was not specificity addressed in any other publication. The main disadvantage of this publication is the role to the publisher. The World Bank has provided this paper with good intentions that must be questioned.
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*Bryden, Mark., Dean Still., Damon Ogle., and Nordica MacCarty. 2001. Designing Improved Wood Burning Heating Stoves. Creswell, OR: Aprovecho Research Center.
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*Foley, G., P. Moss, and L. Timberlake. 1984. Stoves and Trees: how much wood would a woodstove save if a woodstove could save wood?. London and Washington D.C.: Earthscan.
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This publication addresses the very political nature of improved stove programs. The book informs the reader of: domestic fuels, current and past stove programs, and why improved stove programs should be used. The main advantage of this publication is the focus on stove programs success and failures and the books ability to refer to African societies past experiences with improved stove design. The books main disadvantage is the lack of any design or construction ideas for rocket stove design. Sections are included that refer to measuring efficiency and testing performance.
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*Witt, Mark., Kristina Weyer., David Manning. 2006. Designing a Clean Burning, High Efficiency, Dung Burning Stove: Lessons in cooking with cow patties. Creswell, OR: Aprovecho Research Center.
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==Conclusion==
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In building a rocket stove, we learned some important things. First, it would be possible to construct this type of stove using only recycled materials. The hardware would be the most difficult to find. It would also be possible to construct our rocket stove with out the use of power tools. We could have used a hammer and spike instead of a drill. We also could have used a hacksaw instead of a Sawzall. We only used this tool once, to cut the skirt out. As we anticipated, the top of the stove got hot. If our stove was placed inside of another barrel and insulated, it would be more user-friendly. Personally, I would rather deal with the hot surface than to put more work into the stove. In a situation where there were children using the stove, the hot metal could be dangerous. The one thing that our stove lacks is a shelf for extra long pieces of wood to rest on while they are combusting.    
Populations around the world are going to continue to use biomass fuel for the indefinite future. The use of improved stoves can help control the external costs to both the environment and human society. “It seems inevitable that an increasing amount of biomass fuel will be bought and burned in purchased stoves” (Barnes 1994). Fuel savings may not be the driving factor in the adaptation of improved stoves. Improved stoves work because they make cooking quicker, safer, and cleaner. Improved stoves protect children from the dangers of burns from the open fire, reduce respiratory diseases, and burn clean and free of soot.  
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Populations around the world are going to continue to use biomass fuel for the indefinite future. The use of improved stoves can help control the external costs to both the environment and human society. "It seems inevitable that an increasing amount of biomass fuel will be bought and burned in purchased stoves" <ref name="Barnes" />. Fuel savings may not be the driving factor in the adaptation of improved stoves. Improved stoves work because they make cooking quicker, safer, and cleaner. Improved stoves protect children from the dangers of burns from the open fire, reduce respiratory diseases, and burn clean and free of soot.
  
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== Update ==
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Logan Ward and Erik Rasmussen
  
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On September 11, we visited the rocket stove at CCAT to check on how it's doing and update the page a little. The stove is in decent condition but there are a few areas that the stove could be improved. The rocket stove has gone through a few very minor changes since its creation. Recently, it received a fresh paint job. Also, the chimney has been lengthened considerably. As you can see from previous pictures, the original chimney was rather short. The new chimney is much taller and has a cap on the top. We also left a laminated informational piece to hang around the chimney and let people know what the rocket stove is and information about rocket stoves in general.
  
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== Updated Testing ==
 +
We met up with Dan and tested the stove. It appeared as if the stove hadn’t been used in quite a few years.
 +
 
 +
*The first step was to wash the cookpot
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*Then, we gathered pieces of kindling 1’ to 1.5’ long.  The kindling weighed a total of .44 lbs
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*After that, we filled the pot with water and placed it in the skirt
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*Next, we started burning the pieces of wood in the combustion chamber. We also added dead grass to the kindling.
 +
 
 +
*The water came to a rapid boil within 7 minutes and 25 seconds.
 +
 
 +
*The water's temperature was measured at 150 degrees Fahrenheit.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
We observed a few problem areas. The vermiculite used to insulate the combustion chamber is old and could be replaced.  Also, there are small gaps between the combustion chamber and the metal case of the barrel, which may have decreased the concentration of the heat around the pot and the low temperature of the boiling water. These gaps could easily be filled in by some kind of heat resistant sealant. Also, it was unclear if the addition of the longer chimney improved the flow of gasses or not. As noted earlier the chimney should be short, reaching just above the cookpot so the lengthened chimney might have actually hindered the flow of gases. Also, the bricks in the combustion chamber may need some replacing as well. If this stove was being consistently used, it would probably be a good idea to address these concerns as you would want your stove in prime running condition.
 +
 
 +
<gallery>
 +
Image:rocket_stove1.jpg|Fig 1: Erik and Dan feeding the stove
 +
Image:rocket_stove2.jpg|Fig 1a: View inside the beast
 +
Image:rocket_stove3.jpg|Fig 1b: Temperature reading
 +
Image:rocket_stove4.jpg|Fig 1c: View from above without the cookpot
 +
Image:rocket_stove5.jpg|Fig 1d: Laminated information hanging from the stove
 +
</gallery>
 +
 
 +
== October 2014 Update ==
 +
Updated by Jacob Carroll-Johnson and Carlos A. Sanchez
 +
 
 +
It looked like the rocket stove has not been used in quite some time. Reasons for not using the rocket stove is easy of use. Its difficult to light and once it is lit it's hard to stay lit. The bottoms of pots get scorched. It also becomes very smokey when using. The weather has taken its toll on it. I was bummed out that we couldn’t test it out and see actual results. We are planning on going back to do some testing and see how it compares with when it was first built.We will post results once we run some tests.
 +
 
 +
We proceed with the analytical analysis. The first thing that we noticed was the smoke flute and the laminated information were gone. Rust has taken its toll on the stove.The top and bottom have taken the most hit from it. There are some holes from the rust going all the way through the top. So the top will soon need to be replaced. The bottom also has been affected. It appears that the rust has eaten the metal, and is now really thin at the bottom. No holes yet but maybe in the near future. There doesn't seem to be much continuity of the rocket.
 +
Moving on to the combustion chamber. The heat resistant sealant that was used to seal the ceramic bricks is almost completely gone.  The bottom brick is also in bad shape. When we wiggled the bottom brick we saw that only one big chunk moved. We also noticed that the back part of the combustion chamber had cracks.
 +
 
 +
Test results will be posted soon.
 +
 
 +
<gallery>
 +
Image:DSC 4950.JPG|Fig 1: General view
 +
Image:DSC 4936.JPG|Fig 1d: Rust
 +
Image:DSC 4937.JPG|Fig 1a: Rust holes on top
 +
Image:DSC 4940.JPG|Fig 1b: Combustion chamber
 +
Image:DSC 4952.JPG|Fig 1c: Back wall cracks
 +
 
 +
</gallery>
 +
 
 +
== See also ==
 +
*[http://www.aprovecho.org/ Aprovecho Research Center]
 +
*[http://www.bioenergylists.org/stovesdoc/Still/Rocket%20Stove/Principles.html Larry Winiarski's Rocket Stove]
 +
*[[WaterPod Rocket Stove]]
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Engr305 Appropriate Technology]]
 +
[[Category:Rocket stoves]]
 
[[Category:Projects]]
 
[[Category:Projects]]
[[Category:Improved cook stoves]]
+
[[Category:CCAT|R]]
 +
 
 +
== References ==
 +
<references/>

Latest revision as of 23:24, 19 November 2017

This Improved Fuel Stove, or Rocket Stove, is the final project for Engr305 at Humboldt State University. The project goal is to construct a demonstration rocket stove for the Campus Center for Appropriate Technology on the campus of Humboldt State University. The rocket stove will serve as an example of improved fuel stove technology and development; students and public touring the center will learn about the design, function and need for improved fuel stoves around the world. The rocket stove will also enable the residents of the center to cook with traditional biomass, reducing their dependence on petroleum based energy sources. It is important to note that rocket stoves are designed for populations around the world who depend on biomass for their cooking fuel. The use of rocket stoves in developed nations is not necessary. Developed nations using modern cooking methods are not faced with health and environmental issues related with traditional cooking methods. The improved fuel stove was designed, built and tested by Daniel Moyer and Tyler Jones.

Populations increasingly rely on biomass for cooking fuel, thus hindering the next step toward modern cooking methods. Populations in developing nations want the same modern, self cleaning, convection, downdraft stove found in American suburbs. Many people argue that modern cooking methods are more appropriate. Modern cooking methods are efficient at fuel conversion and produce less atmospheric particulates, however the dependence on petroleum hinders the appropriateness of modern cooking methods.


Improved cook stoves are an attempt to address the negative environmental and social effects of the three rock fire. Improved Stoves increase efficiency of fuel consumption and reduce pollution released into indoor cooking environments. Improved fuel stoves designs are constructed with metal housing and insulating materials enclosing the fire. Improved fuel stoves improve heat transfer and fuel combustion, resulting in an efficient clean burning wood stove.

Design[edit]

Materials[edit]

The materials used in the construction of a rocket stoves main body are made from recycled metal barrels. An old lemon oil can was trimmed to the proper dimensions, becoming our pot skirt. The insulated combustion chamber is comprised of ceramic insulated bricks purchased at a local pottery supply store. The chamber is held together with eighteen gauge stainless steel metal plating fastened with 3/8 inch hardware. The hardware used to construct the rocket stove includes machine screws, nuts, washers and sheet metal screws; all of our hardware utilized was purchased from a local hardware store.

Budget[edit]

Item Cost
Insulated ceramic bricks $29.60
8 Quart Stock Pot $19.99
Ceramic brick cement $3.95
2 square feet Sheet Metal $19.99
Misc. Nuts, Bolts and Fasteners $20.00
8 Quart Stock Pot $8.49
16 Gallon Drum Free
Total $84.02
Fig.1:Combustion chamber
Fig1.1: Metal Case
Fig1.2: Combustion chamber inside the barrel
Fig.2.1: Metal Bracket
Fig.2.2: Barrel filled with Vermiculite
Fig.3: Sheet metal shelf
Fig4.1: Skirt
Fig.4.2: Skirt inside barrel
Fig5.1: Lid
Fig.5.2: Complete Rocket Stove
Fig.6: Stainless steel pot

Construction Steps[edit]

  1. The square combustion chamber was constructed out of insulative bricks. Bricks were cut and shaped using a hack saw. Heat resistant putty was used as sealant.
  2. A metal bracket supports a sheet metal case that holds the combustion chamber in place. The metal was cut out with tin snips and fastened with screws at the edges.
  3. Drill and tin snips are used to cut a square out of the barrel corresponding to the dimensions of the metal casing. The casing for the combustion chamber fits into the hole, protruding on both sides.
  4. The casing is firmly secured to a metal beam that stretches across the barrel. This beam is secured on both sides with L brackets.
  5. Vermiculite is poured into the barrel in order to insulate the combustion chamber. This insulation fills the space between the chamber and the barrel and is filled as high as the top of the chamber.
  6. At the top opening of the combustion chamber we constructed a metal shelf. This shelf is circular and perfectly fits inside of the barrel. It has a square cut in it corresponding to the top opening of the combustion chamber. This allows for gasses to pass through, but seals them off from the bottom half of the barrel. The shelf is secured firmly to the outside of the barrel with L brackets and screws.
  7. In the top half of the barrel, we constructed a skirt. This skirt surrounds the cooking pot, leaving a small gap on the bottom and the sides. The skirt was constructed out of a can. We used tin snips to cut a square opening in the bottom to channel the hot gasses. The top of the can was cut completely open with a Sawzall. The skirt is fastened to the shelf with screws and washers.
  8. The pot is inserted into an opening in the top of the barrel. Here we have cut out a circle with tin snips and then carefully bent the metal down at a right angle using square pliers and a mallet. This way the pot is extra sealed and the opening for it is not jagged or sharp.
  9. We cut a hole out of the upper side of the barrel and fastened a circular metal chimney over the hole using screws.
  10. To use our rocket stove, burn fuel inside the combustion chamber and set the pot inside the skirt.

Design Principles[edit]

  1. A well constructed rocket stove will allow for air to circulate. With this in mind, it is important to provide an even pathway for the air. The chimney, the combustion chamber and the skirt gap should all have the same cross-sectional area.
  2. Unless oxygen is being circulated, the fire will smother. When building the combustion chamber it is necessary to provide a shelf for the fuel. This way, fresh air will be pulled underneath the burning fuel.
  3. The chimney should be short, reaching just above the cookpot. This allows for hot gasses to flow more rapidly through the system.
  4. Heat will radiate from the combustion chamber. For improved efficiency, insulate around the chamber.

Testing[edit]

Testing is essential to rocket stove projects. Testing should happen throughout the entire life of a stove project. The evaluation of improved stoves helps determine if the model is marketable, whether production costs are as low as possible, and if improvements are needed. "Careful testing of stoves has resulted in a more accurate understanding of how to make a better stove. Without experimentation and testing, the development of a stove is based on conjecture". Technical advances in energy efficiency alone will not ensure success. Stove programs must be complemented by appropriate project design, implementation and proper institutional support. Without proper testing, stove programs will have unrealistic expectation of the efficiency of improved stoves. Stove programs can overestimate the efficiency of improved stoves when tested in a controlled lab setting. Improved stoves never do as well in real households. "The fuel savings that can be attained in a laboratory often have little relationship to savings possible under field conditions" [1]. Many stove programs in controlled lab settings achieved a 75% reduction in fuel consumption. After examination of early stove programs, fuel efficiency expectations of improved stoves have been substantially reduced. "Most people in the stove community now agree that a 50% decrease in fuel consumption should be considered a major achievement and that should be content with a savings of 25% or even less" [1]. Laboratory settings can be valuable with designing and initial testing of improved stoves; testing in field conditions can ensure the final product is built and designed correctly. Producing a stove design that adheres and conforms to local culture is vital in ensuring a successful stove program.

Types of Testing[edit]

In testing our stove, we wanted to find out how long it would take to boil water and how much wood was being used. We also inspected the ashes to determine if the wood was fully combusted. Ultimately we did three types of tests.

  1. We boiled water from a cold start and from hot start. Hot start means that we started the test when there was already wood burning. The starting temperature for the water was sixty three degrees.
  2. We maintained a boil for 30 minutes. We did not start the clock until all of the wood that initially brought the water to a boil had burned out. This gave us more accurate results.

Results[edit]

  1. It took 13 minutes and .36 pounds of wood to heat four liters of water 108 oF. This was done from a cold start (nothing burning initially). The starting temperature was 62oF and the final temperature was 170oF.
  2. From a hot start, it took 10 minutes and .56 pounds of wood to heat the same volume of water 149 oF. The starting temperature was 63 oF and the final temperature was 212 oF.
  3. From a hot start, it took 11 minutes and .72 pounds of wood to heat six liters of water 146 oF. The starting temperature was 64 oF and the final temperature was 210 oF.
  4. To keep six liters of water boiling for half of an hour it took .18 pounds of wood. The starting temperature was 212 oF and the final temperature was 210 oF.

Conclusion[edit]

The results of our testing demonstrated that the project was a success. The first thing that we noticed was that the air circulation is excellent. We never had a problem getting enough air into the fire or with having smoke back out of the combustion chamber. This makes starting a fire very easy. Also, we were happy to see that there were hardly any ashes left over. The wood burned hot and combusted completely. Although the top of the stove gets hot when the fire is burning fast, the vermiculite does a very good job of insulating the bottom part. The lower half of the stove never got too hot to touch and the very base never even got warm. Once a fire is going, it must be tended regularly. As well as adding new wood as the fire burns, it is important to constantly push burning pieces all the way into the chamber. Our stove is very efficient. To cook spaghetti in our stove would require roughly one pound of wood and would take only a few minutes longer than a regular stove. By using a lot of wood and creating a big flame, it is possible to boil water quickly. With less wood, the same amount of water can be boiled but it takes longer. It takes a lot of wood to heat water initially, but to keep it boiling requires very little wood. One pound of wood would keep six liters of water boiling for about two and a half hours. When our stove is burning, the pot and the skirt get a lot of soot. Periodically, it will be necessary to clean this soot out.

In building a rocket stove, we learned some important things. First, it would be possible to construct this type of stove using only recycled materials. The hardware would be the most difficult to find. It would also be possible to construct our rocket stove with out the use of power tools. We could have used a hammer and spike instead of a drill. We also could have used a hacksaw instead of a Sawzall. We only used this tool once, to cut the skirt out. As we anticipated, the top of the stove got hot. If our stove was placed inside of another barrel and insulated, it would be more user-friendly. Personally, I would rather deal with the hot surface than to put more work into the stove. In a situation where there were children using the stove, the hot metal could be dangerous. The one thing that our stove lacks is a shelf for extra long pieces of wood to rest on while they are combusting.

Populations around the world are going to continue to use biomass fuel for the indefinite future. The use of improved stoves can help control the external costs to both the environment and human society. "It seems inevitable that an increasing amount of biomass fuel will be bought and burned in purchased stoves" [1]. Fuel savings may not be the driving factor in the adaptation of improved stoves. Improved stoves work because they make cooking quicker, safer, and cleaner. Improved stoves protect children from the dangers of burns from the open fire, reduce respiratory diseases, and burn clean and free of soot.

Update[edit]

Logan Ward and Erik Rasmussen

On September 11, we visited the rocket stove at CCAT to check on how it's doing and update the page a little. The stove is in decent condition but there are a few areas that the stove could be improved. The rocket stove has gone through a few very minor changes since its creation. Recently, it received a fresh paint job. Also, the chimney has been lengthened considerably. As you can see from previous pictures, the original chimney was rather short. The new chimney is much taller and has a cap on the top. We also left a laminated informational piece to hang around the chimney and let people know what the rocket stove is and information about rocket stoves in general.

Updated Testing[edit]

We met up with Dan and tested the stove. It appeared as if the stove hadn’t been used in quite a few years.

  • The first step was to wash the cookpot
  • Then, we gathered pieces of kindling 1’ to 1.5’ long. The kindling weighed a total of .44 lbs
  • After that, we filled the pot with water and placed it in the skirt
  • Next, we started burning the pieces of wood in the combustion chamber. We also added dead grass to the kindling.
  • The water came to a rapid boil within 7 minutes and 25 seconds.
  • The water's temperature was measured at 150 degrees Fahrenheit.


We observed a few problem areas. The vermiculite used to insulate the combustion chamber is old and could be replaced. Also, there are small gaps between the combustion chamber and the metal case of the barrel, which may have decreased the concentration of the heat around the pot and the low temperature of the boiling water. These gaps could easily be filled in by some kind of heat resistant sealant. Also, it was unclear if the addition of the longer chimney improved the flow of gasses or not. As noted earlier the chimney should be short, reaching just above the cookpot so the lengthened chimney might have actually hindered the flow of gases. Also, the bricks in the combustion chamber may need some replacing as well. If this stove was being consistently used, it would probably be a good idea to address these concerns as you would want your stove in prime running condition.

October 2014 Update[edit]

Updated by Jacob Carroll-Johnson and Carlos A. Sanchez

It looked like the rocket stove has not been used in quite some time. Reasons for not using the rocket stove is easy of use. Its difficult to light and once it is lit it's hard to stay lit. The bottoms of pots get scorched. It also becomes very smokey when using. The weather has taken its toll on it. I was bummed out that we couldn’t test it out and see actual results. We are planning on going back to do some testing and see how it compares with when it was first built.We will post results once we run some tests.

We proceed with the analytical analysis. The first thing that we noticed was the smoke flute and the laminated information were gone. Rust has taken its toll on the stove.The top and bottom have taken the most hit from it. There are some holes from the rust going all the way through the top. So the top will soon need to be replaced. The bottom also has been affected. It appears that the rust has eaten the metal, and is now really thin at the bottom. No holes yet but maybe in the near future. There doesn't seem to be much continuity of the rocket. Moving on to the combustion chamber. The heat resistant sealant that was used to seal the ceramic bricks is almost completely gone. The bottom brick is also in bad shape. When we wiggled the bottom brick we saw that only one big chunk moved. We also noticed that the back part of the combustion chamber had cracks.

Test results will be posted soon.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Barnes, Douglas F. "What Makes People Cook With Improved Biomass Stoves." Worldbank.org. World Bank. Web. 03 Oct. 2011. <http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1999/08/15/000009265_3970311122727/Rendered/INDEX/multi_page.txt>.