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Difference between revisions of "Air travel in academia"
Revision as of 21:57, 13 February 2020
Air travel is an essential part of the professional lives of many academics, and a major source of pollution from that sector. In the context of the climate crisis, there have been appeals to reduce air travel by replacing it with other modes of transportation, replacing it with videoconferencing, or renouncing inessential trips.
- 1 Role of air travel in academia
- 2 Attitudes of academics and their institutions
- 3 Emissions and their reduction
- 4 Activism
- 5 External links
- 6 References
Role of air travel in academia
The individual emissions of academic researchers are high compared to other professionals, "primarily as a result of emissions from flying to conferences, project meetings, and fieldwork". Beyond their usefulness for doing research, these travels are motivated by career incentives, as decisions to award faculty positions or research funding depend in part on the applicants' activity as speakers at international conferences. Touristic opportunities also contribute to motivating these travels, which are considered as a perk of the profession. the While conferences and meetings are important for exchanging ideas and nurturing professional relationships, this can also be done using alternative modes of communication such as videoconferencing and social media. It has been argued that the benefits of face-to-face meetings might be outweighed by the benefits of the alternatives, such as reaching wider communities.
Attitudes of academics and their institutions
A 2014 study of three New Zealand universities found that rhetoric on sustainability coexisted with assumptions about the necessity to travel, and policies that encouraged travel.
Emissions and their reduction
The CO2 emissions for a single conference trip were estimated to 7% of an average individual’s total CO2 emissions. The total emissions of scientists travelling to conferences for presenting papers were estimated to 0.228% of international aviation emissions in 2008.
In a case study of a PhD project, mobility represented 75% of the carbon footprint, which could have been reduced by 44% using videoconferencing. The total emissions were 21.5t CO2-eq or 2.69t CO2-eq per peer-reviewed paper. (In comparison, the carbon footprint of computers, printers, etc is estimated to only 5.44kg CO2-eq per paper.)
Estimated possible reductions
Optimizing the locations of the conferences of the International Biogeography Society could reduce emissions by about 20%, according to a 2014 study.
Consequences of scientists' emissions on their credibility
Important motivations for scientists to fly less are to lead by example, and to be more credible when communicating to the public on climate change. These motivations are particularly important in the case of climate scientists.
Voluntary reduction in air travel
Some academics reduce or stop flying in order to reduce their individual carbon footprints and/or to lead by example.
- "Towards a culture of low-carbon research for the 21st Century". Tyndall Working Paper 161. Retrieved 2020-02-09.
- Fois, Mauro; Cuena-Lombraña, Alba; Fristoe, Trevor; Fenu, Giuseppe; Bacchetta, Gianluigi (2016). "Reconsidering alternative transportation systems to reach academic conferences and to convey an example to reduce greenhouse gas emissions". History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences (Springer Science and Business Media LLC) 38 (4). doi:10.1007/s40656-016-0126-x. ISSN 0391-9714.
- Hopkins, Debbie; Higham, James; Tapp, Sarah; Duncan, Tara (2015-09-12). "Academic mobility in the Anthropocene era: a comparative study of university policy at three New Zealand institutions". Journal of Sustainable Tourism (Informa UK Limited) 24 (3): 376–397. doi:10.1080/09669582.2015.1071383. ISSN 0966-9582.
- Spinellis, Diomidis; Louridas, Panos (2013-06-26). Bohrer, Gil. ed. "The Carbon Footprint of Conference Papers". PLoS ONE (Public Library of Science (PLoS)) 8 (6): e66508. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066508. ISSN 1932-6203.
- Achten, Wouter M.J.; Almeida, Joana; Muys, Bart (2013). "Carbon footprint of science: More than flying". Ecological Indicators (Elsevier BV) 34: 352–355. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.05.025. ISSN 1470-160X.
- Song, Guobao; Che, Li; Zhang, Shushen (2016). "Carbon footprint of a scientific publication: A case study at Dalian University of Technology, China". Ecological Indicators (Elsevier BV) 60: 275–282. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.06.044. ISSN 1470-160X.
- Stroud, James T.; Feeley, Kenneth J. (2014-12-02). "Responsible academia: optimizing conference locations to minimize greenhouse gas emissions". Ecography (Wiley) 38 (4): 402–404. doi:10.1111/ecog.01366. ISSN 0906-7590.
- Rosen, Julia (2017). "Sustainability: A greener culture". Nature (Springer Science and Business Media LLC) 546 (7659): 565–567. doi:10.1038/nj7659-565a. ISSN 0028-0836.
- Attari, Shahzeen Z.; Krantz, David H.; Weber, Elke U. (2016-06-16). "Statements about climate researchers’ carbon footprints affect their credibility and the impact of their advice". Climatic Change (Springer Science and Business Media LLC) 138 (1-2): 325–338. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1713-2. ISSN 0165-0009.
- Holthaus, Eric (2014-10-02). "I Went a Year Without Flying to Help Fight Climate Change". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 2020-02-09.