https://www.appropedia.org/api.php?action=feedcontributions&user=Noh2&feedformat=atomAppropedia - User contributions [en]2019-09-19T02:51:45ZUser contributionsMediaWiki 1.26.0https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=93515How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-11T23:15:06Z<p>Noh2: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
The purpose of this page is to describe low technology methods to determine flow of small streams and rivers. <br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
Flow can be found for pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, high technology is used such as meters. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref name="Flow Rate"> Engineers Edge. (2000). Fluid Volumetric Flow Rate - Fluid Flow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Engineer's Edge website: http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket. <ref name="Water Flow"> Trimmer, W.L. (1994 September). Estimating Water Flow. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from Oregon State University website: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
<br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|+'''Bucket Method Data for Flow'''<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|400px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<ref name="Stream Flow"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Streamflow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref> (L. Grafman, personal communication, November 2, 2009.)<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-10 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream. Throw the float into the water at differnet distances from the shoreline in order to gain a more accuartate average.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.85. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref name="Float Method"> Harrelson, Cheryl C; Rawlins, C. L; and Potyondy John P. (1994, April). Stream Channel Reference Sites. Retreived December 11, 2009, from USDA website: http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref name="Microhydropower"> Klunne, Wim Jonker. (2009, June). Hydropower Basics: Measurement of Flow. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Microhydropower website: http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref name="Weir"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Weir. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. It is primarily used in measuring discharge. <ref name="Meters"> Geo-Scientific Ltd. (2001). Flow and Current Meters. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo-Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref name="Flow Meters"> Cahner Publishing Company. (1984, November 21). Liquid Flowmeters. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Omega Engineering website: http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref name="Flow Probe"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Global Flow Probe. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. Can be used in large bodies of water like oceans to measure the current. <ref name="Current Meter"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Swoffer Current Meter. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
*http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
*http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=93479How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-11T23:06:28Z<p>Noh2: /* Beth's Comments */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
The purpose of this page is to focus on using low technology hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers. Flow can also be found for pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, high technology is used such as meters. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <ref name="Flow Rate"> Engineers Edge. (2000). Fluid Volumetric Flow Rate - Fluid Flow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Engineer's Edge website: http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket. <ref name="Water Flow"> Trimmer, W.L. (1994 September). Estimating Water Flow. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from Oregon State University website: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
<br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|+'''Bucket Method Data for Flow'''<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|400px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<ref name="Stream Flow"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Streamflow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref> (L. Grafman, personal communication, November 2, 2009.)<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-10 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream. Throw the float into the water at differnet distances from the shoreline in order to gain a more accuartate average.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.85. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref name="Float Method"> Harrelson, Cheryl C; Rawlins, C. L; and Potyondy John P. (1994, April). Stream Channel Reference Sites. Retreived December 11, 2009, from USDA website: http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref name="Microhydropower"> Klunne, Wim Jonker. (2009, June). Hydropower Basics: Measurement of Flow. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Microhydropower website: http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref name="Weir"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Weir. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. It is primarily used in measuring discharge. <ref name="Meters"> Geo-Scientific Ltd. (2001). Flow and Current Meters. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo-Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref name="Flow Meters"> Cahner Publishing Company. (1984, November 21). Liquid Flowmeters. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Omega Engineering website: http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref name="Flow Probe"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Global Flow Probe. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. Can be used in large bodies of water like oceans to measure the current. <ref name="Current Meter"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Swoffer Current Meter. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
*http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
*http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=93473How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-11T23:05:29Z<p>Noh2: /* Bucket method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
The purpose of this page is to focus on using low technology hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers. Flow can also be found for pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, high technology is used such as meters. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <ref name="Flow Rate"> Engineers Edge. (2000). Fluid Volumetric Flow Rate - Fluid Flow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Engineer's Edge website: http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket. <ref name="Water Flow"> Trimmer, W.L. (1994 September). Estimating Water Flow. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from Oregon State University website: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
<br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|+'''Bucket Method Data for Flow'''<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|400px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<ref name="Stream Flow"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Streamflow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref> (L. Grafman, personal communication, November 2, 2009.)<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-10 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream. Throw the float into the water at differnet distances from the shoreline in order to gain a more accuartate average.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.85. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref name="Float Method"> Harrelson, Cheryl C; Rawlins, C. L; and Potyondy John P. (1994, April). Stream Channel Reference Sites. Retreived December 11, 2009, from USDA website: http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref name="Microhydropower"> Klunne, Wim Jonker. (2009, June). Hydropower Basics: Measurement of Flow. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Microhydropower website: http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref name="Weir"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Weir. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. It is primarily used in measuring discharge. <ref name="Meters"> Geo-Scientific Ltd. (2001). Flow and Current Meters. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo-Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref name="Flow Meters"> Cahner Publishing Company. (1984, November 21). Liquid Flowmeters. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Omega Engineering website: http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref name="Flow Probe"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Global Flow Probe. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. Can be used in large bodies of water like oceans to measure the current. <ref name="Current Meter"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Swoffer Current Meter. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
*http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
*http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=93451How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-11T23:02:48Z<p>Noh2: /* Float method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
The purpose of this page is to focus on using low technology hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers. Flow can also be found for pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, high technology is used such as meters. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <ref name="Flow Rate"> Engineers Edge. (2000). Fluid Volumetric Flow Rate - Fluid Flow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Engineer's Edge website: http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket. <ref name="Water Flow"> Trimmer, W.L. (1994 September). Estimating Water Flow. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from Oregon State University website: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
<br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|400px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<ref name="Stream Flow"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Streamflow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref> (L. Grafman, personal communication, November 2, 2009.)<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-10 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream. Throw the float into the water at differnet distances from the shoreline in order to gain a more accuartate average.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.85. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref name="Float Method"> Harrelson, Cheryl C; Rawlins, C. L; and Potyondy John P. (1994, April). Stream Channel Reference Sites. Retreived December 11, 2009, from USDA website: http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref name="Microhydropower"> Klunne, Wim Jonker. (2009, June). Hydropower Basics: Measurement of Flow. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Microhydropower website: http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref name="Weir"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Weir. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. It is primarily used in measuring discharge. <ref name="Meters"> Geo-Scientific Ltd. (2001). Flow and Current Meters. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo-Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref name="Flow Meters"> Cahner Publishing Company. (1984, November 21). Liquid Flowmeters. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Omega Engineering website: http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref name="Flow Probe"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Global Flow Probe. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. Can be used in large bodies of water like oceans to measure the current. <ref name="Current Meter"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Swoffer Current Meter. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
*http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
*http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=93444How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-11T23:02:14Z<p>Noh2: /* Float method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
The purpose of this page is to focus on using low technology hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers. Flow can also be found for pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, high technology is used such as meters. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <ref name="Flow Rate"> Engineers Edge. (2000). Fluid Volumetric Flow Rate - Fluid Flow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Engineer's Edge website: http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket. <ref name="Water Flow"> Trimmer, W.L. (1994 September). Estimating Water Flow. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from Oregon State University website: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
<br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|400px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<ref name="Stream Flow"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Streamflow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref> (L. Grafman, personal communication, November 2, 2009.)<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-10 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream. Throw the float into the water at differnet distances from the shoreline in order to gain a more accuartate average.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.85. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref name="Float Method"> Harrelson, Cheryl C. Rawlins, C. L. and Potyondy John P. (1994, April). Stream Channel Reference Sites. Retreived December 11, 2009, from USDA website: http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref name="Microhydropower"> Klunne, Wim Jonker. (2009, June). Hydropower Basics: Measurement of Flow. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Microhydropower website: http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref name="Weir"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Weir. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. It is primarily used in measuring discharge. <ref name="Meters"> Geo-Scientific Ltd. (2001). Flow and Current Meters. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo-Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref name="Flow Meters"> Cahner Publishing Company. (1984, November 21). Liquid Flowmeters. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Omega Engineering website: http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref name="Flow Probe"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Global Flow Probe. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. Can be used in large bodies of water like oceans to measure the current. <ref name="Current Meter"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Swoffer Current Meter. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
*http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
*http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=93422How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-11T22:58:00Z<p>Noh2: /* Float method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
The purpose of this page is to focus on using low technology hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers. Flow can also be found for pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, high technology is used such as meters. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <ref name="Flow Rate"> Engineers Edge. (2000). Fluid Volumetric Flow Rate - Fluid Flow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Engineer's Edge website: http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket. <ref name="Water Flow"> Trimmer, W.L. (1994 September). Estimating Water Flow. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from Oregon State University website: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
<br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|400px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<ref name="Stream Flow"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Streamflow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref> (L. Grafman, personal communication, November 2, 2009.)<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-10 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream. Throw the float into the water at differnet distances from the shoreline in order to gain a more accuartate average.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.85. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref name="Microhydropower"> Klunne, Wim Jonker. (2009, June). Hydropower Basics: Measurement of Flow. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Microhydropower website: http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref name="Weir"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Weir. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. It is primarily used in measuring discharge. <ref name="Meters"> Geo-Scientific Ltd. (2001). Flow and Current Meters. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo-Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref name="Flow Meters"> Cahner Publishing Company. (1984, November 21). Liquid Flowmeters. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Omega Engineering website: http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref name="Flow Probe"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Global Flow Probe. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. Can be used in large bodies of water like oceans to measure the current. <ref name="Current Meter"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Swoffer Current Meter. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
*http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
*http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=93414How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-11T22:56:38Z<p>Noh2: /* Float method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
The purpose of this page is to focus on using low technology hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers. Flow can also be found for pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, high technology is used such as meters. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <ref name="Flow Rate"> Engineers Edge. (2000). Fluid Volumetric Flow Rate - Fluid Flow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Engineer's Edge website: http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket. <ref name="Water Flow"> Trimmer, W.L. (1994 September). Estimating Water Flow. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from Oregon State University website: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
<br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|400px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<ref name="Stream Flow"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Streamflow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref> (L. Grafman, personal communication, November 2, 2009.)<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-10 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream. Throw the float into the water at differnet distances from the shoreline in order to gain a more accuartate average.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref name="Microhydropower"> Klunne, Wim Jonker. (2009, June). Hydropower Basics: Measurement of Flow. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Microhydropower website: http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref name="Weir"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Weir. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. It is primarily used in measuring discharge. <ref name="Meters"> Geo-Scientific Ltd. (2001). Flow and Current Meters. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo-Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref name="Flow Meters"> Cahner Publishing Company. (1984, November 21). Liquid Flowmeters. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Omega Engineering website: http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref name="Flow Probe"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Global Flow Probe. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. Can be used in large bodies of water like oceans to measure the current. <ref name="Current Meter"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Swoffer Current Meter. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
*http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
*http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=93399How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-11T22:52:08Z<p>Noh2: /* Float method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
The purpose of this page is to focus on using low technology hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers. Flow can also be found for pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, high technology is used such as meters. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <ref name="Flow Rate"> Engineers Edge. (2000). Fluid Volumetric Flow Rate - Fluid Flow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Engineer's Edge website: http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket. <ref name="Water Flow"> Trimmer, W.L. (1994 September). Estimating Water Flow. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from Oregon State University website: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
<br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|400px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<ref name="Stream Flow"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Streamflow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref> (L. Grafman, personal communication, November 2, 2009.)<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref name="Microhydropower"> Klunne, Wim Jonker. (2009, June). Hydropower Basics: Measurement of Flow. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Microhydropower website: http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref name="Weir"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Weir. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. It is primarily used in measuring discharge. <ref name="Meters"> Geo-Scientific Ltd. (2001). Flow and Current Meters. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo-Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref name="Flow Meters"> Cahner Publishing Company. (1984, November 21). Liquid Flowmeters. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Omega Engineering website: http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref name="Flow Probe"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Global Flow Probe. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. Can be used in large bodies of water like oceans to measure the current. <ref name="Current Meter"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Swoffer Current Meter. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
*http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
*http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=93377How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-11T22:46:54Z<p>Noh2: /* Flow */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
The purpose of this page is to focus on using low technology hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers. Flow can also be found for pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, high technology is used such as meters. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <ref name="Flow Rate"> Engineers Edge. (2000). Fluid Volumetric Flow Rate - Fluid Flow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Engineer's Edge website: http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket. <ref name="Water Flow"> Trimmer, W.L. (1994 September). Estimating Water Flow. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from Oregon State University website: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
<br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|400px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<ref name="Stream Flow"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Streamflow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref name="Microhydropower"> Klunne, Wim Jonker. (2009, June). Hydropower Basics: Measurement of Flow. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Microhydropower website: http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref name="Weir"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Weir. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. It is primarily used in measuring discharge. <ref name="Meters"> Geo-Scientific Ltd. (2001). Flow and Current Meters. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo-Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref name="Flow Meters"> Cahner Publishing Company. (1984, November 21). Liquid Flowmeters. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Omega Engineering website: http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref name="Flow Probe"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Global Flow Probe. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. Can be used in large bodies of water like oceans to measure the current. <ref name="Current Meter"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Swoffer Current Meter. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
*http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
*http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=93376How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-11T22:46:42Z<p>Noh2: /* Flow */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
The purpose of this page is to focus on using low technology hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers. Flow can also be found for pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, high technology is used such as meters. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
<br />
<ref name="Flow Rate"> Engineers Edge. (2000). Fluid Volumetric Flow Rate - Fluid Flow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Engineer's Edge website: http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket. <ref name="Water Flow"> Trimmer, W.L. (1994 September). Estimating Water Flow. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from Oregon State University website: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
<br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|400px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<ref name="Stream Flow"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Streamflow. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref name="Microhydropower"> Klunne, Wim Jonker. (2009, June). Hydropower Basics: Measurement of Flow. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Microhydropower website: http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref name="Weir"> Wikipedia. (2009, October). Weir. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. It is primarily used in measuring discharge. <ref name="Meters"> Geo-Scientific Ltd. (2001). Flow and Current Meters. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo-Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref name="Flow Meters"> Cahner Publishing Company. (1984, November 21). Liquid Flowmeters. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from Omega Engineering website: http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref name="Flow Probe"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Global Flow Probe. Retrieved November 7, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. Can be used in large bodies of water like oceans to measure the current. <ref name="Current Meter"> Geo Scientific Ltd. (2001). Swoffer Current Meter. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Geo Scientific Ltd. website: http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
*http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
*http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91929How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T21:32:56Z<p>Noh2: /* Beth's Comments */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers. Flow can also be found for pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|400px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91917How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T21:28:18Z<p>Noh2: /* Flow */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers. Flow can also be found for pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|400px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91915How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T21:27:57Z<p>Noh2: /* Flow */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers. Flow can also be found through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|400px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91911How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T21:27:09Z<p>Noh2: /* Flow */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers and can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|400px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91899How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T21:22:46Z<p>Noh2: /* Beth's Comments */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|400px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91894How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T21:20:13Z<p>Noh2: /* Float method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|400px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91890How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T21:19:28Z<p>Noh2: /* Bucket method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|450px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91889How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T21:19:09Z<p>Noh2: /* Bucket method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|left]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|450px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91887How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T21:18:51Z<p>Noh2: /* Weirs */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|450px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|left|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91886How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T21:18:36Z<p>Noh2: /* Float method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|thumb|Figure Three: Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|450px|right]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream (see Figure Three). This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|right|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91882How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T21:17:21Z<p>Noh2: /* Weirs */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|450px|left]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream. This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|right|thumb|Figure Four: An example of a V-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in Figure Four. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91878How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T21:16:30Z<p>Noh2: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A flowing mountaian stream|thumb|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|450px|left]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream. This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|right|An example of a v-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in figure 4. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91862How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T21:12:12Z<p>Noh2: /* Bucket method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A mountain stream with high flow|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|thumb|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|450px|left]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream. This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|right|An example of a v-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in figure 4. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91856How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T21:09:56Z<p>Noh2: /* Bucket method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A mountain stream with high flow|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see Figure Four). <br />
#With a stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. Start the stopwatch simultaneously with the start of the bucket being filled and stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills. The bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|450px|left]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream. This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|right|An example of a v-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in figure 4. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91806How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T20:57:33Z<p>Noh2: /* Float method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A mountain stream with high flow|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see below). <br />
#With the stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. It is important to start the stopwatch simultaneously with the bucket being filled and to stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills therefore more than one person is needed here. Also note that the bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is also a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|Finding the flow rate using a float and a meter stick.|450px|left]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream. This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|right|An example of a v-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in figure 4. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91801How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T20:56:59Z<p>Noh2: /* Float method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A mountain stream with high flow|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see below). <br />
#With the stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. It is important to start the stopwatch simultaneously with the bucket being filled and to stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills therefore more than one person is needed here. Also note that the bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is also a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|Finding the flow rate using a float and meter stick.|450px|left]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream. This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|right|An example of a v-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in figure 4. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91797How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T20:56:21Z<p>Noh2: </p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|Figure One: A mountain stream with high flow|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see below). <br />
#With the stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. It is important to start the stopwatch simultaneously with the bucket being filled and to stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills therefore more than one person is needed here. Also note that the bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is also a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|450px|left|Finding the flow rate using a float and meter stick.]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream. This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|right|An example of a v-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in figure 4. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91789How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T20:55:26Z<p>Noh2: /* Bucket method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see below). <br />
#With the stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. It is important to start the stopwatch simultaneously with the bucket being filled and to stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills therefore more than one person is needed here. Also note that the bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is also a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|Figure Two: An example of the Bucket Method|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|450px|left|Finding the flow rate using a float and meter stick.]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream. This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|right|An example of a v-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in figure 4. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91768How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T20:51:33Z<p>Noh2: /* Flow */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels as seen in Figure One. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see below). <br />
#With the stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. It is important to start the stopwatch simultaneously with the bucket being filled and to stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills therefore more than one person is needed here. Also note that the bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is also a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|450px|left|Finding the flow rate using a float and meter stick.]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream. This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|right|An example of a v-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in figure 4. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91760How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T20:49:58Z<p>Noh2: /* Flow */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use flow data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, etc. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see below). <br />
#With the stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. It is important to start the stopwatch simultaneously with the bucket being filled and to stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills therefore more than one person is needed here. Also note that the bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is also a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|450px|left|Finding the flow rate using a float and meter stick.]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream. This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|right|An example of a v-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in figure 4. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91729How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T20:46:17Z<p>Noh2: /* Flow */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find the flow in through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use the data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, and various others. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see below). <br />
#With the stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. It is important to start the stopwatch simultaneously with the bucket being filled and to stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills therefore more than one person is needed here. Also note that the bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is also a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|450px|left|Finding the flow rate using a float and meter stick.]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream. This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|right|An example of a v-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in figure 4. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91715How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T20:44:58Z<p>Noh2: /* Beth's Comments */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find he flow in through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use the data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, and various others. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see below). <br />
#With the stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. It is important to start the stopwatch simultaneously with the bucket being filled and to stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills therefore more than one person is needed here. Also note that the bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is also a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|450px|left|Finding the flow rate using a float and meter stick.]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream. This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|right|An example of a v-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in figure 4. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91709How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T20:43:22Z<p>Noh2: /* Float method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find he flow in through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use the data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, and various others. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see below). <br />
#With the stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. It is important to start the stopwatch simultaneously with the bucket being filled and to stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills therefore more than one person is needed here. Also note that the bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is also a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|450px|left|Finding the flow rate using a float and meter stick.]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream. This method is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This calculation is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|right|An example of a v-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in figure 4. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
* See W2 - search your document<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=How_to_measure_stream_flow_rate&diff=91697How to measure stream flow rate2009-12-10T20:41:49Z<p>Noh2: /* Bucket method */</p>
<hr />
<div>{{115inprogress|December 18th, 2009}} <br />
<br />
<br />
[[File:Stream.jpg|300px|right]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==Flow ==<br />
Flow is the total volume of a fluid that flows past a fixed point in a river or stream over time. It is comparable to the speed at which a volume of fluid travels. Volumetric flow rates can be measured in various units such as:<br />
*liters/sec<br />
*cubic feet/sec (cfs)<br />
*gallons/min (gpm)<br />
*cubic meters/sec <br />
This page focuses on using hand methods to find the flow of streams and small rivers but can also be used to find he flow in through pipes, sewage systems, and household appliances. People use the data for [[Microhydro]] systems, waste-water information, settling rates, water table statistics, and various others. To find the flow of larger water bodies such as dams or major rivers, meters are used. Meters are described briefly in this page.<br />
<ref>Source of Information - http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/volumeetric_flow_rate.htm</ref><br />
<br />
==Measuring Flow==<br />
There are numerous ways to measure flow rate which include: <br />
=== Bucket method ===<br />
<br />
The Bucket method is a simple way to measure the flow rate using household items. It requires a stopwatch, a large bucket, and two to three people. <br />
<br />
#Measure the volume of the bucket or container. <br />
#Find a location along the stream that has a waterfall. If none can be found, a waterfall can be constructed using a weir (see below). <br />
#With the stopwatch, time how long it takes the waterfall to fill the bucket with water. It is important to start the stopwatch simultaneously with the bucket being filled and to stop the stopwatch when the bucket fills therefore more than one person is needed here. Also note that the bucket should not be filled by holding it below the surface of the stream because it is not the true flow rate. <br />
#Record the time it takes to fill the bucket. <br />
#Repeat steps two and three about six or seven times and take the average. It is also a good idea to do a few trial runs before recording any data so that one can get a feel for the timing and measurements required. <br />
#Only eliminate data if major problems arise such as debris from the stream interfering with the flow. <br />
#The flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided by the average time it took to fill the bucket.<ref> Source of Information - http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1369.pdf</ref><br />
[[Image:BucketMethod.jpg|300px|right]]<br />
<br>Here is an example using data found for the flow rate of the Jolly Giant Creek on [http://humboldt.edu/ Humboldt State University]grounds:<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Trial Number<br />
! Time (seconds)<br />
! Bucket Volume (gallons)<br />
|-<br />
| 1<br />
| 13.2<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 2<br />
| 14<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 3<br />
| 14.5<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 4<br />
| 13<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 5<br />
| 13.4<br />
| 5<br />
|-<br />
| 6<br />
| 13.1<br />
| 5<br />
|}<br />
Using this data, the volumetric flow rate (Q) is equal to the volume of the bucket (v) divided by the average time (t).<br><br />
<math>Q=v/t</math><br><br />
where <math>t=(13.2+14+14.5+13+13.4+13.1)sec/6 trials</math> <br><br />
so t=13.5 seconds<br />
<br>and v= 5 gallons<br />
<br><br><br />
<math>Q=5 gallons/ 13.5 seconds</math><br><br />
The flow rate Q= 0.37 gallons per second<br><br />
or 22.2 gallons per minute<br />
<br />
===Float method=== <br />
[[File:Float Method.jpg|450px|left|Finding the flow rate using a float and meter stick.]]<br />
<br />
The float method (also known as the cross-sectional method) is used to measure the flow rate for larger streams and rivers. It is found by multiplying a cross sectional area of the stream by the velocity of the water.<br />
# Locate a spot in the stream that will act as the cross section of the stream.<br />
# Using a meter stick, or some other means of measurement, measure the depth of the stream at equal intervals along the width of the stream. This is similar to hand calculating a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riemann_sum Riemann sum]for the width of the river.<br />
# Once this data is gathered, multiply each depth by the interval it was taken in and add all the amounts together. This is the area of a cross section of the stream.<br />
# Decide on a length of the stream, typically longer than the width of the river, to send a floating object down (oranges work great).<br />
# Using a stopwatch, measure the time it takes the float to travel down the length of stream from step 4.<br />
# Repeat step five 5-6 times and determine the average time taken for the float to travel the stream.<br />
# Divide the stream length found in step 4 by the average time in step 6 to determine the average velocity of the stream.<br />
# The velocity found in step 7 must be multiplied by a friction correction factor. Since the top of a stream flows faster than the bottom due to friction against the stream bed, the friction correction factor evens out the flow. For rough or rocky bottoms, multiply the velocity by 0.8. For smooth, muddy, sandy, or smooth bedrock conditions, multiply the velocity by a correction factor of 0.9. <ref> Source of Information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamflow</ref><br />
# The corrected velocity multiplied by the cross sectional area yields the flow rate in volume/time. (Be sure to keep consistent units of length/distance when measuring the cross section and the velocity eg. meters, feet)<br />
<br />
===Weirs===<br />
[[File:Weir.jpg|400px|right|An example of a v-notch weir]]<br />
<br />
Weirs are small dams that can be used in measuring flow rate for small to medium sized streams (a few meters or wider). They allow overflow of the stream to pour over the top of the weir, creating a waterfall, as seen in figure 4. Weirs increase the change in elevation making the streamflow more consistent which makes flow rate measurements more precise. However, it is very important that all the water in the stream be directed into the weir for it to accurately represent the stream flow. It is also important to keep sediment from building up behind the weir. Sharp crested weirs work best. <ref> Source of information - http://microhydropower.net/basics/flow.php</ref><br />
There are many different types of weirs which include broad crested weirs, sharp crested weirs, combination weirs, V-notch weirs and minimum energy loss weirs. <ref> Source of information - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weir</ref><br />
<br /><br /><br />
<br />
===Meters===<br />
Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. There are many different types of meters by the most common is the Pygmy meter, the vortex meter, the flow probe, and the current meter: They are briefly described.<br />
<br />
<gallery><br />
File:PygmyMeter.jpg|'''Pygmy meter''': a wheel is rotated by water flow and the rate of the rotation signifies the water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/index.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:VORTEXmeter.JPG|'''Vortex meter''': velocity is proportional to the downstream frequency of the vortex flow and is read on a digital readout. It is used for measuring flow in pipes. <ref> Source of information - http://www.omega.com/techref/flowcontrol.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:FlowProbe.JPG|'''Flow probe''': the flow turns a propeller that sends the water velocity data to a digital readout display in ft/s or m/s <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Flow_Probe.html</ref><br />
<br />
File:CurrentMeter.jpg|'''Current meter''': electronic pulses determine water velocity. <ref> Source of information - http://www.geoscientific.com/flowcurrent/Swoffer2100_CurrentMeter.html</ref><br />
</gallery><br />
<br />
==Further reading==<br />
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate<br><br />
http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/class/ME449/lectures/pdf/flowRateSlides_2up.pdf<br />
<br />
==References==<br />
<references /><br />
<br />
==Beth's Comments==<br />
* L1 - Check out C-12. Can you bring in an image to draw the reader into the first screen?<br />
* Does Lonny want you to discuss WHY we are interested in stream flow rates? For Appropedia... there might be interest for microhydro installations. Also, your page seems to focus on flow rate for smaller water bodies (streams) and not rivers. If my interpretation is correct, you could state this information at the beginning of your page.<br />
* Review Ben's peer review comments for additional questions to answer. I had similar questions.<br />
* Your table of contents seems straight forward. There is high tech equipment available for flow measurements, but it is not so appropriate tech oriented. See if Lonny wants you to cover other methods.<br />
* I would avoid headings that are questions. Instead, use statements.<br />
* read through all the editing codes.<br />
* See W-1 - avoid "get rid of"<br />
* Be sure to cite the source of your data<br />
* Refer to tables, using Table numbers. (C5)<br />
* Check for spelling errors... I saw a float when I think you meant flow. ... meadium....<br />
* Use this reference, as it explains the standard protocol http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF Be sure to check the float method in this reference, as I think your description of the float method does not agree<br />
* See W2 - search your document<br />
* I think you should provide an example for the float method as well. Your example idea is very helpful and clarifies the instructions.<br />
* Check that you are using correct conventions (e.g. C3,C5,C6,C8,C9)<br />
* Vortex meter is not so relevant to stream flow measurement. Can you clarify how a current meter and a pygmy meter are different?<br />
* Can you include an example calculation for a weir?<br />
* See the reference http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/publications/PDFs/RM245E.PDF for how to use a flow meter.<br />
* Appears that Monica is doing most of the editing?<br />
<br />
[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=Talk:RCEA_energy_audit_reviews/Wildberries_Marketplace&diff=81260Talk:RCEA energy audit reviews/Wildberries Marketplace2009-11-05T07:10:17Z<p>Noh2: </p>
<hr />
<div>Page created by [http://www.appropedia.org/User:David.Bloch David Bloch] and [http://www.appropedia.org/User:shaffer08 Shaffer Smith], two current Environmental Resources Engineering Students at Humboldt State University.<br />
<br />
==Peer Revisions==<br />
<big>Peer Review: [http://www.appropedia.org/User:Charles_Swanson Charles Swanson]</big><br /><br />
1. Who do you feel is the target audience for the writing in this document? Suggest a change if you think the writing is not appropriate for this audience. <br /><br />-The audience seems appropriate, the information is well organized and directed to a broad audience. Good job.<br /><br /><br />
2. Is the information presented easy to navigate? Can you find the necessary information easily? How would you improve the layout? <br /><br />-The layout is good, I like the paragraph sizing, and major heading use. <br />-Add some bulleted lists of retrofits or improvements or goals. <br />-Subheadings can lead the reader to new information faster, try breaking up some of your text. <br /><br /> <br />
<br />
3. Are headings used successfully? Are enough headings used? If so, are they specific enough? Are the headings in logical order? If not, would the document be easier to follow with more headings? Level two headings? If so, suggest some headings. <br /><br />-An “RCEA” subheading might be appropriate, a little background on that organization and their efforts in conjunction with this project and Wildberries’ goals.<br /><br />
-“Overview” can be broken down into building history, organizational history, present structural considerations (both site specific and operational). <br /><br />
-“Retrofit Effects” and “Post-Retrofit Analysis” seem to imply the same thing. “Post-Retrofit Analysis” actually contains interview information, which is not really analysis. Try “Further Considerations” or “Project Review”.<br /><br /><br />
4. Is there a clear topic sentence for each paragraph? Do all following sentences relate to that topic sentence? How could topic sentences of the paragraphs be improved? Suggest improvements for specific paragraphs. <br /><br />-The first sentence in “Lighting Retrofit” is speculative and subjective, try to avoid making personal statements that aren’t factual. Rework the “fact” that grocery stores require more lighting than other retail stores, or else stick to the rest of the paragraph that supports their use of lighting 24 hrs a day for various jobs.<br /><br />
-By the last section I have forgotten who Phil Ricord is and need to be reminded that he is the founder/president.<br /><br />
-“Retrofit Effects” first sentence could use a numbered link to the graph and should be reworded to the effect that “following RCEA’s lighting retrofit, Wildberries saw an initial decline in energy consumption compared to the same month of the prior year.” The graph is a little vague on this point because the date axis does not list the actual date or month of the retrofit, and that month of the prior year is also not clearly labeled. The axis labels skip a few months which is confusing. It looks like the retrofit occurred in March ’08? And it is difficult to pinpoint March’07. Supplemental charts could better illustrate the seasonal trends and their comparison in relation to savings.<br /><br /><br />
5. Is the writing objective? Remember this is a technical communication. Make suggestions to avoid bias or opinion in sentences. (For example: eliminate adjectives/adverbs: very, many, large, etc) <br /><br /><br />
-The writing is mostly objective, good job. Some subjective statements and adjectives such as “vast”, “very”, “immediate”, “clearly”, “very probable”. Try “relatively”, then put into a relative context to a known fact or measurement supported by your data, otherwise omit such statements.<br /><br />
-Avoid use of “they” and “their”, to the reader you are “them”, and so in your writing consider yourself a part of this organization on whose behalf you are making this analysis. Objectivity occurs in the third person. “When the RCEA initially performed an energy audit for Wildberries, they estimated that the store…” try: “The initial RCEA energy audit estimated…”.<br /><br /><br />
6. Is each figure or photograph easy to understand? How could the figures be improved? Can you suggest another figure presents the information in a clearer manner? <br /><br />-The photos are good, try adding a caption to the photo of the store room.<br />
7. Does the writer refer to the figure(s) in the text using figure numbers? Is each figure well described in the text and are the sources cited? Do the figures have captions? Make suggestions to better incorporate figures. <br /><br /><br />
-There are no figure references. You could refer to the type of lighting present in the images in the text with numbered links, or external links in the captions.<br /><br /><br />
8. If this is a RCEA page have the writers clearly presented the bottom line (predicted money and carbon dioxide emissions saved versus actual money and carbon dioxide emissions saved) in a table or graphical format? Suggest improvements to make this comparison easier for the reader to understand. <br /><br />-Your memo mentions your plans to expand on this category. A chart dealing with relative CO2 savings. A chart with relative cost savings incorporating the heater use in some way. Perhaps you could find out the cost analysis of the heater use for Wildberries and incorporate that into your RCEA data, this would add critical accuracy to your data and also supplement RCEA’s analysis nicely.<br /><br /><br />
9. Are there any questions you have about the topic that are not addressed? Are the sources of the information clearly presented under “References”? <br /><br />-Page needs “References” section.<br /><br /><br />
10. Does the author provide links to related sites? Are there enough or too many? Are they technical enough or too technical for the audience of the document? Is the relevance of each site clear? Is there a summary of references? <br /><br />-There are a lot of Wiki links, you could probably add a few more links to the web as well, wiki pages are very wordy and have a lot of information, find some linked sites that have more graphics to supplement your words. <br /><br />
-Many of the links are dead ends.<br /><br />
-Add a link to the RCEA home site (www).<br /><br />
-Your CO2 link is to what CO2 is instead of the relevance of CO2 emissions or how to calculate them.<br /><br /><br />
11. Is the document too long or short? (It should be between 2-3 pages). If it is too long, what should be taken out? If it is too short what remains to be addressed? <br /><br />-The document is a bit short, you could use some more analysis of the projected vs. collected data. <br />-Address what the RCEA is and what this project is.<br /><br /><br />
12. Does the page have the “ENGR 115: In Progress” banner? Does the page have the correct categories (ENGR 115 and RCEA if applicable) at the end of page? <br /><br />-Yes, all applicable categories are present.<br /><br /><br /><br />
<br />
<br />
13. List the strengths of document - (Be sure to address how the Appropedia page looks at this time.)<br /><br /><br />
<br />
-The document is well formatted with good images. <br /> -Information is concise and relevant. <br />-Overall attitude of presentation is fairly objective and has a positive feel.<br /><br /><br /><br />
<br />
<br />
14. List areas for improvement – (Be sure to address how the Appropedia page looks at this time.)<br /><br /><br />
<br />
-The graph needs to be a little bigger.<br /><br />
<br />
-Review objectivity and omit subjective statements and adjectives not supported by factual data. Any speculation should be in quotations and come from the person you interviewed.<br /><br />
<br />
-Add information about RCEA.<br /><br />
<br />
-Review grammar, I can hear you speaking while I’m reading. Try to word sentences as complete statements and become aware of sentences that appear as you would speak them.<br /><br />
<br />
-Fix broken links, and add web links.<br /><br /><br /><br />
<br />
15. Overall comments – (Any feedback for the authors)<br /><br /><br />
<br />
-The page flows well, and with a little more work will complete the retrofit analysis. <br />-I like the comparison to the equivalent in cars, whales and elephants. <br />Good Job.<br /><br />
<big>Peer Review: [http://www.appropedia.org/User:Charles_Swanson Charles Swanson]</big><<br />
<br />
<br />
==Review: Logan Halstrom==<br />
<br />
[[user:Lhalstrom|Logan Halstrom]]<br />
<br />
'''1. Who do you feel is the target audience for the writing in this document? Suggest a change if you think the writing is not appropriate for this audience.'''<br />
<br />
This article seems targeted toward the people who could be customers in Wildberries. It presents the information as a component to a part of their lives and it gives the information in a way that is interesting to them and that they can understand.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''2. Is the information presented easy to navigate? Can you find the necessary information easily? How would you improve the layout?''' <br />
<br />
Between headings and graphics, it is easy to locate specific information by just glancing over the page. The only information I found to be less apparent was the analysis of the accuracy of RCEA's predictions. Here, the reader must compare previously stated numbers with other numbers to infer the result. If there was a graph or table added to supplement the current one by showing immediate month comparisons, the differences might be more obvious to the reader.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''3. Are headings used successfully? Are enough headings used? If so, are they specific enough? Are the headings in logical order? If not, would the document be easier to follow with more headings? Level two headings? If so, suggest some headings.'''<br />
<br />
I found that the headings were very appropriate and directed the information in a manner that flowed smoothly. Perhaps, if some sub-headings were added, it would be easier for a reader to locate information at a glance, like dividing the lighting retrofit section into specific parts, but I feel that without these changes, the article is still just as effective at presenting the information.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''4. Is there a clear topic sentence for each paragraph? Do all following sentences relate to that topic sentence? How could topic sentences of the paragraphs be improved? Suggest improvements for specific paragraphs. <br />
<br />
There is a topic sentence for every paragraph that I feel should require one. Two that could be made more clear are the third paragraph in the Overview section so that it is more obvious from the start that the paragraph is about retrofit history, and the second paragraph in the Retrofit Effects section had a confusingly worded topic sentence, that will be much more effective when edited.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''5. Is the writing objective? Remember this is a technical communication. Make suggestions to avoid bias or opinion in sentences. (For example: eliminate adjectives/adverbs: very, many, large, etc)'''<br />
<br />
Bias did not seem like an issue when I read this article. The description of Wildberries was fair from any viewpoint and the calculations of the results were not made to seem favorable for one participant over the other. In defending the errors in RCEA's estimate, it did tend to imply that the author was perhaps trying to justify RCEA's position but this was not really a bias because the case they were making was an objectively valid one.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''6. Is each figure or photograph easy to understand? How could the figures be improved? Can you suggest another figure presents the information in a clearer manner?<br />
<br />
The first picture is very effective. Without reading anything else, the reader will know the basic subject of this article. I would have liked a description for the picture of the back room in Wildberries. The text gave a good description of what it is used for and why that added to the power bill, so it would be helpful if the picture reinforced that. The other picture and graph were effective as they are. The graph could have a basic description of what trend it shows.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''7. Does the writer refer to the figure(s) in the text using figure numbers? Is each figure well described in the text and are the sources cited? Do the figures have captions? Make suggestions to better incorporate figures.'''<br />
<br />
There are not figure numbers but there are directions in the text that signify figure references. Editing this will simply be a matter of inserting figure numbers rather than restructuring the paragraph. A caption on the graph would be helpful, and references are lacking, though this was listed as one of the outstanding issues in the memo. I feel that if these simple edits are made, the figures will be effective as they are.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''8. If this is a RCEA page have the writers clearly presented the bottom line (predicted money and carbon dioxide emissions saved versus actual money and carbon dioxide emissions saved) in a table or graphical format? Suggest improvements to make this comparison easier for the reader to understand.'''<br />
<br />
This bottom line was implied by the graph and the text but, as a reader, I did not feel it was totally obvious. If I could see a table juxtaposing numbers or a graph with before and after energy values side-by-side, I would be able to visual this difference more clearly. It would also help to perhaps add a calculation of the differences in the values. Based on when the meeting for this project took place and also coming from a group where not all the data was present for our first draft, I think the data presentation is acceptable for this draft.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''9. Are there any questions you have about the topic that are not addressed? Are the sources of the information clearly presented under “References”?'''<br />
<br />
Does Wildberries have any concrete plans for retrofitting the refrigeration system in the future or is that just an obvious place to focus on next time, whenever that may be? Obviously, since there was not time to put in a References section, there are not sources presented under References, as addressed in the memo.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''10. Does the author provide links to related sites? Are there enough or too many? Are they technical enough or too technical for the audience of the document? Is the relevance of each site clear? Is there a summary of references?'''<br />
<br />
There are plenty of links. At first, I felt that there were too many and that some were unrelated, but I also, personally, like to have extra references, in case I want to explore a tangent. A few issues were the links about the retrofits, which for some reason did not work. I also felt that the link for carbon dioxide didn't really relate to the article as much as a link specifically describing the effects of carbon dioxide would. And again, the comparisons of the offset carbon dioxide were interesting links that I, as a reader, like to explore, but not necessarily relevant to the article. There is not a summary of references because there is not a reference section.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''11. Is the document too long or short? (It should be between 2-3 pages). If it is too long, what should be taken out? If it is too short what remains to be addressed?'''<br />
<br />
I think that I would add to some sections and take away from others. The overview of Wildberries could be shortened, since the article is specifically about energy retrofits, but I think that adding some sub-headings would be enough for readers that are not interested in the Wilberries history to skip that section. I also think that the estimate analysis and the client response sections could be slightly elaborated on.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''12. Does the page have the “ENGR 115: In Progress” banner? Does the page have the correct categories (ENGR 115 and RCEA if applicable) at the end of page?'''<br />
<br />
Yes<br />
<br />
<br />
'''13. List the strengths of document'''<br />
<br />
This document was easy to read and easy to understand. It gave information that was relevant and did not present extra data that would be unnecessary and complicating. It looked well balanced, it provided visual aids that were very helpful and not distracting, and it covered the goal of the project and made that apparent to the reader.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''14. List areas for improvement'''<br />
<br />
The main thing to enhance in this article is the RCEA estimate analysis. This is the purpose of the project and it is also the hardest to convey, so another table or graph would be very helpful. The graph you have now is a good description of the overall effect, so I think it has a part in the page, but I also think that the yearly fluctuations in power usage make it too confusing to use as the only model.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''15. Overall comments'''<br />
<br />
I thought that this was one of the better pages that I have looked at as far as completeness, effectiveness, and Appropedia knowledge. I felt that you knew what to cover and that the total combination of information you chose to cover was a perfect in that it was relevant and not superfluous. Furthermore, I know what it is like to have a late client meeting, so I want you to know that any criticism I give is with the full understanding that time was also a factor in your web page, and that many of the things I described were probably results of that. All of us could have put more in with more time.<br />
<br />
[[user:Lhalstrom|Logan Halstrom]]<br />
<br />
<br />
1.Students of Humboldt, appropriate.<br /><br />
2Very easy to navigate. All info is easy to find.<br /><br />
3Headings are used when needed and direct attention to new sections. Headings follow a very logical order seeming chronological.<br /><br />
4Some topic sentences are to specific, they don’t give a broad overview of what the following paragraph is going to fully include. Look at the Lighting retrofit section specifically.<br /><br />
5Stays away from opinions well.<br /><br />
6Photos and graphs are easy to follow and greatly enhance the page. The information presented is very clear and easy to follow<br /><br />
7Figures are not cited.<br /><br />
8Yes, a graph is provided. And telling us in comparison the amount of CO2 is a very good approach.<br /><br />
9No sources are givin under references.<br /><br />
10Many links are provided all allowing further exploration of the topic. <br /><br />
11Document is a good length, if any change is needed make it longer, however I don’t see a need for change.<br /><br />
12yes<br /><br />
13. List the strengths of document - (Be sure to address how the Appropedia page looks at this time.)<br /><br />
<br />
A very thorough background section helped me understand the business better. The page looks great, the photos and the graphs presented enhance your page greatly.<br /><br />
<br />
<br />
14. List areas for improvement – (Be sure to address how the Appropedia page looks at this time.)<br /><br />
In the retrofit effects section, the last sentence seems out of place and by itself even though it relates to the topic, try to throw it in with everything else<br /><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
15. Overall comments – (Any feedback for the authors)<br /><br />
<br />
Great looking page you have little work to do from now on, good job.<br /><br />
<br />
<br />
[[user:ndb21|Nathan Braun]]<br />
<br />
==Review: Nathan Hawk==<br />
<br />
[[user:Noh2|Nathan Hawk]]<br />
<br />
'''1. Who do you feel is the target audience for the writing in this document? Suggest a change if you think the writing is not appropriate for this audience.'''<br />
<br />
The target audience is towards individuals who want to know about Wildberries electrical usage and what they have done to cut down on electrical <br />
<br />
<br />
'''2. Is the information presented easy to navigate? Can you find the necessary information easily? How would you improve the layout?''' <br />
<br />
It was fairly easy to navigate. A more descriptive table of contents with more sections could make certain info easier to find<br />
<br />
<br />
'''3. Are headings used successfully? Are enough headings used? If so, are they specific enough? Are the headings in logical order? If not, would the document be easier to follow with more headings? Level two headings? If so, suggest some headings.'''<br />
<br />
I would create a few more headings in order split up and better describe the overview sections. Some level 2 heading would be nice to see. Other than that the headings are in good logical order and place.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''4. Is there a clear topic sentence for each paragraph? Do all following sentences relate to that topic sentence? How could topic sentences of the paragraphs be improved? Suggest improvements for specific paragraphs.<br />
<br />
I would say u did a good job with your topic sentences and relating your fallowing sentences. In the post retrofit section, 1st paragraph, you explain how Phil is highly pleased with the retrofit, but then go on to say parts of his decisions were unwise. You might want to better organize this part. Maybe a separate section for that part <br />
<br />
'''5. Is the writing objective? Remember this is a technical communication. Make suggestions to avoid bias or opinion in sentences. (For example: eliminate adjectives/adverbs: very, many, large, etc)'''<br />
<br />
There’s a few adjectives/adverbs you could look at.<br />
Ex. “highly probable” (retrofit effect/paragraph 2)<br />
Ex. “a lot more lighting” (lighting retrofit/paragraph 1)<br />
<br />
<br />
'''6. Is each figure or photograph easy to understand? How could the figures be improved? Can you suggest another figure presents the information in a clearer manner?<br />
<br />
I thought the pictures were good and well place. The graph is kind of hard to read, so you might want to enlarge it a lil.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''7. Does the writer refer to the figure(s) in the text using figure numbers? Is each figure well described in the text and are the sources cited? Do the figures have captions? Make suggestions to better incorporate figures.'''<br />
<br />
Only two out of four figures included text. You should add text to the others. I liked the text you added to the picture who had it.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''8. If this is a RCEA page have the writers clearly presented the bottom line (predicted money and carbon dioxide emissions saved versus actual money and carbon dioxide emissions saved) in a table or graphical format? Suggest improvements to make this comparison easier for the reader to understand.'''<br />
<br />
Yes this is all clearly stated in the page. If possible you could add future predictions for these rates.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''9. Are there any questions you have about the topic that are not addressed? Are the sources of the information clearly presented under “References”?'''<br />
<br />
What is a photovoltaic system? You mentioned this but did not explain what it was.<br />
Yes sources were clearly presented.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''10. Does the author provide links to related sites? Are there enough or too many? Are they technical enough or too technical for the audience of the document? Is the relevance of each site clear? Is there a summary of references?'''<br />
<br />
I couldn’t find any links to related sites or a summary of references. Make sure this gets done<br />
<br />
<br />
'''11. Is the document too long or short? (It should be between 2-3 pages). If it is too long, what should be taken out? If it is too short what remains to be addressed?'''<br />
<br />
It is of good length. All the information that was asked for seems to be there.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''12. Does the page have the “ENGR 115: In Progress” banner? Does the page have the correct categories (ENGR 115 and RCEA if applicable) at the end of page?'''<br />
<br />
Yes<br />
<br />
<br />
'''13. List the strengths of document'''<br />
<br />
The page has a good fluid order to it. I liked the pictures you took to help explain the sections. The writing was mostly all very easy to understand. It’s a very good first draft.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''14. List areas for improvement'''<br />
<br />
Explain what CFL bulbs are. (Is that a prefix for something?) <br />
Retrofit effect/paragraph 2 - “ …more warmth. Thus, while…- this part seems like it could be written better.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''15. Overall comments'''<br />
<br />
Good job on the page, it shouldn’t take long for you to finish a final version due to your strong efforts on the first draft.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[user:Noh2|Nathan Hawk]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=Talk:HEIF_Take_Back_the_Tap&diff=81258Talk:HEIF Take Back the Tap2009-11-05T06:57:41Z<p>Noh2: </p>
<hr />
<div><big>Peer Review: [http://www.appropedia.org/User:Charles_Swanson Charles Swanson]</big><<br /><br />
1. Who do you feel is the target audience for the writing in this document? Suggest a change if you think the writing is not appropriate for this audience.<br /> <br />
<br /><br />
The reach of the page does not seem to extend beyond our class. Your audience should be the world at large. <br />
Ideas should be exhaustive, only present ideas you intend to thoroughly discuss or examine.<br /><br />
<br /><br />
2. Is the information presented easy to navigate? Can you find the necessary information easily? How would you improve the layout? <br /><br />
<br /><br />
There is not enough information to get bogged down in. <br />
There is a lot of empty space, makes the page feel as if there is nothing going on. <br />
Try to condense the images with the text.<br /><br />
<br /><br />
3. Are headings used successfully? Are enough headings used? If so, are they specific enough? Are the headings in logical order? If not, would the document be easier to follow with more headings? Level two headings? If so, suggest some headings. <br /><br />
<br /><br />
Headings such as “The Campaign” sound very subjective. As the first thing a reader sees, it makes me feel I’m being ‘campaigned’. <br />
Be more specific, try beginning with the Organizational History, they have a lot of recent highlights that can act to draw the reader in. Along with some pictures this will give the page a more urgent appeal.<br /><br />
<br /><br />
4. Is there a clear topic sentence for each paragraph? Do all following sentences relate to that topic sentence? How could topic sentences of the paragraphs be improved? Suggest improvements for specific paragraphs. <br /><br />
<br /> <br />
The first paragraph is good. The other sections have irrelevant statements as topical sentences. Stating “numerous” and “many” is vague and subjective. <br />
Try: “TBTT continues to encourage community participation and outreach in their efforts to reduce plastic bottled water consumption and production.” <br />
A bulleted list of upcoming activities. <br />
The section highlighting the organizations’ “Structure” is irrelevant, unless you intend to highlight more about each individual’s accomplishments in the context of this movement.<br /><br />
<br /><br />
5. Is the writing objective? Remember this is a technical communication. Make suggestions to avoid bias or opinion in sentences. (For example: eliminate adjectives/adverbs: very, many, large, etc)<br /><br />
<br /> <br />
The first and last sentences under the heading “Past Events” is unnecessary. <br />
Condense information as much as possible. Explain what a “position in the campus recycling program” is. <br />
What does it mean that the A.S. supports them? How? <br />
Be descriptive about the library display without being judgmental. Information is objective. Emotional adjectives (i.e. “exciting”) are distracting and inaccurate. <br />
Avoid start-stops at the beginning of sentences such as: “Lastly,”. <br />
Encouraging readers to get involved is not impartial it is saleable. Try to appear impartial.<br /><br />
<br /><br />
6. Is each figure or photograph easy to understand? How could the figures be improved? Can you suggest another figure presents the information in a clearer manner? <br /><br />
<br /><br />
Photos are good, but need to be enlarged, and moved around, they are hiding in the lower corner. Images of piles of plastic bottles from a landfill or recycling center would be catchy, nothing too gloomy though.<br /><br />
<br /><br />
7. Does the writer refer to the figure(s) in the text using figure numbers? Is each figure well described in the text and are the sources cited? Do the figures have captions? Make suggestions to better incorporate figures.<br /><br />
<br /> <br />
There are no figure numbers or captions. <br />
Be careful with words like “substantiating”, pictures don’t substantiate a page unless you are providing evidence, they just enhance it.<br /><br />
<br /><br />
8. If this is a RCEA page have the writers clearly presented the bottom line (predicted money and carbon dioxide emissions saved versus actual money and carbon dioxide emissions saved) in a table or graphical format? Suggest improvements to make this comparison easier for the reader to understand.<br /> <br />
<br /><br />
9. Are there any questions you have about the topic that are not addressed? Are the sources of the information clearly presented under “References”? <br /><br />
<br /><br />
References are good but need to be bulleted. <br />
What are the effects of TBTT on local bottled water consumption? Do they have any figures? Maybe use some national figures? Statistics can be boring so choose a few and highlight them in the context of a paragraph.<br /><br />
<br /><br />
10. Does the author provide links to related sites? Are there enough or too many? Are they technical enough or too technical for the audience of the document? Is the relevance of each site clear? Is there a summary of references?<br /> <br /> <br />
The links are good, very inciting, makes me want to watch the movies, and find out more about this movement.<br /><br />
<br /><br />
11. Is the document too long or short? (It should be between 2-3 pages). If it is too long, what should be taken out? If it is too short what remains to be addressed?<br /><br />
<br /> <br />
The document is a bit short. There is a lot of room to evaluate the effects of bottled water consumption, production and manufacture. Break up information into chunks like on the North Coast Environmental Center website, each one complete in itself and concise.<br /><br />
<br /><br />
12. Does the page have the “ENGR 115: In Progress” banner? Does the page have the correct categories (ENGR 115 and RCEA if applicable) at the end of page? <br /><br />
<br /><br />
Yes, all applicable categories are accounted for.<br /><br />
<br /><br />
<br /><br />
13. List the strengths of document - (Be sure to address how the Appropedia page looks at this time.)<br /><br />
<br /><br />
-The page has a lot of leads that can be followed. <br /> <br />
<br /><br />
-The subject matter is very interesting, and the movement is one with many loyal and passionate followers. People want to find out what this organization is doing to make our community stronger. Therefore all you have to do is present the facts and the reader will follow. <br /> <br />
<br /><br />
<br /><br />
14. List areas for improvement – (Be sure to address how the Appropedia page looks at this time.)<br /><br />
<br /><br />
-Try to establish goals outright that lead the reader in a continuous direction.<br /> <br />
<br /><br />
-Reorganize the headings. Break up each heading into complete pieces that are relevant to the heading subject. <br /> <br />
<br /><br />
-Give a summary sentence or topic sentence at the beginning that is objective and does not become repetitive.<br /><br />
<br /><br />
<br /><br />
15. Overall comments – (Any feedback for the authors)<br /><br />
<br /><br />
-There is much work yet to be done, unfortunately it sounds like you have not had much interaction with the organization itself. <br /><br />
<br /><br />
-Try branching out a little, there is so much information on this topic and it really sounds like you are personally interested. <br /><br />
<br /><br />
-You say that it is good for the environment, budget, health, and indigenous peoples but don’t state one way in which this actually occurs. Water rights are crucial to every aspect of life and these water bottling companies are trying to buy up water rights all over the world. They not only pollute the environment but they drive up the price of every commodity in the world through their efforts to turn a natural resource into a commodity. See if you can highlight the positive effects that are proposed by TBTT and other conservation organizations. <br /><br />
<br /><br />
-Good luck<br />
<br /> <br />
<big>End Peer Review: [http://www.appropedia.org/User:Charles_Swanson Charles Swanson]</big><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
1. Students of Humboldt, this is appropriate.<br /><br />
2. Layout is easy to follow. The amount of sections seemed to be too small however.<br /><br />
3.Headings are used successfully and enough for the information provided. However, I think more headings with more subtopics about TBTT would be nice.<br /><br />
4.All categories except for structure have a topic sentence, which is ok. All following sentences stay on topic with the topic sentence. Campaign section could be more in depth. Tell more about TBTT and why they are important.<br /><br />
5“many student chapters” campaign section<br /><br />
“Their most impressive event” (past events)<br /><br />
“one of the most exciting” (future events)<br /><br />
these imply opinions.<br /><br />
<br />
6. Photos are of a display case with water bottles in it. This doesn’t show me much about TBTT. Maybe a photo with people from TBTT would help. The pic of the hydration station is a very good ad on though.<br /><br />
7. Page doesn’t refer to any figures.<br /><br />
8. -<br /><br />
9. Sources are represented well. My question is how can students help with TBTT and possibly how successful TBTT has been so far this year.<br /><br />
10. There are multiple links that enhance the page’s quality, they are very easy to follow<br /><br />
11. The document it too short, the information provided if single spaced would take up maybe 1-2 pages. I think going more into the history of TBTT or adding more to the campaign section would help.<br /><br />
12. Yes and yes<br /><br />
<br />
13. strengths<br /><br />
The document is easy to follow and has precise information. It seems to be pretty short. Spelling and grammar seem to not be a problem. The photo of the hydration station is a good ad on.<br /><br />
<br />
14. List areas for improvement<br /><br />
More photos would help the page. More in-depth information is needed. A lengthier page overall would help with the quality your trying to reach.<br /><br /><br />
<br />
[[user:ndb21|Nathan Braun]]<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
==Peer Review-Logan Halstrom==<br />
<br />
[[user:Lhalstrom|Logan Halstrom]]<br />
<br />
'''1.Who do you feel is the target audience for the writing in this document? Suggest a change if you think the writing is not appropriate for this audience.'''<br />
<br />
The target audience seems to be anyone who is interested in TBTT. It is slightly specific to HSU students.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''2.Is the information presented easy to navigate? Can you find the necessary information easily? How would you improve the layout?'''<br />
<br />
The headings separate the sections effectively. The bullets in the Structure section are somewhat tedious. The could be enhances with some bold text or by removing them altogether.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''3.Are headings used successfully? Are enough headings used? If so, are they specific enough? Are the headings in logical order? If not, would the document be easier to follow with more headings? Level two headings? If so, suggest some headings.''' <br />
<br />
The headings are use in a way that denotes information in an orderly way. The Structure heading could be modified to explicitly state what it describes the structure of, to be absolutely clear.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''4.Is there a clear topic sentence for each paragraph? Do all following sentences relate to that topic sentence? How could topic sentences of the paragraphs be improved? Suggest improvements for specific paragraphs.'''<br />
<br />
All paragraphs have a topic sentence that states a clear idea which is followed by on-topic data.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''5.Is the writing objective? Remember this is a technical communication. Make suggestions to avoid bias or opinion in sentences. (For example: eliminate adjectives/adverbs: very, many, large, etc)'''<br />
<br />
Most of the writing is easy for anyone to understand. AS could be clarified for someone who isn't familiar with HSU structure, and hydration stations could be more specifically defined.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''6.Is each figure or photograph easy to understand? How could the figures be improved? Can you suggest another figure presents the information in a clearer manner?'''<br />
<br />
The figures bring important information to the page, but they could be used to a greater effect. Caption would help explain what the pictures are showing. I knew what the exhibit was because I had seen it in the Library, but a non-student might not. Also, two pictures of the same exhibit might not be necessary. The hydration station could be labeled, too. <br />
<br />
<br />
'''7.Does the writer refer to the figure(s) in the text using figure numbers? Is each figure well described in the text and are the sources cited? Do the figures have captions? Make suggestions to better incorporate figures.'''<br />
<br />
There are not figure numbers and no specific references in the page. The sources are cited in the memo, so they will probably be added later. Figure captions would help to identify text with pictures. Another good picture to add would be the on-campus hydration stations.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''8.If this is a RCEA page have the writers clearly presented the bottom line (predicted money and carbon dioxide emissions saved versus actual money and carbon dioxide emissions saved) in a table or graphical format? Suggest improvements to make this comparison easier for the reader to understand.'''<br />
<br />
Not RCEA.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''9.Are there any questions you have about the topic that are not addressed? Are the sources of the information clearly presented under “References”?'''<br />
<br />
Any data on the results? Is that data even obtainable? Where are the hydration stations on campus and how do they work? I know you haven't met with the Coordinator yet so I hope you get some of this information from her.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''10.Does the author provide links to related sites? Are there enough or too many? Are they technical enough or too technical for the audience of the document? Is the relevance of each site clear? Is there a summary of references?'''<br />
<br />
The links are helpful and on topic. They are informative, easy to read, and bring relevant information to the reader. The first link is slightly confusing due to its placement and might be placed on TBTT instead. Some links to add might be to information on SLAM Fest and other programs mentioned.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''11.Is the document too long or short? (It should be between 2-3 pages). If it is too long, what should be taken out? If it is too short what remains to be addressed?'''<br />
<br />
The document is a little on the short side. The past and future events could all be elaborated on a little to increase the length of the page. Especially elaborate on the hydration stations; the link is helpful, but an in-page summary is more important to the reader.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''12.Does the page have the “ENGR 115: In Progress” banner? Does the page have the correct categories (ENGR 115 and RCEA if applicable) at the end of page?'''<br />
<br />
Yes.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''13.List the strengths of document'''<br />
<br />
This page has useful images and links. The links are related and worth checking out, as opposed to superfluous or irrelevant. The page also makes TBTT into an interesting subject.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''14.List areas for improvement'''<br />
<br />
The page should be expanded. More details on each topic will lead for opportunities to add second level headings and other structural organization devices, increasing the length.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''15.Overall comments'''<br />
<br />
You found a lot more projects involving TBTT than I was aware of and I am interested in knowing more details about them. I think that a background on the effects of bottles is a very effective idea. Perhaps you could also include ways to reduce bottled water usage. Overall, good job on making a topic that I thought was pretty simple a lot more detailed an interesting.<br />
<br />
[[user:Lhalstrom|Logan Halstrom]]<br />
<br />
==[[User:Noh2|Nathan Hawk's]]<Peer Evaluation==<br />
<br />
'''1. Who do you feel is the target audience for the writing in this document? Suggest a change if you think the writing is not appropriate for this audience.'''<br />
<br />
People who are interested in cutting down on the use of bottled water for the sake of the environment<br />
<br />
'''2. Is the information presented easy to navigate? Can you find the necessary information easily? How would you improve the layout?''' <br />
<br />
The info that is there is easy to navigate but I would like to see more information about the subject. Adding some additional sections would be great<br />
<br />
<br />
'''3. Are headings used successfully? Are enough headings used? If so, are they specific enough? Are the headings in logical order? If not, would the document be easier to follow with more headings? Level two headings? If so, suggest some headings.'''<br />
<br />
The headings are used successfully but again I would like to see more. Add a few more headings if possible. Your page has good logical order. The paragraphs could be more specific by adding details to some of the material such as; dangers of plastic bottles and details on the hydration systems that will be used<br />
<br />
<br />
'''4. Is there a clear topic sentence for each paragraph? Do all following sentences relate to that topic sentence? How could topic sentences of the paragraphs be improved? Suggest improvements for specific paragraphs. <br />
<br />
Topic sentences are clear and the sentences seem to relate to the topic sentences quite well. Paragraphs can be improved by finding additional information to add to them.<br />
<br />
<br />
'''5. Is the writing objective? Remember this is a technical communication. Make suggestions to avoid bias or opinion in sentences. (For example: eliminate adjectives/adverbs: very, many, large, etc)'''<br />
<br />
I found two bias opinions that you may or may not want to change.<br />
Ex. “..most exciting is..”(future incentives/paragraph 1)<br />
Ex. “gain more knowledge” (future incentives/paragraph 1) <br />
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'''6. Is each figure or photograph easy to understand? How could the figures be improved? Can you suggest another figure presents the information in a clearer manner?<br />
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Photographs aren’t really easy to understand because there is no info to go with the pics. If you add a text box under each picture it will become clearer what they are about.<br />
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'''7. Does the writer refer to the figure(s) in the text using figure numbers? Is each figure well described in the text and are the sources cited? Do the figures have captions? Make suggestions to better incorporate figures.'''<br />
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No there is no text as stated before. Add the things in question to the left, and what I mentioned above for full credit on your pictures.<br />
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'''8. If this is a RCEA page have the writers clearly presented the bottom line (predicted money and carbon dioxide emissions saved versus actual money and carbon dioxide emissions saved) in a table or graphical format? Suggest improvements to make this comparison easier for the reader to understand.'''<br />
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N/A<br />
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'''9. Are there any questions you have about the topic that are not addressed? Are the sources of the information clearly presented under “References”?'''<br />
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What does HEIF stand for?<br />
What are the dangers of plastic bottles?<br />
What are some different types of hydration systems that can be used in association with your page?<br />
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'''10. Does the author provide links to related sites? Are there enough or too many? Are they technical enough or too technical for the audience of the document? Is the relevance of each site clear? Is there a summary of references?'''<br />
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There is only one link at the bottom of your page and the one that is there does not reveal a clear site. By your final draft I would suggest at least three… Yes there is a summary of references.<br />
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'''11. Is the document too long or short? (It should be between 2-3 pages). If it is too long, what should be taken out? If it is too short what remains to be addressed?'''<br />
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The document seems to be a little short. If you add some of the subjects I listed above your page should gain proper length.<br />
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'''12. Does the page have the “ENGR 115: In Progress” banner? Does the page have the correct categories (ENGR 115 and RCEA if applicable) at the end of page?'''<br />
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Yes<br />
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'''13. List the strengths of document'''<br />
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I liked the headers that you added; they explain your paragraphs accurately. I also liked how you added the different ways students at HSU are getting involved to raise awareness about “take back the tap”<br />
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'''14. List areas for improvement'''<br />
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In some parts of your page it sounds like your giving information to an array of people and in other parts is seems like you are just talking to me. I would stick to one or the other. Some of your page has bad grammar, I would have someone who is well knowledgably in English to look over your page and make the appropriate corrections.<br />
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'''15. Overall comments'''<br />
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I like the subject you picked, I think it is an important subject when it come to eliminate the use of plastic bottles. With a little bit of effort to create a final draft this will be an awesome page.<br />
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Peer Evaluation performed by [[User:Noh2|Nathan Hawk]]<br><br></div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=User:Noh2&diff=75989User:Noh22009-10-02T23:41:12Z<p>Noh2: </p>
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<div>==About Me==<br />
[[File:IMG 1834.JPG|thumb|left|My first day of class]]<br />
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==About Me==<br />
I am a HSU student who is currently working on a [http://www.humboldt.edu/~ere/ Environmental Resources Engineering] degree<br />
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==Favorite Sites=<br />
My favorite site on Appropedia is the [[AEF Greywater]] Page. I also like HSU's ERE webstite<br />
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[[Arcata_Marsh]]<br />
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[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=User:Noh2&diff=75988User:Noh22009-10-02T23:40:56Z<p>Noh2: </p>
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<div>==About Me==<br />
[[File:IMG 1834.JPG|thumb|left|My first day of class]]<br />
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<br />
==About Me==<br />
I am a HSU student who is currently working on a [http://www.humboldt.edu/~ere/ Environmental Resources Engineering] degree<br />
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==Favorite Sites=<br />
My favorite site on Appropedia is the [[AEF Greywater]] Page. I also like HSU's ERE webstite<br />
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[[Arcata_Marsh]]<br />
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[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]<br />
[[File:[[File:Example.jpg]][[File:Example.jpg]]]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=User:Noh2&diff=75985User:Noh22009-10-02T23:38:42Z<p>Noh2: </p>
<hr />
<div>==About Me==<br />
[[File:IMG 1834.JPG|thumb|left|My first day of class]]<br />
<br />
<br />
==About Me==<br />
I am a HSU student who is currently working on a [http://www.humboldt.edu/~ere/ Environmental Resources Engineering] degree<br />
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==Favorite Sites=<br />
My favorite site on Appropedia is the [[AEF Greywater]] Page. I also like HSU's ERE webstite<br />
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[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]<br />
[[File:[[File:Example.jpg]][[File:Example.jpg]]]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=User:Noh2&diff=75981User:Noh22009-10-02T23:37:46Z<p>Noh2: </p>
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<div>==About Me==<br />
[[File:IMG 1834.JPG]]<br />
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<br />
==About Me==<br />
I am a HSU student who is currently working on a [http://www.humboldt.edu/~ere/ Environmental Resources Engineering] degree<br />
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==Favorite Sites=<br />
My favorite site on Appropedia is the [[AEF Greywater]] Page. I also like HSU's ERE webstite<br />
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[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]<br />
[[File:[[File:Example.jpg]][[File:Example.jpg]]]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=User:Noh2&diff=75958User:Noh22009-10-02T23:26:24Z<p>Noh2: </p>
<hr />
<div>==About Me==<br />
[[File:IMG 1834.JPG]]<br />
I am a student at HSU who is studying for a degree in the [[Environmental Resources Engineering]].<br />
<br />
==About Me==<br />
I am a HSU student who is currently working on a [http://www.humboldt.edu/~ere/ Environmental Resources Engineering] degree<br />
<br />
==Favorite Sites=<br />
My favorite site on Appropedia is the [[AEF Greywater]] Page. I also like HSU's ERE webstite<br />
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[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]<br />
[[File:[[File:Example.jpg]][[File:Example.jpg]]]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=User:Noh2&diff=75955User:Noh22009-10-02T23:25:51Z<p>Noh2: </p>
<hr />
<div>==About Me==<br />
[[File:IMG 1834.JPG]]<br />
I am a student at HSU who is studying for a degree in the [[Environmental Resources Engineering]].<br />
<br />
==About Me==<br />
I am a HSU student who is currently working on a [http://www.edu/~ere/ Environmental Resources Engineering] degree<br />
<br />
==Favorite Sites=<br />
My favorite site on Appropedia is the [[AEF Greywater]] Page. I also like HSU's ERE webstite<br />
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[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]<br />
[[File:[[File:Example.jpg]][[File:Example.jpg]]]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=User:Noh2&diff=75953User:Noh22009-10-02T23:24:20Z<p>Noh2: </p>
<hr />
<div>==About Me==<br />
[[File:IMG 1834.JPG]]<br />
I am a student at HSU who is studying for a degree in the [[Environmental Resource Engineering]].<br />
<br />
==About Me==<br />
I am a HSU student who is currently working on a [http://www.edu/~ere-dept/ Environmental Resource Engineering] degree<br />
<br />
==Favorite Sites=<br />
My favorite site on Appropedia is the [[AEF Greywater Page]]. I also like HSU's ERE webstite<br />
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[[File:[[File:Example.jpg]][[File:Example.jpg]]]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=File:IMG_1834.JPG&diff=75934File:IMG 1834.JPG2009-10-02T23:18:54Z<p>Noh2: </p>
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<div></div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=User:Noh2&diff=75917User:Noh22009-10-02T23:08:46Z<p>Noh2: /* =Favorite Sites */</p>
<hr />
<div>==About Me==<br />
I am a student at HSU who is studying for a degree in the [[Environmental Resource Engineering]].<br />
<br />
==About Me==<br />
I am a HSU student who is currently working on a [http://www.edu/~ere-dept/ Environmental Resource Engineering] degree<br />
<br />
==Favorite Sites=<br />
My favorite site on Appropedia is the AEF Greywater Page. I also like HSU's ERE webstite<br />
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[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2https://www.appropedia.org/index.php?title=User:Noh2&diff=75870User:Noh22009-10-02T22:49:58Z<p>Noh2: Start to page about myself</p>
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<div>==About Me==<br />
I am a student at HSU who is studying for a degree in the [[Environmental Resource Engineering]].<br />
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==Favorite Sites=<br />
My favorite site on Appropedia is the site that about the Arcata Marsh..<br />
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[[Category:Engr115 Intro to Engineering]]</div>Noh2