Their effect on heating and cooling depends on:
- Placement, orientation to the sun. This cannot be changed without major remodeling of the house.
- Shade, e.g. from eaves, awnings, trees other buildings. Some of these can be changed with effort and (in the case of trees) patience.
- Use of insulated glazing - reflective films or multiple glazing.
- Curtains, especially thermal curtains.
- Thermal mass in the building.