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Leads[edit source]

{{Excerpt|DIY Solar Panel}}
A solar panel that produces enough energy to charge a smaller battery or a device

The purpose of this Solar Panel project is to show how to construct a solar panel by yourself at home, that produces enough power to charge any small devices or a small battery.

The idea to build a solar panel by myself came about as my final project for my alternative energy systems class. Originally the plan was to build a solar panel that would charge the batteries on an electric bike, however there were a few set backs. The biggest one being the amount of power needed to charge the batteries exceeded the amount of solar cells that were bought. Therefore the project turned into a learning experience with a couple roadblocks and of course solutions that eventually led to a solar panel that produces enough energy to charge a smaller battery or a device. This project was a huge learning experience on every level, from what tools and materials I would need,to finding affordable solar cells and lastly learning the mechanics of proper wiring. What I hope to show from my project is the steps I took to build the solar panel and produce energy.

Portals[edit source]

{{Excerpt|Organic and sustainable farming|references=no}}

Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved... —International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements

Arcata Educational Farm

Organic farming is a form of agriculture in which agricultural land is cultivated without the use of artificial fertilisers, or artificial pesticides, growth regulators and livestock feed additives. It relies on crop rotation, compost, biological pest control, mechanical cultivation, and other techniques using natural processes, to maintain soil productivity and control pests. Organic farming excludes or strictly limits the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and livestock feed additives. Genetically modified organisms are excluded, and organic standards in Britain and Australia exclude engineered nanoparticles.Genetically modified organisms and engineered nanoparticles are forbidden as well. The use of agricultural machines (running on either biofuels or fossil fuels) is allowed. The goals of organic farm systems include the maintenance of soil fertility, efficient usage of water, maximizing soil fertility, and improved animal welfare as well as environmental aspects indirectly related to farming such as reduction of energy use and avoidance of pollution (Trewavas 2001). Australia accounts for 39% of the world's certified organic agriculture hectares, followed by Argentina and USA.

Sustainable agriculture is the practice of farming using principles of ecologyW. Unlike organic agriculture, sustainable agriculture focuses on the ability of providing food on the long-term. As such, besides artificial fertilisers and pesticidesit also does not allow the use of agricultural machines running on non-renewable resourcesW. Besides this, it focuses on finding the most energy-efficient and cost-effective method of using agricultural machines and non-renewable natural resources (ie phosphate, ...). For this reason it also implements natural biological cycles and controls where possible.

Except for some particularities, both methods of farming are hence quite similar, employing ecologic methods as polyculture, decreased (or zero-) tillage, crop rotation, nutrient cyclingW (ie composting, ...), no or reduced chemical fertilizer applications, no or reduced reduced chemical pesticide application, biological pest control and/or fostered biodiversity, mechanical cultivation, and other techniques (ie mulching, ...)

Sections[edit source]

{{Excerpt|Biofuel|Solid biofuels}}
Solid biofuels are plant parts from crops grown for direct combustion. It includes wood, sawdust, grass trimmings, charcoal, agricultural waste, and dried manure. Some primary bio-energy feedstocks include industrial hemp, switchgrass and Miscanthus. They can be used as is or pressed into plates for easier incineration. Miscanthus or elephant grass generate a very high amount of dry matter.
{{Excerpt|Composting#Hot composting}}
In ideal conditions, the rapid respiration of microbes within the compost will lead to high temperatures and so this is sometimes refered to as "hot composting". Higher temperatures are highly desirable as it will denature pathogenic microbes (who are usually most active at around body temperature) and seeds of many species of weed.
{{Excerpt|E215 Introduction to Design projects#Fall 2008: Full Belly Project}}

The Fall 2008 semester of Engineering 215 worked with the Full Belly Project to adapt their Universal Nut Sheller in the following three manners: