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==Abstract==
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== Abstract ==
One paragraph summary of your project from background to discussion and next steps. meow
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== Background ==
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One paragraph summary of your project from background to discussion and next steps. meow
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== Background  ==
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CCAT Homepage
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CCAT Homepage http://www.humboldt.edu/~ccat/index.php  
http://www.humboldt.edu/~ccat/index.php
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CCAT AT page
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CCAT AT page http://www.humboldt.edu/~ccat/atProjects.php  
http://www.humboldt.edu/~ccat/atProjects.php
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====links to prior work on CCAT cob bench and oven====
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==== links to prior work on CCAT cob bench and oven ====
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'''Bench:'''
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'''Bench:'''  
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photos of the construction of the cob bench:
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photos of the construction of the cob bench: http://learn.humboldt.edu/gallery/lrg3/main.php?g2_itemId=2887  
http://learn.humboldt.edu/gallery/lrg3/main.php?g2_itemId=2887
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<br> '''Oven:'''
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'''Oven:'''
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student page for the construction of oven: http://www.pequals.com/at/earthenoven/
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student page for the construction of oven:
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another student page that took to work on the oven: http://www.pequals.com/at/natoven/applying_the_cob.htm  
http://www.pequals.com/at/earthenoven/
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another student page that took to work on the oven:
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http://www.pequals.com/at/natoven/applying_the_cob.htm
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== Problem statement and criteria ==
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== Problem statement and criteria  ==
    
=== Criteria<br>  ===
 
=== Criteria<br>  ===
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<br>  
 
<br>  
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<br> <br>
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<br> <br>  
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==Testing==
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== Description of final project  ==
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a two layered plaster design was chosen. The first aspect of our design is a base coat made of one part clay and soil, one part sand and one part sawdust. This layer is applied relatively heavily to reshape the bench in minor ways and to fill in holes and cracks from wear and tear. The fill coat also provides a clean smooth surface to apply a finish coat to. Out of twenty eight samples that we tested this mixture held up the best.
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== Description of final project ==
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The second coat was applied for both aesthetic purposes and to provide long lasting durability. This plaster mixture uses a ratio of 1 part mixed hydrated lime and water to three parts sand. This mixture is similar to one used by CCAT before, and it is recommended in Earthen Building.  
a two layered plaster design was chosen. The first aspect of our design is a base coat made of one part clay and soil, one part sand and one part sawdust. This layer is applied relatively heavily to reshape the bench in minor ways and to fill in holes and cracks from wear and tear. The fill coat also provides a clean smooth surface to apply a finish coat to. Out of twenty eight samples that we tested this mixture held up the best.
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The second coat was applied for both aesthetic purposes and to provide long lasting durability. This plaster mixture uses a ratio of 1 part mixed hydrated lime and water to three parts sand.  This mixture is similar to one used by CCAT before, and it is recommended in Earthen Building.
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=== Instructions for Implementation ===
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===Instructions for Implementation===
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Begin by taking note of soil in the local area and prepare soil tests to find a soil with an appropriate soil content. Reference section II for further information on appropriate soil content. Prepare tests for the soil in order to determine if soil may need added components. Prepare the cob surface for work to be done on it, by smoothing out protruding areas or removing excess dust. Have trowels, sand, sawdust, a hose, rags, and a workspace prepared for the day of plastering. On the designated plaster day, begin by sifting the decided upon soil through wire mesh to remove large particulate matter. Also at this time spray down cob surfaces with water so that it is slightly saturated. Mix equal parts soil, sand, and sawdust together well. These ratios may differ depending on soil content, they are the ratios we chose to use. Again, reference sections II and III for information on ratios and soil. Using trowels, apply smooth thin layers of plaster to surface. Repeat for each necessary coat. An earthen plaster is a fine finish plaster for mild to moderate use and mild exposure. This is a good place to stop if the earthen plaster is pleasing and the plastered object does not need exceptional protection. In CCAT’s case, another step is necessary and so we also chose to apply a lime-based plaster as a finish coat.
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Begin by taking note of soil in the local area and prepare soil tests to find a soil with an appropriate soil content. Reference section II for further information on appropriate soil content.  Prepare tests for the soil in order to determine if soil may need added components. Prepare the cob surface for work to be done on it, by smoothing out protruding areas or removing excess dust. Have trowels, sand, sawdust, a hose, rags, and a workspace prepared for the day of plastering. On the designated plaster day, begin by sifting the decided upon soil through wire mesh to remove large particulate matter. Also at this time spray down cob surfaces with water so that it is slightly saturated. Mix equal parts soil, sand, and sawdust together well. These ratios may differ depending on soil content, they are the ratios we chose to use. Again, reference sections II and III for information on ratios and soil.  Using trowels, apply smooth thin layers of plaster to surface. Repeat for each necessary coat.  An earthen plaster is a fine finish plaster for mild to moderate use and mild exposure. This is a good place to stop if the earthen plaster is pleasing and the plastered object does not need exceptional protection.  In CCAT’s case, another step is necessary and so we also chose to apply a lime-based plaster as a finish coat.
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Hydrated lime is best preslaked, that is soaked in water for as long as possible before use. So once it is decided that lime will be used, immediately begin soaking hydrated lime in water. When preslaking, mix well and leave about 2 inches of water on top of the putty in order to prevent the lime from reacting with CO2 in the air. When it comes time to apply the lime, it rolls on much like the earthen plaster. Wet the first plaster coat, and apply with trowels, Lime is caustic and care must be taken to protect the skin. The lime can be dyed with iron oxide by adding it to the putty to achieve a preferred shade. After the first layer of putty is laid down, take the tiles prepared for mosaic seats and set them in the wet lime. When all the tiles are laid down, trowel more putty over the top of the tiles. Using a clean rag, wipe the tops of the tiles and smooth the plaster between tiles. After the plaster is somewhat dry, rags can be used again to smooth it down and get a nice finish.  
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Hydrated lime is best preslaked, that is soaked in water for as long as possible before use. So once it is decided that lime will be used, immediately begin soaking hydrated lime in water. When preslaking, mix well and leave about 2 inches of water on top of the putty in order to prevent the lime from reacting with CO2 in the air.  When it comes time to apply the lime, it rolls on much like the earthen plaster.  Wet the first plaster coat, and apply with trowels, Lime is caustic and care must be taken to protect the skin.  The lime can be dyed with iron oxide by adding it to the putty to achieve a preferred shade.  After the first layer of putty is laid down, take the tiles prepared for mosaic seats and set them in the wet lime.  When all the tiles are laid down, trowel more putty over the top of the tiles.  Using a clean rag, wipe the tops of the tiles and smooth the plaster between tiles.  After the plaster is somewhat dry, rags can be used again to smooth it down and get a nice finish.
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<br>
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=== Photos ===
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Some photos will be coming soon
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===Photos===
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== Costs ==
Some photos will be coming soon
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==Costs==
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The costs of the project include design time, labor time and material costs. These costs are composed of first: a pie chart depicting the number of hours spent on each phase of the design process. Second: a table illustrating material costs. Third: a table depicting the potential costs of maintenance and repair.  
The costs of the project include design time, labor time and material costs. These costs are composed of first: a pie chart depicting the number of hours spent on each phase of the design process. Second: a table illustrating material costs. Third: a table depicting the potential costs of maintenance and repair.
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===Design Cost===
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=== Design Cost ===
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As of November 9th 2009, the total working hours are 102. The hours needed to formulate each phase are portrayed as percentages below in the piechart. There is overlap amongst the phases so some values are approximate. Phase five is incomplete and the time depicted is the total thus far.
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As of November 9th 2009, the total working hours are 102. The hours needed to formulate each phase are portrayed as percentages below in the piechart. There is overlap amongst the phases so some values are approximate. Phase five is incomplete and the time depicted is the total thus far.  
    
**chart coming**
 
**chart coming**
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=== Implementation Cost ===
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=== Implementation Cost ===
    
The cost of materials is depicted in the table below. Since some materials were donations there is a difference in the market value of some items.  
 
The cost of materials is depicted in the table below. Since some materials were donations there is a difference in the market value of some items.  
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==Discussion and next steps==
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== Discussion and next steps ==
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coming soon
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== Also check out! ==
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coming soon
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http://www.networkearth.org/naturalbuilding/cob.html
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==Also check out!==
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cob_(material)
http://www.networkearth.org/naturalbuilding/cob.html
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cob_(material)
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http://ilovecob.com/  
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http://ilovecob.com/
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http://www.cobcottage.com/whatis
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http://www.cobcottage.com/whatis
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== References ==
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==References==
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Guelberth, Cedar Rose and Chiras, Dan. (2003). “The Natural Plaster book” Earth Lime and Gypsum plasters for Natural Homes. New Society Publishers. Gabriola Island, BC, Canada.  
Guelberth, Cedar Rose and Chiras, Dan. (2003). “The Natural Plaster book” Earth Lime and Gypsum plasters for Natural Homes. New Society Publishers. Gabriola Island, BC, Canada.
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Chiras, Dan (2003). “A Plaster Primer”. Mother earth news. Feb/Mar. 2003. Issue 196. P. 64.
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Chiras, Dan (2003). “A Plaster Primer”. Mother earth news. Feb/Mar. 2003. Issue 196. P. 64.  
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Crews, Carol. (1993) “Earth Plasters and Aliz” .<www.thelaststraw.org/bonusarticles/earthplaster> (Sept. 25th 2009)
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Crews, Carol. (1993) “Earth Plasters and Aliz” .&lt;www.thelaststraw.org/bonusarticles/earthplaster&gt; (Sept. 25th 2009)  
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Ecology Building Society (2009). “The Tumbledown House Renovation.” <http://www.ecology.co.uk/html/aboutus/casestudies/tumbledown.htm#cob> (Sept 24th 2009)
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Ecology Building Society (2009). “The Tumbledown House Renovation.” &lt;http://www.ecology.co.uk/html/aboutus/casestudies/tumbledown.htm#cob&gt; (Sept 24th 2009)  
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Meagan, Keely (1993). “For Love of Mud” <www.thelaststraw.org/bonusarticles/earthplaster> (Sept. 25th 2009)
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Meagan, Keely (1993). “For Love of Mud” &lt;www.thelaststraw.org/bonusarticles/earthplaster&gt; (Sept. 25th 2009)  
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Miles, Kevin, Swingler, Paul. (2007-2009) “Cob”, ”Lime Plaster”, “Lime Render”, “Lime Wash”. <http://www.sublimerenovations.co.uk/cob.html> (Sept. 24th 2009)
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Miles, Kevin, Swingler, Paul. (2007-2009) “Cob”, ”Lime Plaster”, “Lime Render”, “Lime Wash”. &lt;http://www.sublimerenovations.co.uk/cob.html&gt; (Sept. 24th 2009)  
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Smith, Michael G. (2001) “Cob Plastering Q and A. <www.greenhomebuilding.com./QandA/cob/plastering(Sept 24th 2009)
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Smith, Michael G. (2001) “Cob Plastering Q and A. &lt;www.greenhomebuilding.com./QandA/cob/plastering&gt; (Sept 24th 2009)  
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Smith, M. and Evans, I. “Questions and Answers about Cob.” < http://www.networkearth.org/naturalbuilding/cob.html > (September 26, 2009).
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Smith, M. and Evans, I. “Questions and Answers about Cob.” &lt; http://www.networkearth.org/naturalbuilding/cob.html &gt; (September 26, 2009).  
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Durand, L. “Natural Composite Architecture: Building Without the Use of Lumber, Concrete, Steel, or Petroleum Products.” < http://www.networkearth.org/naturalbuilding/composite.html> (September 26, 2009).
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Durand, L. “Natural Composite Architecture: Building Without the Use of Lumber, Concrete, Steel, or Petroleum Products.” &lt; http://www.networkearth.org/naturalbuilding/composite.html&gt; (September 26, 2009).  
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Smith, M. “The History of Cob.” <http://www.networkearth.org/naturalbuilding/history.html > (September 26, 2009).
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Smith, M. “The History of Cob.” &lt;http://www.networkearth.org/naturalbuilding/history.html &gt; (September 26, 2009).  
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Wu, J (2004). The CCAT Earthen Oven. <http://www.pequals.com/at/earthenoven/> (September 27, 2006).
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Wu, J (2004). The CCAT Earthen Oven. &lt;http://www.pequals.com/at/earthenoven/&gt; (September 27, 2006).  
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King, B. (1996). Buildings of Earth and Straw, Ecological Design Press, Sausalito, Cali., 52-55.
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King, B. (1996). Buildings of Earth and Straw, Ecological Design Press, Sausalito, Cali., 52-55.  
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Christopherson, R. W. (2007). Environmental Ecosystems, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
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Christopherson, R. W. (2007). Environmental Ecosystems, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.  
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[[Category:CCAT]]  
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[[Category:CCAT]] [[Category:Engr215_Introduction_to_Design]] [[Category:Cobb]]
[[Category:Engr215 Introduction to Design]]
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[[Category:Cobb]]
 
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