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<br>The problem of finding a solar power solution for the XO laptop considers the most effective way to power the laptop using solar energy while minimizing cost, and maximizing practicality. The task involves the consideration of the materials to be used, the simplicity of the design, the practicality and cost, and the development of user-friendly instructions to accompany the product. The main purpose is to design a system that outperforms previous prototypes while keeping the organization’s main principles in mind. <br>There are numerous issues to be addressed when deciding on the design of the solar panel system. To begin, the XO is a durable, kid-friendly product, and as such, the solar panel accompanying it must also be a durable learning tool. Due to the fact that the product’s targeted audience is youth in developing countries, the laptop must be able to withstand any accidental abuse, such as being dropped. Since solar cells can be very fragile, finding a suitable way to protect the solar panels is an important task and may be difficult with the given budget. Next, the solar system must be compact and portable, similarly to the laptop itself. This is once again in response to the known targeted audience. Small children are unable to carry heavy loads and thus a lightweight product is necessary. Furthermore, the XO laptop contains an unusual plug. A suitable plug must therefore be found or fabricated. If a supplier for the plug can be found, the plug must be inexpensive and readily available. Finally, the instructions, which will accompany the XO laptop and its counterparts, will be presented along with the prototype and should be simple and universally understood. People from various backgrounds will read these instructions and they must therefore be communicable to people who speak a wide range of languages. The problems outlined above are to be solved with a budget of $80 and within a period of 12 weeks. The low budget and short time period will make the completion of the task challenging, although the formulation of this problem will help in the development of a timeline and the purchase of an inexpensive solar system. The formulation of the issues to be faced is thus a necessary step in finding a suitable solar solution for the XO laptop.
 
<br>The problem of finding a solar power solution for the XO laptop considers the most effective way to power the laptop using solar energy while minimizing cost, and maximizing practicality. The task involves the consideration of the materials to be used, the simplicity of the design, the practicality and cost, and the development of user-friendly instructions to accompany the product. The main purpose is to design a system that outperforms previous prototypes while keeping the organization’s main principles in mind. <br>There are numerous issues to be addressed when deciding on the design of the solar panel system. To begin, the XO is a durable, kid-friendly product, and as such, the solar panel accompanying it must also be a durable learning tool. Due to the fact that the product’s targeted audience is youth in developing countries, the laptop must be able to withstand any accidental abuse, such as being dropped. Since solar cells can be very fragile, finding a suitable way to protect the solar panels is an important task and may be difficult with the given budget. Next, the solar system must be compact and portable, similarly to the laptop itself. This is once again in response to the known targeted audience. Small children are unable to carry heavy loads and thus a lightweight product is necessary. Furthermore, the XO laptop contains an unusual plug. A suitable plug must therefore be found or fabricated. If a supplier for the plug can be found, the plug must be inexpensive and readily available. Finally, the instructions, which will accompany the XO laptop and its counterparts, will be presented along with the prototype and should be simple and universally understood. People from various backgrounds will read these instructions and they must therefore be communicable to people who speak a wide range of languages. The problems outlined above are to be solved with a budget of $80 and within a period of 12 weeks. The low budget and short time period will make the completion of the task challenging, although the formulation of this problem will help in the development of a timeline and the purchase of an inexpensive solar system. The formulation of the issues to be faced is thus a necessary step in finding a suitable solar solution for the XO laptop.
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== <br>3.0 Design Plan ==
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== <br>3.0 Design Plan ==
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<br>There are a large number of factors to be considered when deciding upon a design for the solar panel to accompany the XO laptop. Such considerations include the portability of the laptop, its durability, the cost of the solar system, the style and creative aspect of the system, the XO’s energy needs and thus the power output of the solar panel, and finally the XO’s unusual plug.<br>To begin, many designs involving a case were considered for the solar panels themselves since this would keep the panel safe from harm, such as being dropped. An alternative to this option is the choice of a thin-film, flexible solar panel to be used to power the laptop. These panels can be rolled and are also very lightweight. Thin film panels are not rigid, and a case is therefore unnecessary. Furthermore, the overall appearance of the prototype should be taken into consideration. Many people associate certain objects with various brands. The XO laptop itself has a specific appearance and in turn the solar system accompanying the laptop should follow suit. A simple and clean design will be chosen for the prototype, and as such will mimic the XO laptop. Finally, the XO plug is a non-standard plug. Finding the proper plug for the laptop and a supplier that offers the plugs at a low cost is fairly difficult. For this reason, constructing the plug becomes an option worth considering. <br>In keeping these considerations in mind, and once a solar panel is selected, the group plans on finalizing the design of a case to hold the panel and the corresponding plug.<br> <br> <br>= = 5.0 How Solar Panels Work = =
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<br>There are a large number of factors to be considered when deciding upon a design for the solar panel to accompany the XO laptop. Such considerations include the portability of the laptop, its durability, the cost of the solar system, the style and creative aspect of the system, the XO’s energy needs and thus the power output of the solar panel, and finally the XO’s unusual plug.<br>To begin, many designs involving a case were considered for the solar panels themselves since this would keep the panel safe from harm, such as being dropped. An alternative to this option is the choice of a thin-film, flexible solar panel to be used to power the laptop. These panels can be rolled and are also very lightweight. Thin film panels are not rigid, and a case is therefore unnecessary. Furthermore, the overall appearance of the prototype should be taken into consideration. Many people associate certain objects with various brands. The XO laptop itself has a specific appearance and in turn the solar system accompanying the laptop should follow suit. A simple and clean design will be chosen for the prototype, and as such will mimic the XO laptop. Finally, the XO plug is a non-standard plug. Finding the proper plug for the laptop and a supplier that offers the plugs at a low cost is fairly difficult. For this reason, constructing the plug becomes an option worth considering. <br>In keeping these considerations in mind, and once a solar panel is selected, the group plans on finalizing the design of a case to hold the panel and the corresponding plug.<br> <br> <br>5.0 How Solar Panels Work
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<br>Each solar panel, or photovoltaic cell, is composed silicon wafers that are precisely cut to less than a centimeter in diameter. Silicon is used because of the fact that it has four of a possible eight valence electrons and so when two silicon atoms bond, the result has no charge. There are also more atomic reasons for the use of silicon but this is the main reason. The top of the wafer, which will be exposed to sunlight, is coated in phosphorus and then heated so as to diffuse the phosphorus into the silicon. As a result, when the elements bond, they complete the valence shell of eight electrons and they have one left over; therefore the side is negatively charged. Next, the wafer is covered with a very thin conductive grid. Following that, the bottom of the wafer is treated similarly to the top but with boron, which has three valence electrons. As a result, when the elements bond, there is one space remaining in the valence shell and so the bottom is considered positively charged. Next, the top of the wafer is exposed to sunlight and the photons from the sun give the extra electron enough energy to detach from the plate. As soon as the electron is detached, it is attracted to the positively charged molecules below. As the electron is drawn downwards, it must first cross the wires which produces an electrical current.<br>During the design and construction of the project, it is crucial to remember that any protective material that is used to cover the panel must enable photons to reach the cells. That being said, the nature of non-amorphous solar panels is to be quite brittle and fragile therefore the protection offered by the covering material can not be compromised.<br>Another characteristic of solar panels that must be considered during the design of the model is that there is a high possibility of over-heating. As a result, it could be beneficial for the design to include either a fan underneath the solar panel or an open channel for fresh air to pass through.<br> <br>= = 6.0 Future Considerations = =
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<br>Each solar panel, or photovoltaic cell, is composed silicon wafers that are precisely cut to less than a centimeter in diameter. Silicon is used because of the fact that it has four of a possible eight valence electrons and so when two silicon atoms bond, the result has no charge. There are also more atomic reasons for the use of silicon but this is the main reason. The top of the wafer, which will be exposed to sunlight, is coated in phosphorus and then heated so as to diffuse the phosphorus into the silicon. As a result, when the elements bond, they complete the valence shell of eight electrons and they have one left over; therefore the side is negatively charged. Next, the wafer is covered with a very thin conductive grid. Following that, the bottom of the wafer is treated similarly to the top but with boron, which has three valence electrons. As a result, when the elements bond, there is one space remaining in the valence shell and so the bottom is considered positively charged. Next, the top of the wafer is exposed to sunlight and the photons from the sun give the extra electron enough energy to detach from the plate. As soon as the electron is detached, it is attracted to the positively charged molecules below. As the electron is drawn downwards, it must first cross the wires which produces an electrical current.<br>During the design and construction of the project, it is crucial to remember that any protective material that is used to cover the panel must enable photons to reach the cells. That being said, the nature of non-amorphous solar panels is to be quite brittle and fragile therefore the protection offered by the covering material can not be compromised.<br>Another characteristic of solar panels that must be considered during the design of the model is that there is a high possibility of over-heating. As a result, it could be beneficial for the design to include either a fan underneath the solar panel or an open channel for fresh air to pass through.<br> <br>6.0 Future Considerations
    
&nbsp;<br>The main consideration for this project is the selection of the optimum solar panel that meets the specification requirements for the XO-1 Laptop with regard to compatibility. Additionally, the selected solar panel must be economically viable, to maintain the affordability, and consequently, the vision of the One Laptop Per Child project<br>The project plan outline is identified in Figure 1, with the main focus being the selection of the optimum solar panel for this project. It is intended that a commercial product be selected to interface with the XO Laptop, whereby all tolerances and specification requirements with respect to power, voltage, and amperage are adhered to. <br>Additional research is to be conducted to acquire basic electronics knowledge, which is necessary to facilitate the build phase. Research will also be carried out to identify possible solutions for effective connection of the solar panel to the laptop. Upon completion of the build phase of the prototype, testing is to be conducted to determine the efficiency of the power and solar performance, and if required re-design may then be addressed. Final design improvements will then be implemented to produce the optimum project design, including project documentation.<br>It is imperative that the final design allow for ease of manufacturing, as the intent is that documentation be provided to developing countries so as to facilitate local manufacturing of the solar solution. It has been identified that the documentation will utilize graphics rather than verbal communication, for ease of communicating assembly details in regions where the English language may not be utilized extensively.  
 
&nbsp;<br>The main consideration for this project is the selection of the optimum solar panel that meets the specification requirements for the XO-1 Laptop with regard to compatibility. Additionally, the selected solar panel must be economically viable, to maintain the affordability, and consequently, the vision of the One Laptop Per Child project<br>The project plan outline is identified in Figure 1, with the main focus being the selection of the optimum solar panel for this project. It is intended that a commercial product be selected to interface with the XO Laptop, whereby all tolerances and specification requirements with respect to power, voltage, and amperage are adhered to. <br>Additional research is to be conducted to acquire basic electronics knowledge, which is necessary to facilitate the build phase. Research will also be carried out to identify possible solutions for effective connection of the solar panel to the laptop. Upon completion of the build phase of the prototype, testing is to be conducted to determine the efficiency of the power and solar performance, and if required re-design may then be addressed. Final design improvements will then be implemented to produce the optimum project design, including project documentation.<br>It is imperative that the final design allow for ease of manufacturing, as the intent is that documentation be provided to developing countries so as to facilitate local manufacturing of the solar solution. It has been identified that the documentation will utilize graphics rather than verbal communication, for ease of communicating assembly details in regions where the English language may not be utilized extensively.  
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