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→‎Infiltration Galleries and Wells: coalesced duplicate references
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==Infiltration Galleries and Wells==
 
==Infiltration Galleries and Wells==
As an alternative to a typical irrigation or smaller water supply dam, two general types of infiltration galleries have been employed to divert water from streams: vertical wells and horizontal infiltration galleries, also known as "Ranney wells."<ref>Alternatives to Push-Up Dams. Produced by the Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region. 10 min. 1999. Videocassette.</ref> Both types typically require pumps to draw water from the stream’s gravel substrate through perforated pipes, but in certain sites infiltration galleries can function by gravity alone.<ref>Glenn Ginter, Illinois Valley Soil and Water Conservation District, personal communication, 9 October 2001.</ref>  
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As an alternative to a typical irrigation or smaller water supply dam, two general types of infiltration galleries have been employed to divert water from streams: vertical wells and horizontal infiltration galleries, also known as "Ranney wells."<ref>Alternatives to Push-Up Dams. Produced by the Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region. 10 min. 1999. Videocassette.</ref> Both types typically require pumps to draw water from the stream’s gravel substrate through perforated pipes, but in certain sites infiltration galleries can function by gravity alone.<ref name=Ginter>Glenn Ginter, Illinois Valley Soil and Water Conservation District, personal communication, 9 October 2001.</ref>  
    
===Vertical wells===
 
===Vertical wells===
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*Limited thickness or absence of gravel substrate that could prevent the placement of perforated pipes at depths adequate to protect them from scouring;
 
*Limited thickness or absence of gravel substrate that could prevent the placement of perforated pipes at depths adequate to protect them from scouring;
 
*Streambed made up of fine-grained soils such as clays, silts and sands that would continually clog the perforations; and
 
*Streambed made up of fine-grained soils such as clays, silts and sands that would continually clog the perforations; and
*Stream reaches with unstable banks that can migrate significant distances from their original locations, thus separating infiltration galleries from the water source.<ref>Glenn Ginter, Illinois Valley Soil and Water Conservation District, personal communication, 9 October 2001.</ref>  
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*Stream reaches with unstable banks that can migrate significant distances from their original locations, thus separating infiltration galleries from the water source.<ref name=Ginter/>  
    
When relying on vertical wells, there is a risk that wells could dewater the stream where the subsurface water is connected to the surface water. This is a growing problem in states, such as California, where groundwater pumping is unregulated.  
 
When relying on vertical wells, there is a risk that wells could dewater the stream where the subsurface water is connected to the surface water. This is a growing problem in states, such as California, where groundwater pumping is unregulated.  
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[[Image:Sucker_crk_infiltration_gallery.JPG|thumb|right|Sucker Creek Infiltration Gallery (US Fish and Wildlife)]]
 
[[Image:Sucker_crk_infiltration_gallery.JPG|thumb|right|Sucker Creek Infiltration Gallery (US Fish and Wildlife)]]
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==Case Study, Infiltration Galleries and Wells==
 
==Case Study, Infiltration Galleries and Wells==
 
In 1998, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Illinois Valley Soil and Conservation District partnered to address the problems caused by a seasonal gravel diversion dam on Sucker Creek, a tributary to the east fork of the Illinois River, in Josephine County, Oregon. This irrigation dam, and others like it, block spawning habitat for salmon and trout, and increase water temperatures, sediment loads and turbidity in the creek or stream. To eliminate the problems and preserve the irrigation diversion for the landowner, an infiltration gallery was installed for $27,667. In addition to improving water quality, access to habitat was improved for coho salmon, fall Chinook salmon and steelhead.
 
In 1998, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Illinois Valley Soil and Conservation District partnered to address the problems caused by a seasonal gravel diversion dam on Sucker Creek, a tributary to the east fork of the Illinois River, in Josephine County, Oregon. This irrigation dam, and others like it, block spawning habitat for salmon and trout, and increase water temperatures, sediment loads and turbidity in the creek or stream. To eliminate the problems and preserve the irrigation diversion for the landowner, an infiltration gallery was installed for $27,667. In addition to improving water quality, access to habitat was improved for coho salmon, fall Chinook salmon and steelhead.

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