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Hydropower

1 byte added, 11:03, 26 October 2009
Constraints for exploitation
# Who says maintenance, says manager and personnel trained for the task at hand.
# Control of consumption and illegal connections are punished. A too great consumption (overloading the network) will lead to a voltage drop that can cause damage to connected equipment, especially engines. The client is asked to sign a service contract which stipulates his rights and obligations.
# Public information campaign on things to avoid and prevention:The area of the water intake in the river is to be avoided by the other users of the river (risk of getting caught up in the waterflow and risk of drowning); intake channel may be used for other purposes (laundry, irrigation), the manager informs the public to incidents such as blocked grates, overflow, etc ... The practice of bathing is regulated or prohibited in the absence of a basin with restraints to prevent the risk of drowning or sudden spills of large volumes of water. Information on the dangers of electrocution will be presented at both the facility and at the home.
# In the spirit of sustainable development, the facility must take into account other water uses , both existing or planned, at the time of the drafting of the powerplant project. The sharing of the water must be done fairly; ie on the basis of criteria that all stakeholders comply to.
# Estimates of budget, deadline for implementation: From an average unit cost of 2000 €/kW installed, it is easy to estimate the investment budget for 10, 100 or 1000kW, as being € 20,000 to € 2,000,000. On the other hand, pico-powerplants of 300W are sold in Vietnam for U.S.D. $20 and are very popular.It is likely that the complexity of a facility of more than 100kW extends the delay of realisation because of forgoing feasibility studies, which probably increases the quality and reliability of the project. Compact installation kits are sold in commerce, requiring only a minimum of know-how for the installation. This equipment series offers the advantage of being available quickly and to be well calibrated for operating conditions. Unless you have control of all parameters (location, project funding, expertise for the construction of infrastructure), an installation project requires several years between the first sketches on paper and the effective operation of the distribution network.# Small powerplants and local development.: Many places on earth are not yet equipped with electric network due to lack of interest (economic or political) to install utilities. The low population density is one of the main reasons for this lack. A micro-powerplant offers a solution for decentralised development where the local undertaker or local authorities can act autonomously. A well designed and well maintained installation offers a very low return price, within the reach of small and medium enterprises. The social impact of these small facilities is considerable in the fight against poverty. See http://www.tve.org/ho/doc.cfm?aid=1636&lang=English
The Chinese authorities have helped a great amount of areas removed or isolated from major electricity distribution networks in acquiring small powerplants. Similar projects have been developed, especially in Kenya.
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