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Water treatment options

689 bytes added, 03:33, 29 March 2009
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Turbidity - the cloudiness of the water
 
==Intake Design==
One of the most often neglected elements in the water treatment system is the intake. The intake must be diesigned to limit the amount of dirt and debris taken into the system to reduce problems downstream.
 
* Intake channels which do not face upstream are preferable.
* Fast flowing water will carry more dirt and debris, so seek natural sedimentation basins within the stream.
* When designing the intake, keep in mind that it must be accessed for maintenance.
* Custom made perforated pipes and drums can help preserve water quality.
* Placing the intake .5m below the water surface can avoid algae growth.
* Avoid suctioning sediments from the lake/river bottom.
== Suspended Solids Removal ==
Frequently, the suspended solids will not settle out in a reasonable period of time and sedimentation alone will not work. If this is the case, a two step process of coagulation and flocculation is employed.
==== Filtering ====
This is sometimes skipped if the water is very clear. This is important as pathogens and other contaminants are mostly attached to particles in the water.
===Removing arsenic===
In cases of arsenic contamination the {{WP|Sono arsenic filter}} should be considered. As it contains sand and charcoal, the filter should also be effective against other impurities. Arsenic containing water is typically groundwater and thus should not usually contain significant pathogens. Iron and manganese oxides can offer a cheap method of removing low levels of arsenic from water. The oxides are able to adsorb arsenic ions and remove them from solution.
== References ==
http://www.oxfam.org.uk/resources/downloads/emerg_manuals/water_treatment.pdf
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