a fairly new process of using bacteria and fungi to separate metals from electronic waste. It promises to be very energy efficient. Organisms such as ''Bacillus'' sp., ''Saccharomyces cereÍisiae'', and ''Yarrowia lipolytica'' leach lead, copper, and tin from printed circuit boards when shredded into sub-milimeter sizes. Under ideal conditions, ''T. ferrooxidans'' and ''T. thiooxidans'' were able to mobilize at least 90% of the aluminum, copper, nickel and zinc present <ref>Brandl, H. et Al., 1999, "Computer-munching microbes: metal leaching from electronic scrap by bacteria and fungi," Hydrometallurgy, '''2001''', (59).</ref>. One type of bacteria, C. violaceum, was able to leach gold from larger pieces of electronic waste (5 x 10 mm). It disolved 14.9% of the approximately 10 mg of gold present as dicyanoaurate <ref>Cui, J. et Al., 2007, "Metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste: A review," Journal of Hazardous Materials, '''2008''', (158), p. 18.</ref>.
== Progress towards a sustainable future ==