This is a literature review for a study on the chemical resistance of 3D printable polymers. This literature review is initially targeted at liquid chemicals which can "attack" 3D printed polymers. In the future gas and plasma attack can be studied but for now it is out of the scope of this lit review.
==Chemicals and processes==
===List of chemicals=== The resistance of 3D printable materials at least to the following solvents, acids and solutions is tested: * Deionized H2O * Isopropanol * Acetone * Hydrochloric acid (HCl), 37% * Ammonia (NH3), aqueous solution 25% * Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), aqueous solution 30% * Nitric acid (HNO3) * Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) * Acetic acid, concentrated
These chemicals are common chemicals used in many laboratories and many semiconductor processing steps, such as in the cleaning of silicon wafers.
Chemical processes===* Resist strip* RCA1 and RCA2 wafer cleaning processes
materials and their chemical properties== === PLA ( Polylactic acid) === One of the most used 3D printing filaments. Various vendors and available in multiple colors. Biodegradable, potentially not very resistant to chemicals .
===ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene)===
Commercial 3D printing filaments: Inova Co-Polyester, ColorFabb nGen
PETG=== ===PP ( Polypropylene)=== Resistant to various laboratory chemicals. Quite resistant to acids and bases. Widely used in clean rooms . Is susceptible to oxidation for example peroxides, as it is just a hydrocarbon.
===PETT===[ http:// taulman3d.com/ t- glase- features.html Taulman T- glase] is made of PETT. ===FEP=== Should be in the sweet spot of fluoropolymers. Low enough melting point to be printable but chemically very durable. According to some data should be resistant to nearly all room temperature liquid chemiclas used in clean rooms.
===PEI=== Ultem(R) is a commercial plastic which mainly consists of PEI. ===Nylon=== [http://taulman3d.com/alloy-910-spec.html Taulman Alloy 910] is [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8_pt_05BqYk apparently] Nylon-based. ===PETG=== Polyethylene terephthalate modified with glycol.
==Organic polymers== General level discussion of organic polymers . Focus here in differences of organic polymers, their production, etc
==Fluoro polymers== Contrast these guys to organics
===Sources=== Journal Articles *Mark D. Symes, Philip J. Kitson, Jun Yan, Craig J. Richmond, Geoffrey J. T. Cooper, Richard W. Bowman, Turlif Vilbrandt & Leroy Cronin: [https://www.nature.com/articles/nchem.1313 Integrated 3D-printed reactionware for chemical synthesis and analysis], Nature Chemistry 4, 349–354 (2012), doi:10.1038/nchem.1313* Philip J. Kitson, Mali H. Rosnes, Victor Sans, Vincenza Dragone and Leroy Cronin: [http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2012/LC/c2lc40761b#!divAbstract Configurable 3D-Printed millifluidic and microfluidic ‘lab on a chip’ reactionware devices], Lab Chip, 2012, 12, 3267–3271. DOI: 10.1039/c2lc40761b* Jennifer S. Mathieson, Mali H. Rosnes, Victor Sans, Philip J. Kitson and Leroy Cronin: [https://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjnano/articles/4/31 Continuous parallel ESI-MS analysis of reactions carried out in a bespoke 3D printed device], Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2013, 4, 285–291. doi:10.3762/bjnano.4.31* Philip J. Kitson , Mark D. Symes , Vincenza Dragone and Leroy Cronin: [http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2013/sc/c3sc51253c Combining 3D printing and liquid handling to produce user-friendly reactionware for chemical synthesis and purification], Chem. Sci., 2013, 4, 3099-3103. DOI: 10 .1039/C3SC51253C* Bethany C. Gross, Jayda L. Erkal, Sarah Y. Lockwood, Chengpeng Chen, and Dana M. Spence: [http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ac403397r Evaluation of 3D Printing and Its Potential Impact on Biotechnology and the Chemical Sciences], Anal. Chem., 2014, 86 (7), pp 3240–3253, DOI: 10.1021/ac403397r *Philip J. Kitson, Stefan Glatzel, Wei Chen, Chang-Gen Lin, Yu-Fei Song,and Leroy Cronin: [https://www.nature.com/articles/nprot.2016.041.pdf 3D printing of versatile reactionware for chemical synthesis], Nat. Protocols, 2016, 11 (5), 920-936*
Chemical resistance charts *[https:// www.curbellplastics.com/ Research-Solutions/ Technical- Resources/Technical- Resources/ Chemical-Resistance-Chart Curbell Plastics] *[http://sevierlab. vet.cornell.edu/resources/Chemical-Resistance-Chart-Detail.pdf Thermo Scientific Nalgene Products], Cornell University Sevier lab *[http://www. ensinger-online.com/fileadmin/pictures-pdf/Download/Brochures/ENS-Stock_shapes_Chem-Resistance_14.pdf Ensinger Plastics] *[http://www.sirmax.it/sites/default/files/Chemical%20resistance%20of%20polymers.pdf Sirmax]
Books *Schreirs, J. [ https:// books. google. fi/ books?hl = fi&lr= &id= 08y8kcvRS6AC&oi= fnd&pg= PA3&dq= fluoropolymer+chemical+resistance&ots = S-_sDXzXtG&sig= NDvFlfAP4WyGG9tPN5C6bSzYqUU&redir_esc= y#v= onepage&q= fluoropolymer%20chemical%20resistance&f= false Modern fluoropolymers. ] Scheirs, J. , Ed (1997): 32. *Moiseev, Yu V. , and Gennadiĭ Efremovich Zaikov. [https:// books. google. fi/ books?hl=en&lr=&id=8N2- fzAFw18C&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&ots=lIjOuftT7lsig=YtNNWguSLSGCe48AjzOpid_u_i0&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false Chemical resistance of polymers in aggressive media] . Springer Science & Business Media, 1987.* Seymour R. B. , Carraher C.E. ( 1984) [ https:// link. springer.com/ chapter/ 10. 1007/ 978- 1- 4684- 4748- 4_10 Chemical Resistance of Polymers] . In : Structure—Property Relationships in Polymers. Springer, Boston, MA.
*Chemical resistance of 3D printing materials
*Fused filament fabrication materials resistance
*Chemical resistance of polymers