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some examples of the Circular Economy
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#Optimizing resource yields by circulating products, components, and materials at the highest utility at all times in both technical and biological cycles. This means designing for remanufacturing, refurbishing, and recycling to keep components and materials circulating in and contributing to the economy.
 
#Optimizing resource yields by circulating products, components, and materials at the highest utility at all times in both technical and biological cycles. This means designing for remanufacturing, refurbishing, and recycling to keep components and materials circulating in and contributing to the economy.
 
#Fostering system effectiveness by revealing and designing out negative externalities. This includes reducing damage to human utility, such as food, mobility, shelter, education, health, and entertainment, and managing externalities, such as land use, air, water, noise pollution, release of toxic substances, and climate change.
 
#Fostering system effectiveness by revealing and designing out negative externalities. This includes reducing damage to human utility, such as food, mobility, shelter, education, health, and entertainment, and managing externalities, such as land use, air, water, noise pollution, release of toxic substances, and climate change.
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== What are some examples of the Circular Economy? ==
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The Circular Economy has already been put in place by many organizations and businesses around the world. The sectors that have adopted the Circular Economy approach are ones related to scarce or special materials or/and fragile supply chains, according to Cerantola. "All the materials that are valuable for being recovered have started to be circularized even decades ago; let's think about plastics, steel, gold or aluminum. Now the challenge is to spread this close loops systems to all the economic sectors and regions including materials that are less noble or apparently not so profitable such as textiles, for example."
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=== Fishing Nets ===
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The also researcher on Sustainable Design and Green Entrepreneurship, Nicola Cerantola, highlights the project Econyl by Aquafil. This company, based in Italy, has been researching and achieving to upcycle (recycling without losing quality of the material) its main raw material, the nylon. "They did it not only for complying with their CSR but also for strategic reasons since they forecasted a 30 percent increase on the demand for nylon in the coming years. So to prevent from suffering from supply chain disruptions or price volatility they chose to explore a circular way of doing business," says Cerantola.
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As a result, this enterprise is currently recovering and upcycling used fishing nets around the world to create new fishing nets. It also provides other fishing services.
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"This is one of the key in the transition to the circular economy, find the ways to align business interests with humanity's," adds Cerantola.
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=== Sustainable Clothing ===
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Another initiative that reuses fishing nets, this one in the fashion industry, is ECOALF. ECOALF is an eco-friendly fashion label that today produces more than 100 different fabrics made from recycled materials such as fishing nets, plastic bottles, used tires, and coffee grounds.
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ECOALF was created by Javier Goyeneche in 2012 "from a deep frustration with the excessive use of the world's natural resources and the amount of waste produced by industrialized countries — specifically by the fashion industry." Today, ECOALF's team manages the full process from waste collection to recycling technologies, manufacture, design, and retail.
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Currently in 11 countries, the company seeks to create the first generation of recycled products with the same attention to quality, design, and technical properties as the best non-recycled products in the market. "There is absolutely no need to continue depleting the earth's natural resources for the sake of production," says Goyeneche.
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=== Bioclimatic Architecture ===
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The Circular Economy model can also be used in architecture, focusing on three key resources of this sector that can work on a closed-loop: energy, construction materials, and water.
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Think of a house that is designed to maximize natural resources like sunlight and the wind; one that is built using biomaterials (sheep's wool insulation can be reprocessed back into insulation or into fiber for use in clothing) which are locally sourced, have a low carbon footprint, and do not harm the environment. As architect Pablo Farfán explains, there are architectural organizations that are using the Circular Economy model all over the world: Passivhaus and Bioconstruction in Germany, Earthships in New Mexico, and the Neo Vernacular architecture in the U.K.
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=== Traditional Businesses ===
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Fortunately, there are many more examples of how to apply Circular Economy processes even in traditional companies and institutions.
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The electronics giant Philips based in the Netherlands is experimenting with a "Pay per lux" model. Under this model, the company maintains ownership of the materials, while customers benefit from maintenance and service, as well as from the option to adapt or upgrade their electronics, with the manufacturer able to recover the materials when necessary. Dell has made the first computer using certified closed-loop recycled plastics and uses its international position to influence standards and policies toward a circular economy. And Levi's has started accepting old clothes in its stores and turning them into building materials. It also plans to recycle old Levi's jeans into new ones in the near future.
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Meanwhile, in Denmark, where the public sector procures goods and services for around 38 billion euros annually, a national initiative is aiming to shift the country's public procurement practices to support a Circular Economy by prioritizing criteria such as the use of non-toxic chemicals, extended product lifespan, and the cycling of biological and technical materials.
    
== Notes and references ==
 
== Notes and references ==

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