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→Living walls: Plretty sure the writer meant "flora" (plants), not fauna (critters).
There are 2 types of living walls: without and with a [[substrate]]. The most used substrate is [[sphagnum]].
Living walls have been used for centuries in Europe; whether this was an intentional use of living walls or a natural process of local
fauna overtaking an available medium probably depended on the cultural status of the occupants. Today living walls are re-entering the spotlight as an environmentally friendly way to reduce energy costs and bring nature back into the human landscape.
*Living walls are a relatively untapped art and architectural medium where living plants become a dynamic and evolving artwork that requires periodic upkeep.