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* '''Basic step by step guidelines for community solar program'''
 
* '''Basic step by step guidelines for community solar program'''
    +
'''ENERGY, N.C., 50States. 24th Jan 2017'''
 +
*US Distributed Solar Market
 +
*Net Metering Policy Changes
 +
*Community solar Policies
 +
*Proposed Charges on Residential Solar Customers
 +
*Third- party solar ownership
 +
*Utility-led Rooftop Solar Program Updates
 +
*Questions answered  with this:
 +
1. How are state regulatory bodies and legislatures and electric utilities addressing fast growing markets for distributed solar PV?
 +
 +
2. What changes to traditional rate design features and net metering policies are being proposed, approved, and implemented?
 +
 +
3. Where are distributed solar markets potentially affected by policy or regulatory decisions on community solar, third-party solar ownership, and utility-led residential rooftop solar programs?
 +
 +
*Report include actions on:
 +
 +
1. Significant changes to state or utility net metering laws and rules, including aggregate caps, system size limits, aggregate net metering rules, and compensation rates for net excess generation.
 +
 +
2. Changes to statewide community solar laws and rules, and individual utility-sponsored community solar programs arising from statewide legislation.
 +
 +
3. Legislative or regulatory-led efforts to study the value of solar, net metering, or distributed solar generation policy, e.g., through a regulatory docket or a cost-benefit analysis.
 +
 +
4. Utility-initiated rate requests for charges applicable only to residential customers with solar PV or other types of distributed generation, such as added monthly fixed charges, demand charges, stand-by charges, or interconnection fees.
 +
 +
5. Utility-initiated rate requests that propose a 10% or larger increase in either fixed charges or minimum bills for all residential customers.
 +
 +
6. Changes to the legality of third-party solar ownership, including solar leasing and solar third-party solar PPAs, and proposed utility-led rooftop solar programs.
 +
 +
'''The growth in solar PV market is expected to continue, particularly due to the recent extension of the federal investment tax credit. The credit, which was previously set to expire for residential systems at the end of 2016, will be available at its current 30% level through 2019, then will step down over the next several years and expire at the end of 2021. The credit will remain at 10% permanently for commercial systems after 2021. GTM Research estimates that the extension of the federal investment tax credit will increase residential solar PV installations by 35% between 2016 and 2020 compared to a scenario without the extension.'''
 +
 +
'''TAX DETAILS'''[http://solaroutreach.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/ResidentialITC_Factsheet_Final.pdf]
 +
*The solar PV system is located at a residential location in the U.S.
 +
*You own the solar PV system (e.g., you purchased it with cash or through financing – but are not leasing it or in
 +
an arrangement to purchase electricity generated by a system you do not own).
 +
*The solar PV system is new or being used for the first time. The ITC can only be claimed on the “original
 +
installation” of the solar equipment.
 +
*It is not a necessity to be a homeowner to claim the tax credit. A tenant-stockholder at cooperative housing corporation and members of condominiums are still eligible for the tax credit if they contribute to the costs of an eligible solar PV system.
 +
*OFF-SITE COMMUNITY SOLAR PROGRAM: There is an example for this. "For example, one arrangement is the creation of a “Special Purpose Entity,” where community members form and invest in a business that operates the community solar project. If your participation is limited to investing in the community solar project and you do not participate in the operation of the project on a regular, continuous, and substantial basis, you are constrained in taking advantage of the ITC because you are considered a “passive investor.” IRS rules require that a tax credit associated with a passive investment only be used against passive income tax liability, which only applies to income generated from either a rental activity or a business in which the individual does not materially participate. Many homeowners will therefore not have passive income against which the ITC can be claimed."
 +
 +
'''How solar+storage Could Protect Multifamily Affordable Housing from Power Outages at little or no net Cost''' [http://www.cleanegroup.org/wp-content/uploads/Resilience-for-Free-October-2015.pdf]
 +
 +
1. Between $17.9 billion and $23.3 billion of electricity value alone would flow into these communities, if all low-income households went solar.
 +
 +
2. The installation and operation of a full low-income solar build-out would also contribute an additional $18.7 billion of local economic output each year, resulting in roughly 138,376 jobs.
 +
 +
3. The 49.1 million households that earn less than $40,000 of income per year make up 40 percent of all US households but only account for less than 5 percent of solar installations. Lower income households face key barriers that are difficult to overcome.
 +
 +
4. Lower income households are less likely to own their roof due to higher rates of living in multi-family buildings and being renters (49.1 percent of households with incomes less than $40,000 are renters versus 21.8 percent of households with incomes greater than $40,000).
 +
 +
5. Electricity costs account for 5.7 percent of the median low-income family’s budget, while they only account for 1.9 percent for other families.
 +
 +
6. A typical low-income family consumes roughly 10,060 kilowatt-hours of electricity at a cost of $1,272 per year. Other, more affluent families consume roughly 11,720 kilowatt-hours of electricity on average, at a cost of $1,558 per year. Nevertheless, low-income families do use less electricity overall and use only 22 percent of the electricity used in American homes despite accounting for roughly 25 percent of all housing units.
 +
 +
7.The federal government spends billions of dollars each year on energy for low-income households:
 +
 +
*In fiscal year 2014, the federal government provided states with $3.4 billion through the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) to assist low-income families with their home energy bills. Historically, these LIHEAP dollars only cover about 15 percent of all eligible low-income households.
 +
*The U.S. Department of Housing of Urban Development (HUD) expends about $6.3 billion on energy costs each year for federally assisted housing.
    
'''Baylin, F. et al. "Economic Analysis Of Community Solar Heating Systems That Use Annual Cycle Thermal Energy Storage". (1981): n. pag. Web. 19 Jan. 2017.'''
 
'''Baylin, F. et al. "Economic Analysis Of Community Solar Heating Systems That Use Annual Cycle Thermal Energy Storage". (1981): n. pag. Web. 19 Jan. 2017.'''
Line 151: Line 208:  
*Net energy metering
 
*Net energy metering
   −
'''ENERGY, N.C., 50States. 24th Jan 2017'''
  −
*US Distributed Solar Market
  −
*Net Metering Policy Changes
  −
*Community solar Policies
  −
*Proposed Charges on Residential Solar Customers
  −
*Third- party solar ownership
  −
*Utility-led Rooftop Solar Program Updates
  −
*Questions answered  with this:
  −
1. How are state regulatory bodies and legislatures and electric utilities addressing fast growing markets for distributed solar PV?
  −
  −
2. What changes to traditional rate design features and net metering policies are being proposed, approved, and implemented?
  −
  −
3. Where are distributed solar markets potentially affected by policy or regulatory decisions on community solar, third-party solar ownership, and utility-led residential rooftop solar programs?
  −
  −
*Report include actions on:
  −
  −
1. Significant changes to state or utility net metering laws and rules, including aggregate caps, system size limits, aggregate net metering rules, and compensation rates for net excess generation.
  −
  −
2. Changes to statewide community solar laws and rules, and individual utility-sponsored community solar programs arising from statewide legislation.
  −
  −
3. Legislative or regulatory-led efforts to study the value of solar, net metering, or distributed solar generation policy, e.g., through a regulatory docket or a cost-benefit analysis.
  −
  −
4. Utility-initiated rate requests for charges applicable only to residential customers with solar PV or other types of distributed generation, such as added monthly fixed charges, demand charges, stand-by charges, or interconnection fees.
  −
  −
5. Utility-initiated rate requests that propose a 10% or larger increase in either fixed charges or minimum bills for all residential customers.
  −
  −
6. Changes to the legality of third-party solar ownership, including solar leasing and solar third-party solar PPAs, and proposed utility-led rooftop solar programs.
  −
  −
'''The growth in solar PV market is expected to continue, particularly due to the recent extension of the federal investment tax credit. The credit, which was previously set to expire for residential systems at the end of 2016, will be available at its current 30% level through 2019, then will step down over the next several years and expire at the end of 2021. The credit will remain at 10% permanently for commercial systems after 2021. GTM Research estimates that the extension of the federal investment tax credit will increase residential solar PV installations by 35% between 2016 and 2020 compared to a scenario without the extension.'''
  −
  −
'''TAX DETAILS'''[http://solaroutreach.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/ResidentialITC_Factsheet_Final.pdf]
  −
*The solar PV system is located at a residential location in the U.S.
  −
*You own the solar PV system (e.g., you purchased it with cash or through financing – but are not leasing it or in
  −
an arrangement to purchase electricity generated by a system you do not own).
  −
*The solar PV system is new or being used for the first time. The ITC can only be claimed on the “original
  −
installation” of the solar equipment.
  −
*It is not a necessity to be a homeowner to claim the tax credit. A tenant-stockholder at cooperative housing corporation and members of condominiums are still eligible for the tax credit if they contribute to the costs of an eligible solar PV system.
  −
*OFF-SITE COMMUNITY SOLAR PROGRAM: There is an example for this. "For example, one arrangement is the creation of a “Special Purpose Entity,” where community members form and invest in a business that operates the community solar project. If your participation is limited to investing in the community solar project and you do not participate in the operation of the project on a regular, continuous, and substantial basis, you are constrained in taking advantage of the ITC because you are considered a “passive investor.” IRS rules require that a tax credit associated with a passive investment only be used against passive income tax liability, which only applies to income generated from either a rental activity or a business in which the individual does not materially participate. Many homeowners will therefore not have passive income against which the ITC can be claimed."
  −
  −
'''How solar+storage Could Protect Multifamily Affordable Housing from Power Outages at little or no net Cost''' [http://www.cleanegroup.org/wp-content/uploads/Resilience-for-Free-October-2015.pdf]
  −
  −
1. Between $17.9 billion and $23.3 billion of electricity value alone would flow into these communities, if all low-income households went solar.
  −
  −
2. The installation and operation of a full low-income solar build-out would also contribute an additional $18.7 billion of local economic output each year, resulting in roughly 138,376 jobs.
  −
  −
3. The 49.1 million households that earn less than $40,000 of income per year make up 40 percent of all US households but only account for less than 5 percent of solar installations. Lower income households face key barriers that are difficult to overcome.
  −
  −
4. Lower income households are less likely to own their roof due to higher rates of living in multi-family buildings and being renters (49.1 percent of households with incomes less than $40,000 are renters versus 21.8 percent of households with incomes greater than $40,000).
  −
  −
5. Electricity costs account for 5.7 percent of the median low-income family’s budget, while they only account for 1.9 percent for other families.
  −
  −
6. A typical low-income family consumes roughly 10,060 kilowatt-hours of electricity at a cost of $1,272 per year. Other, more affluent families consume roughly 11,720 kilowatt-hours of electricity on average, at a cost of $1,558 per year. Nevertheless, low-income families do use less electricity overall and use only 22 percent of the electricity used in American homes despite accounting for roughly 25 percent of all housing units.
     −
7.The federal government spends billions of dollars each year on energy for low-income households:
  −
  −
*In fiscal year 2014, the federal government provided states with $3.4 billion through the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) to assist low-income families with their home energy bills. Historically, these LIHEAP dollars only cover about 15 percent of all eligible low-income households.
  −
*The U.S. Department of Housing of Urban Development (HUD) expends about $6.3 billion on energy costs each year for federally assisted housing.
      
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148111000760  PV site suitability analysis using GIS-based spatial fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (2011)]<ref>Yassine Charabi, Adel Gastli, PV site suitability analysis using GIS-based spatial fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation, Renewable Energy, Volume 36, Issue 9, September 2011, Pages 2554-2561, ISSN 0960-1481, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2010.10.037](2011)</ref>===
 
===[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148111000760  PV site suitability analysis using GIS-based spatial fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (2011)]<ref>Yassine Charabi, Adel Gastli, PV site suitability analysis using GIS-based spatial fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation, Renewable Energy, Volume 36, Issue 9, September 2011, Pages 2554-2561, ISSN 0960-1481, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2010.10.037](2011)</ref>===
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