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Constructed wetlands

723 bytes added, 03:56, 27 April 2016
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Before the CW can be used, it is best if the plants are well-developed before they encounter the wastewater effluent, so that they have a strong foundation and greater stress tolerance. <ref> Vymazal, J. (Ed.). (2010). Water and Nutrient Management in Natural and Constructed Wetlands. Springer.</ref> Also, the water level should be appropriate for developing plants. Too much water will prevent oxygen from reaching the plant roots. A few centimeters of water should be in the basin at all times. <ref name = "Purdue">Purdue University. (1998). Individual residence wastewater wetland construction in Indiana. Retrieved from https://engineering.purdue.edu/~frankenb/NU-prowd/buildcw.htm</ref> The water level can be raised gradually to the design operating level. A well-constructed FWS wetland will take around six weeks before wastewater should be routed into it, and the vegetation will be fully developed around the second growing season <ref name = "United States">. Right after construction is the point at which the most maintenance is required. Large areas where plants fail to grow should be re-planted, and intended free surface areas should be kept clear through harvesting <ref name = "United States">. Once the wetland has reached equilibrium, the only real maintenance tasks required are water level and quality monitoring, erosion control, and berm maintenance. In the established system, vegetation should cover a bit more than 50% of the surface <ref name = "Vymazal">.
==Operation and Maintenance==

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